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Ex LlBEIS 

The Pennsylvania 
Horticultural Society 



t V 



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THE 



GARDENERS' CHRONICLE 



AND 



AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE 



* 



FOR 



1855. 




LONDON: 
PUBLISHED FOR THE PROPRIETORS, 

AT 5, UPPER WELLINGTON STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 

1855 



1 



LONDON : 
BEADB'JRY^JND EVANS, PRINTERS, WHirEFRIARS. 



5B*{ 



/£>$£ 









INDEX OF CONTENTS 



GARDENERS' CHRONICLE AND AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE, 

For 1855. 



A. 



Ames, Kiempferl, 242. 644; Hookeriana, 872; 

Pattoniana, 372; cllicica, 707 
Aboriculture, Scottish Society of, 100, 135 
Abronia umbellata, 620, 633 
AccountB, farm, 287 
Achimeues, 69 
Aconitine, 319 

Acre, dimensions of, 14 ; English, 680 
Acrophoms hispidus, 661 
Acton's (Eliza) Cookery, rev., 471, 839. v 
Adiantnm cultratnm, 660 
Adulterations, to detect, 71, 362 
Agaricus ceprestipes, 821 
jEgilops, Godron on, 151, 1S8 
./Eschy nan thus Peeli, 510 

Agriculture, progress of, 9 ; Hints on, rev., 13 ; 
Lois-Weedon, practice of, 3, 4, 6, 22, 37, 8S, 76, 
686, 636 ; modifications of do., 27 ; Lavergne 
on British, 26 ; in the west of France, 106 ; 
and geology, 121 ; and the weather, 122 ; back- 
ward, 140; "Wilson on past and present, 196 ; 
do. on that of the French Exhibition, 796, 796 ; 
as a Bcience, 248; and chemistry, 161, 822; 
steam applied to, 75, 226. 266, 26^ 322, 345, 
362, 364, 379, 410, 426, 427, 443, 458, 459, 473 
607, 653, 554, 573. 620, 650, 652, 780, 781, 8U ; 
peculiarities of, 652 ; profits of, 682 ; function 
of salt in, 665, 700, 732 ; Irish, 698 ; Hun- 
garian, 701 ; improved, 763; Tester, 797 

Agricultural buildings, portable, 764 

Agricultural chemistry, 161,322; Harcourt on, 
138; Liebig's, rev., 358; new principles of 
do., 521 ; Lawes"on, 667, 6S2 

Agricultural College, sessional examinations, 
468 

Agricultural economy, S43 

Agricultural education, 363, 590, 685, 795 

Agricultural implements, chaff-cutters, 491 ; 
prizes for at the Agricultural Society's Meet- 
ing, 508; remarks on do., 506,522,571; new 
clod-crusher, 605, 652 

Agricultural labourers, 765; dwellings of, 28, 
211; and masters, 180; w,ages of in Ireland, 
191,746; number of on farms, 247; gathering 
at Coleshill, 467; schools, 533, 572, 714 

Agricultural machinery, reaping, 13, 507,652; 
trial of do. selected from the Agricultural 
Society's Meeting, 6S9, 635, 649, 651 ; compe- 
tition of do. at Stirling, 61S; Australian do., 
141; root grating, 60 ; threshing, 507, 780 

Agricultural prejudice, 197 

Agricultural statistics, 29, 45, 90, 13S, 458, 491 
492, 551, 601, 634, 652, 66S, 6S2, 732, 842, 844'. 
857 

Scottish, 106, ISO, 211; Irish, 7*8,845; Lock's 
observations on, 227, 247, 377 ; Hannam on 
rev., 748. ■ 

Agricultural societies, advantages of, 66S. (For 
reports of see Societies.) 

Air, importance of, to plants, 595 

Allamanda grandiflora, 4S6 

Allotments, 733 

Aloe, American, 550, 566 

America, Pearson Quince stocks in, 6; Axes of, 
174; timber of, 262 ; winter in, 456 ; Plums of, 
726 

American blight, 224 ; Aloe, 550, 566 

Amherstia nobilis, 22 

Ammonia, sources of, 59; formation of, 605; 
salt a fixer of, 665, 700, 732 

Amygdalus persica, 283 

Anacharis alsiuastrum, 5S2 

Analysis, of stone brashes, 122; of manures, 
«0; of Arachis or Earth-nut cake, 26S- of 
superphosphates, 881, 604, 634 : of oilcake, 
057 ; of bran. 621 ; of crops, 797 

Anatomy, p r0 f. Owen's lectures on, rev., 519 

Anbury, 572, 804, S10 

Angling, Perm's Maxims. &c, on. rev. 4S7 

A !" ?;•/»»■» 651 ; soil for, 551 * 

Ants, to destroy, 376, 390 
Apnanes arvensis, 281 



Aphelandra variegata, 116; Porteana, 116 

Aphides, reproduction of, 650 

Apples, Dommiska, 134 ; Gooseberry, 664; 
monstrous, 692; Star, juice of, 712; cracked, 
724 

Apricots, non protection of, 336, 858 ; in orchard 
bouses, 806 

Aquaria, forms of, 727; enemies to fish in fresh 
water, 339 ; preserving sea water in a healthy 
state in salt, 535; and water snails, 568; sea- 
weed for, 599, marine, 8?8 

Arago's Meteorology, rev., 631 ; astronomy, rev.. 
822 

Araucaria leaves, diseased, 36 

Argan tree, 284, 303 

Argyroneta, 806 

Arnott (Dr.), on ventilation. &c, 595 

Artichokes, to plant, 189; Jerusalem, 74S 

Arundel Castle Gardens, 667 

Ascension, vegetation of, 851 

Ash, berries of Mountain, 648 

Asia Minor, vegetation of, 707, S06 

Asparagus, to salt, 66, 504; beds, 134, 189, 192; 
frosting, 303 

Association, British, 617 

Astragalus pod, 632 

Atmosphere, chemistry of the, 2S6; of hot- 
houses, 727 

Atropa mandragora, 776 

Auricula, culture of, 40, 243 

Australia, Hargreaves on, rev., 23; to pack 
seeds for, &c, 24, 744; gardening notes from, 
119; reaping machine in, 141 ; "Wheat in, 140; 
in 1854, by Walthen, rev., 207 ; cochineal of, 
339; seeds of, to sow, 696; Passlflora, 710; 
sheep of, S12 ; gardening in, 836; farming in, 
S42 ; transport of roots, &c, to, 852 

Autumn, 805 

Axes, American, 174 

Ayrshire, Italian Rye-grass farms or, 57, 158, 

159 ; cows, ISO 
Azaleas, hardiness of, 406 ; hardy, 424 



B. 



Bacon, to salt, 702 

Badger, foot- prints of the, 176 

Baker's Ceylon, rev., 710 

Balsam, culture of, 373 

Bamboos, growth of, 839 

Bamean, 264 

Bananas, to dry, 648 

Barley, averages, 44, 59 ; returns respecting the 
state of, 553, 554 

Barnes* (Mr.) nursery, 2SS 

Basil (Ocimnm basilicum\ 472 

Bast, different kinds of, 219 

Batatas edulis, 820, S39, 854 

Beans, French, and the red spider, 3S; v. roots, 
10S; Haricot, 208: returns respecting the 
state of, 553, 554; for horses, 637, 683: St. 
Ignatius, 64S; winter, 653 

Beech trees, to remove, 776 

Beech-oil, 807, 851 

Beer, making, 557, 695; effect of Hop sulphur- 
ing on, 663, 579, 6S1. 597. 630, 678. 743 

Bees, to chloroform, 552, 6S0 ; r. fruit, 566 

Beekeeper's Manual, Taylor's, rev., 599 

Beets, grafting the cultivated, 360 

Begonia fuchsioides, 64S 

Belvoir Castle Gardens, 759, 775 

Bennett on the Cultivation of Potatoes, rev., 493 

Berlin] ground temperature of, 260 

Birds, migratory, S5S; predatory, 556; memo- 
randa concerning, 757 ; pectoral snn, 790 

Blackberries, white, 54 

Blight, American, 224 

Blight composition, Page's, 4SS, 51S,566, 59S 

Blood manure, 28, 229, 307, 344 

Boilers, are large economical? 261, 31S, 335; 
selling, 264 

Bolbophvllum lasianthnm, 53 

Bolden t'Mr.) death of, 93 



■; 



Books Noticed : Balnes' Flora of Yorkshire, G; 
Hints on Agriculture, 13; Delamer on Flax, 
13; A Month In the Camp before Seta 
23 ; Tit for Tat, 23 ; Hargreaves' Australia, 28 : 
Lavergne's Rural Economy of England, 426; 
Locke's Ireland's Recovery, 28, 246; English- 
woman in Russia, 39; TourghenifTs Russian 
Life in the Interior, 39; Knight's Knowledge 
of Power, 55; Ainswortb and Yeats' Algebra, 
65; Denton on Land Drainage, 60, 105; 
Hassall's Food and its Adulterations, 71; 
Merat's Remarks on the Tuberous Plants 
proposed as Substitutes for the Potato, &c, 
76; Iconoeraphie des Orchidees de la Collec- 
tion de M. Pescatore, 87 ; Album Vilmorin, 
88; Allen on Victoria Regia, SS ; Marryat's 
Mountains and Molehills, 103 ; Corner's 
Familiar Fables, 103; Resources of Chili. 

119 ; Fenn's Compendium to English and [ 
Foreign Funds, 120 ; Forbes' Literary Paper?, 

120 ; Tim-bs' Curiosities of London, 120; 
Dairy for the Poultry Yard, 124 ; Idle's Hints 
on Shooting, $c, 124; Scrutator's Horses 
and Hounds. 124 ; Irish Flax Society's Report, 
124; Galton's Art of Travel, 135: Ribbans' 
Tintern Abbey, 135 : Waterlow, Every Man 
His own Printer, 135; Harcourt on the Con- 
nection of Chemistry with Agriculture, : - . 
Agricultural Society's Journal, 144, 477 ; J 
M'lutosh's Book of the Garden, 155: Davis" 
Farming Essays, 162; Koch's Crimea and 
Odessa, 171 ; Lund's Geometry and Mensura- 
tion, 176; Hoare, Mensuration Made Easy, 
176; Morton's Agricultural Cyclopedia, ISO: 
Hooker's Century of Ferns, 191 ; do. Flora 
Indica, 723; do. "Himalayan Journals, 807; 
Yicar of Wakefield, 19J ; TTilson's Agricul- 
ture, Past and Present, 196; do., en the 
Agriculture of the French Exhibition, 796; 
Royle on Fibrous Plants of India, i' 1 6 ; 
"Walthen's Golden Colony, 207: Weaver's 
Hints on Village Architecture, 207;; 
Sowerby's Ferns of Great Britain, 207; 
Ryan's Our Heroes of the Crimea, 2C7; 
Bradbury's Ferns Nature Printed, 223 : 
Tegoborski's Productive Forces of Russia 
243; Stainton's Entomologist's Annual, 263; 
Highland Society's Journal, 26S; Bryologia 
Britannica, 2S3: New Map of Europe (Black), 
283 : Malam on the Potato Disease, 300; Ly ell's 
Manual of Elementary Geology, 303; Martin 
Doyle on Small Farms, 325; Loudon's En- 
cyclopedia of Plants, 33S ; Griffith's Post- 
humous Papers, 33S; Pritzel's Iconum Botanic- 
aram Index, 338; Red-tapeism: itscanse, 33S; 



Arago's Meteorological Essays, ■ 
Guides, 647; Schacbt on ihe Micrw- 
e47; Page's Geology, £47; Brewater*» I 
Millie and her Poor Mace*, 6£S; Dehuuer'e 
Kitchen Garden, 677: Kemp** Fba.*: 
Matter, 6941; Baker's Ceylon, 71 
Wheat pTowing, 733; Brewei'a Atlaa cf His- 
tory and Gf-grajhv, 743: Sf*nfcrd'» Map of 
the Crimea, 743: The Hard Place Book. 744: 
Hannam Agricultural Slav ■-«'! 

Art of Perfumery, 760 : Bowerbj '» Fern A 
759; Lowe's Natural Ferns, 759; 

do., Magazine rf Natural Philosophy. " 
Thackeray's Miscellanies, 775: Down 
Hydraulics, 775 : Pay*n on Disease?- " 
'a Natural History of Laotian, ■ 
Yapp's Duties on Imports into France. 
Newspaper and General Reader's Cccipanlon; 
790; SU'-ckbardt's Chemical Field L* 
807: Moore's Popular History of the I 
Ferns, 807; Arago's Aetrfnrroy. 822; Geese's 
Aquarinm, 838; RicharcVn's Pickers and 
Flower Gardens, 839; Lawson's Gardeners 
Calendar, £39; Deakin's Flora of the Colosseum 
of Re: 

ton's History of Tireinx 855 ; Seemann'? 
History of Palms, S55 : Cntbjll 
di.-ease.855: Hnmbertcn Encnn. v - 
860 

Botany of Madeira, 175 : of Teneriffe, 175 

Botanical Gardens, 4V0, 484, 547, 628. 660 
2S0, 5S3; consumption of fuel at do, 9 
279: Dr. Hooter's appointment in d: 
Cactus house at do., 486: Glasaerii 
from the annual report of, 152 ; tfiects ( 
frost at do., 278; continental. 4C4, 405. 

Botanical Geography, De Candolle's, rev., 615 

Bottomley on Hand'Tlllage. rev.. 444 

Bradbury's Ferns Nature Printed, rev- 223 

Bran, analysis of, 621 

Bread, detection of adultera'ed, 362; household, 
762; Potatoes ii -.- 

Brewers Atlas, rev., 743 

Brewing, Dr. Kemp on. 695 

British Association, 647 

Broccoli, seeds, 70; clnb in, So; success;:' 

Brushwood, drains with, 732. 780, 796 

Bryologia Britannica, 2S3 

Budding knife, 520 

Buddleia Colvilei, 516 

Bug, Chrysanthemum field, 757 

Buildings, axboral records of, c' - 
farm, 764 

Bolbs, treatment of after flowering, 1 
of Dutch, 483 : list of dirt - . 



Stephens's the Yestex Deep Land Culture, Bulls, short-horned. 89, 245, 247, 265- 296, 307. 



347; Liebig's Agricultural Chemistry, 358 
Lindley's Theory of Horticulture, 359; John- 
ston's Analysis of Soils, 364: Bath Agricul- 
tural Society's Journal, 361; Drew's Meteoro- 
logy, 374; Dickinson on Italian Rye Grass, 
380; Houren on Human Longevity, 391; 
Clark's Mollnsca testacea, 407 ; Hooker and 
Arnott's British Flora, 423; Piper's Military 
and Naval Dictionary, 423: Stanford's Map 
of the Sea of Azoff, 423; Davy's Angler, 439: 
Bottomley on Hand Tillage. 444 ; Parr on 
Manures, 444 ; Carri&re on Conifers, 455 ; 
"Wood's Index Testaceologicns, 471 ; Eliza 
Acton's Cookery, 471, 839 : Fenn's Maximsand 
Hints on Angling, 487 ; Milner's Crimea, 457 : 
Chiosso's Gymnastic Polymachinon. 
Bennett on Potatoes, 493; Hood on Heating, 
603; Taylor's Working Man's Gardener, 503: 
Cathcari's Illustrations of Himalayan PI 
515 ; Owen's Lectures on Anatomy, 519 ; 
Mann on Reproduction, 534: Whittington on 
Mangel Wurzel, 542 : Thompson on Annuals, 
551 ;"Weddell's Chloris Andina, 567; Newde- 
gate's Customs' Tariffs of all Nations. 553: 
Gosse's Marine Zoology, 583; Lesseps' Isth- 
mus of Suez Question, 583 : Sunday Book for 
the Young, 583 ;~ Amort on Ventilation. 595: 
FescatoreV. 599 : Taylor's Beekeeper's Manual, 
599; Black's Guide's, 599; Herring on Paper 
Making, 599; Martin Doyle's Lesson 1' 
€05; De Car $ 



122, 410 

. taste of, 290; pr: 
. Ml, 345. 363. 425, 4.7. 441 4.5 1£ 
475, 49 23 572, 5SS 



Cabbages, afl ; ecra 

Cabbage leaf, menstr: a - 
Cactus house. Re^. 4S5^ 
Caird on the harvest. 731. 7cl. 7;.. . . . 
Cake, earth-n-' - 
Calceolarias, herbace; de 
California. Marrysr's life in 
Calves, rearing of. 74 : T.in *- 
Camellias, propagating. 23: sw^£: 

70,86: to bloom, 69: buds dropping " 

533: reticulata at Bank Grove. 29; i? 

wall, 317; to set, 566 
Canvas, to waterproof. 192 
Caoutchouc, manufacture of,31S 
Capers. " i 

cams, to pickle, 6?4 
■ ■ . _ 
Sons, sporting 

283 : running 



IV 



INDEX. 



Carriirre, on CoLiicis, rev., -i55; uu transplant- 
ing, 499 

Carton ( Mr.), and his family, 54 

Carts, small, 574 

Catalogues, nurserymen's, 54 

Catalpa Bungei. 768 

Catasetuni incurvum, 4 

Caterpillars, Gooseberry, 24, 231, 302, 35S, 500, 
517, 518, 632, 533, 540,550, oG6 

Cattleyas, sale . .r, 316 

Cattleya Mossim, seed pods on, 614 

Cattle, measurement and weight of, 10, 11, 4^. 
510; maiket, new Sniitbneld, 25, 41, 42, 67, 
71, --'.». ■"■ | ..:-i. ..'7; -ji.i:i oi du.. -Jo; opening o 
do., 411; feeding. 170, 732. 796; statistics i i 
do., 75,90, 107, 125; Mr. Hatton's aysteni of 
do., 77; how prize are fed, 125; to stall feed, 
700, 761, SI 1; green food for, 307; ttraw char) 
as do., 307 : do. for voung, 557; pedigrees ot. 
S9, 139, ISO ; short-horned, S9, 245. 247, 265 r 286, 
305,307,309.322,410, 525; pleuro-pneumonia 
in. 103; shedding for, 14"; breeding, 211 ; will 
they pav their keep? 250; management of 
dairy. 324. 345, 379 ; show of at Paris, 341, 393, 
395.441; Prof. "Wilson on do., 795; disease, 
Russian, 443. 475 ; at the Agricultural Society's 
meeting, 5C9; remarks on do., 572; shows or 
far, 729; fatiguing of at Kilrush Farm, fall! 
report of at Sniiti.field club, S09, 825, 826 ; dn, 
at Birmingham, $20 

Cauliflower, seed ot to sow,2C2 

Celery, culture of, 469 

Cemetery, city of London, 535 

Centradenia rosea, 85 

Ceylon, Baker's, rev., 710 

Cbterophyllum Prescotti, 372 

Chaffcutters,491, 50S 

Chair, cottagers', 69 

Chandler's (Messrs) nursery, 176 

Charcoal, uses of, 6U 

Charity, administration of a, 140 

Cheese, Cheshire. 461; mity.SyO: manufacture. 
669 

Chemical Field Lectures, by Dr. Stuckhardt. 
S37 

Chemistry, Harcourt on the connection of with 
agriculture, 13S; farm, 161, 322: of the atmo- 
•sphere, 2S6; Liebig's Agricultural, rev„ 353; 
new principles of do., 521 ; Lawes on, 667, 682 

Cherries, brandy, 5S4 : (Pruuua cerasns), 696 

Cherry trees, effects of spring frost ou, 454 

Chili, natural resources of, 119 

C^tir. pfrof-c of the rebellion od, and its pro- 
ductions, 502 

Chinese t ninrosp, 7, 23 ; Yarn, 19. 318, 517, 5Sl f 
599, C14, 646, 693, 709, 755. 773, 775; Note 
Book, 242, 31$, 502; plants, hardiness of, 318; 
white wax, 33$: flower-pot, 357: silkworm, 
436 

Chiosso's Gymnastic Polyruachinon, rev., 488 

Chiswick, exhibitions, 3 ; fall of rain at, for the 
years 1841—1854, 8: garden noticed, 71, 139. 
207, 303, 375, 438, 518, 599; temperature at, 
99; fetes at, 333, 419, 467; reports of do., 336. 
422.470; list of awards at do. for Mar, 333; 
for June. 41S; for Julr, 467; promenade at, 
483; orchard house at, 611; sale of plants at. 
744; discon'inuation of exhibitions at, 709 

Cholera flies, miscalled, 710 

Chorozemas. 317 

•Ciitysanthemums,cnltnreo£283, 440; Pompon?, 
375; Mr. Salter's, 807; in the Temple Gardens, 
823; out-door, 839 

Chrysanthemum field hug, 757 

Churning, 250.267, 324, 345, 363, 425, 427, 441. 
443, 459, 474, 475, 490, 522, 533, 572, 5SS 

Cincinnati, hog population of, 525 

Cinerarias, compost for, 192; culture of, 223 
633; new, 791 

Citronwors, to nropagate, 533 

Civil service, 131 

Clark's Moliusca testacea, rev., 407 

Clay, Figs on he.ivy, 659 ; burnt, as manure, 
698; soils, treatment of, 697 

Climate. Crimean, 36, 171, 189, 191 ; of Nice. 37, 
69, 85, IIS, 189, 221, 302; of Naples, 221; «.f 
Madra=, 241; of foreign countries, 3S9; of 
Orchids, 472; local, 564; effect of. on fertilitv, 
602; Indian, 7i3; remarks on, 757 

Climbers, greenhouse, 360 

Clod crusher, new, 605, 652 

Clover, tn ^ow, 308 ; and haymaking, 350 

Club in Br-jccoli, S5 

Clubs, Sparrow, 427. ("Farmer's, see Societies.) 

•Coccocypeelum cordifolinm, 8J4 

Cochineal, Australian. 339 

Cocknejfied, what is? 662 

Cockroaches, to kill, 360, 421 

Cockscomb*, culture of, 3S 

-Ccelogyne plantaginea, 20; micrantha, 173 

Coffee cultivation, 711 

College, Cirencester Agricultural, sessional exa- 
minations, 45S 

Collins', the case of the, 620 

Collomia graudifora, 536 

Colour of treys. 7f 7 

Commutation averages, 41, 57 

■Concrete, 618 

Conifers, collectors and cultivators of, 22: tn 
graft, G6: naming, 190; new, 263; illeffectsof 
keeping in pct>. 281; hardiness ol, 302; Car- 
rtere on, rev., 455 ; to group, 7S7 

Conservatory borders, 118 

Constantinople, Oypr.^cs at, 707,806 

Cooke on "\Vl:ca: growing:, rev.. 733 

Cookery, Eliza Acton's, rev., 471, 839; French, 
790 

Copper vessels tmd preserves, 241 

Com, imports of, 5S; averages of, 44. 59 : origin 
of. 151, 188, 355; tillering of, 556; supply of, 
743, 794, 810 : C'aird on do., 731, 761, 762 
Com trade, influence of statistical information 
on, C19 

Cornmiil, Turner's, 556 

Comer (Miss;, Familiar Fables, 103 

Correa, Brilliant, 436 

Corylus avellana, 599 

Cottages, labourers', 23, 211 ; ornamental, S23 

Cottagers' comforts, 69 

Cotton Plant, seed of, 855 

Cotton sc*d, oilcake from, 69S, 796 

^Coverings, woollen netting as, 24; for glass 
structures, 677; straw, 135; wall, 336, 873, 
677; snow. 100. 134; spring for wall trees 189 
239, 302, 317, 389, 406, 502, 51S ; for frames, 773 
775 
Cows, history of Duchess, 139, ISO, 245, 247: 
Ayrshire, ISO: produce of dairy. 260, 341 345 
363, 379, 425, 427. 441, 443, 459, 474, 475 d^ 
522, 538, 572, 5SS, 732, 747: in milk, 540: 
Alderuey, 558 
Crag, discovery of red, 566 



Crickets, trap for, 136 

Crime aud puuishment, 194, 246 

Crimea, preserved vegetables for the, 23; 
climate of, 3t>, 171, 189, 191 : and Odessa, by 
Koch, 171 ; seeds for the, 3lS; gardeners for 
the, 373: Miluer ou the, rev., 487; flowers of 
the, 666, 567 : Stanford's map of the, rev., 743 

Crithmum lnaritinium, 336, 2S1, 303; an anti- 
scorbutic, 317 

Crops, ♦■ fleets of various kiuds of manure on Tur- 
nip, 76, 108 ; ro ation of, 91 ; ton-dressing for, 
194; root, culture of, 22S.249.796; Wheat, 226, 
5SS; green, weight of, 269; in Yorkshiro, 379, 
459,588; reports of, 521, 538; returns respect- 
ing the state of, 553, 554, 794, 810, S27; green 
do., 553, 554; iu Hants, 572; Fen,5SS; in Ire- 
land, 605, 637; Mustard seed, destruction of, 
726; composition of, 797; Cairdon the, 731, 761, 
762, 777 

Crystal lalace, 567; plants in the interior of 
263 ; grounds of, 7, 263 ; horticultural show at, 
387: report of ditto, 390 ; Fern judging at do., 
389, 4C6; awards at do., 402 

Cucumbers, Ipswich Standard, 190, 75S, 774, 792 ; 
ridge. 206; roots, excrescences on, 220; disease 
in, 260, 301, 741, S38 ; gigantic, 438 ; amount of 
pruduced by one plant, 693,710, 727, 742; Star 
of the West, 773; pit for, 776 

Cucurbita perennis, 836 

Cupheas, standard, 727 

Cupressus, Lawsoniana, 372; Macnabiana, 420 

Currants, to prune, 102; to propagate, 153 ; new 
way of ditto, 454 ; Champagne, 646 

Cuttings, raising Vines from, 262 

Cyclamen cilicium, 708 

Cypresses at Constantinople, 707, S06 

Cvtisus Adami, 136 



Dactylis glomerata, 140 

Dahlia, SS; seedling, 56; for exhibition, 338; 
and Hollyhock show, 679. 696 

Dairy, produce, 522, 53S, 588, 732, 747 ; effect of 
temperature on ditto, 267.289.344; manage- 
ment of a, 250, 341,345, 363, 379, 425,427, 441, 
443, 459, 474, 475, 490, 572, 588 

Darnel (Lolium temulentum), 373 

Datura ceratocaulon, 54, 70 

Davallia dissecta, 469 ; bullata, 532 ; can ar tens is, 
5S4; tenuifolia, 709 

Davy's (Dr.), Angler, rev., 429 

Decaisnea insiguis, 515 

De Candolle's Botanical Geography, rev., 615 

Delamer on Flax, rev., 13 ; do. ou Kitchen 
Garden, rev., 679 

Deudrobium cumulatum, 756 

Devonshire, temperature, &c. at, 6; the late 
winter in, 773 

Diarrhoea, cure for, 758 

Dielvtra spectabilis. a vegetable. 262 

Digging, prices of, 3, 6, 37, 38, 63, 154; ditto of 
double, 22 

Dinscorea Batatas, 19. 313. 517, 582, 599, 614, 
646, 693, 709, 755, 773, 775, 820 

Diplartenia crassinoda, 117 

Disa grandifiora, 262 

Discoveries, Reviewers', 3S 

Diseases, on Araucaria leaves, 36; in Iambs, 
108; Vine, 18S, 205, 264, 440,- 532, 582, 693, 
694, 710, 773; ditto in Madeira, 205; ditto new, 
264; Cucumber, 2G0, 301,741,838; of plants, 
376; Onion, 421. 484, 502; Russian cattle, 443, 
475; Oat, 569; effect of sulphur in curing Hop, 
563, 579, 5S1, 597, 630, 678, 742; "calico," 
Potato exempt from, 59S; GladioJi, 676; 
Mangel Wurzel, 783 ; Payen on, 788 (see 
Pathology) 

Dorset, rain in, 22; farming in, 290; the spriog 
in, 358 

Dorthesia Seychelles, 836 

Downing' s Hydraulics, rev., 775 

Dracaena indivisa, 264 

Dracophyllum gracile, 134 

Drains, stoppage of, 1 40 ; roots in, 228, 268, 363 ; 
to clear choked, 421; with brushwood, 732, 
7S0, 796 ; running of, 764, 812 

Drainage, ISO: Denton on, 60, 105, 825, S28, 
841 : companies, 105, 122, 138, 15S, 161 ; sand 
26S; experiences in, 287, 306, 344, 394, 426, 
412, 6KG, 715; subterranean, 289, 708, 743. 
758, S04; warmth conferred by, 651, 699, 
732; Keythorpe. 762; different kinds of, 793 

Draining, 123; deep, 540, 557; do. and shallow, 
12 ; v. trenching, 179, ISO ; for Sugar-cane in 
Jamaica, 646 

Draw's Meteorology, rev., 374 

Drill, dry v. water. 77S 

Drynaria Fortuni, 703 

Dry rot, 284 ; in Potatoes, 334 

Dublin Botanic Gardi n, S55 

Dumfriesshire, rain in, 38 

Dung:, value of pigeon, 250, £90; farm-yard, 77'i) 

Dutton Hall Farm, noticed, 661 
Dyes, Lichen, 513 



Earth-nct cake. 313 

Economy, agricultural, 843 

Edinburgh, park at, 339 

Education and natural history, 53 ; agricultural, 
363, 590, 685, 795 

Electricity and plants, 708 

Elms, Nottingham, 206; American, 2G2; cork- 
harked, 790 

Embryos, to graft. 627, 673. 632 

Employers and employed, 63 

Enteritis, cure for, 477 

Entomologist's Annual, rev., 263 

Enville Hull gardens, 790 

Epidendrum bicornutuir, 406 

Ereruuius spectabilis, 595 

Erica tetralix alba, 517 

Eriobotrya japonica, 408 

Erytbrina macrophylla, 792 

Escallonia pterocladnn. 36 

Escholtzia tenufolia, 301 

Esculents, new. 372 

Eucalyptus cordata, 646 

Eucharis grandifiora, 804 

Evergreens, in peat, 222; select, 340: when to 
move, 499, 517, 533 



Ewes, in lamb, 813 

Exhibition, Dahlias for, 338; Paris, 173, 452; 

regulations of do., 207 ; admission to do., 277 ; 

agricultural do., 341, 393,395, 441,475; Prof. 

Wilson on do, 795, 796 ; horticultural do, 500, 

54S 
Experiments, Mr. Lawes', 667, 6S2; Messrs. 

Hardy's, 289, 605, 634,697; with Wheat, 701; 

small, $57 



Fagus antarctica, 792 
Fairy rings, 772 
Fallows, with grain, 123 

Farms, sizes of, 227; number of, in Great Britain, 
227; do. labourers on, 247 ; small, 699; Martin 
Doyle on do , 325 ; cost of horse labour on 
arable, 715 
Farm, estimate of a, 5S; leases, 124, 30S; near 
Chelmsford, 266, 811; Dorsetshire, 290; near 
Stalybridge, 605; Kilrush, report of fattening 
of cattle at, Sll 
Farming, progress of, 9; Hints on, rev., 13; 
Lois-Weedon, 3, 4, 6. 22, 37, 38, 76, 586, 636 ; 
modifications of do., 27 ; Lavergne on British, 
26; in the west of France, 106; and geology, 
121; and the weather, 122; backward, 140; 
Wilson on past and present, 196; do. on that 
of the French Exhibition, 795, 796; as a 
science, 248; and chemistry, 161, 322; appli- 
cation of steam to, 75, 226, 266, 267, 322, 345, 
362, 364, 379, 410, 426, 427, 443, 458, 459, 475, 
507,553,554,573, 620, 650, 652, 730, 781, Sll; 
experimental Grass, 537; peculiarities of, 652 ; 
profits of, 682 ; function of salt in, 665, 700, 
752; Iiish, 698; Hungarian, 701; improved, 
763 ; sheep, 717 ; Yester, 797; Australian, S42 
Farmers, 765; rain guage for, 411, 461; de- 
mands on, 621; clubs (see Societies) 
Farm buildings, portable, 764 
Farm accounts, 287 
Farm labour, distribution of, 74, 10S ; value of, 

589 
Farm horses, acreage consumed by, 27; food for, 

139, 250 ; boarded floors for, 77 
Farm-yard manure, 779 

Fences, 334, 5S2; Yew, 320; formation of, 374; 
Thorn. 468, 566, 573 ; mixed, 485, 518 ; how to 
cut, 502, 533, 566; living, 713; hedgerow, 745 
Ferns, morphology in, 24; Bradbury's Nature 
Printed, rev., 223; Century of, rev., 191; 
Sowerby's, of Great Britain, rev., 207 ; Allies 
of, by do., rev., 759; new garden, 3S8, 468, 
532, 660, 677, 708; hardy, at Sydenham, 3S9, 
406; list of, 454; hothouse, 471; Hare's-foot, 
584; Lowe's Natural History of, rev., 759; 
names of, 760; Moore's Popular History of, 
the British, rev., 807 
Fertility of soils, 361, 378, 393,425, 442, 45S, 521, 

537, 570, 5S6, 602, 617. 618 
Fibrous substances, S7, 155, 204, $53 
Fibrous Plants of India, Dr. Royle on, 204 
Figs, winter, $6, 102, 119; Pregussata, 154, 206 ; 

to propagate, 174; on heavy clay, 659 
Filter, cheap, 102, 630 
Finocchio, 2$4 
Fir trees, to transplant, 600 
Fire insurances, 73 
Fish, enemies to, in fresh- water Aquaria, 339; 

as manure, 492 
Fisken's plough, 6$3, 700, 731, S10 
Flax, Delamer on, rev., 13; in Ireland, 27, 45; 

crop, returns of, 717 
Fleas, cure for, 70; Turnip, 746, 7S0 
Fli«s, miscalled cholera, 710 
Flora, Yorkshire by Baines, rev., ; Hooker 

and Arnott's British, 423 
Floriculture, seasonable hints on, 191 
Flour, imports of, 58; averages, 44, 59; detec- 
tion of adulterated, 262; Horse Chesnut, 790 
Flowers, of the Crimea, 566, 567; favourite, 

727 
Flower-pot, Chinese, 357 

Food, Mr. Lawes on, 27; adulterations of, by 
Hassall, rev., 71 ; of plants, 76 ; Swede Tur- 
nips as, 174, 206; of Rooks, 363; supply of, 
74S; Cairdondo., 731,761,762,777; to cook, 
790; of cattle, 179; statistics of, 70, 90,- 107, 
125; economy of, 122; horse, 139; Rape-cake 
as, 179 ; for sheep, 243, 289, 321, 323 ; and pro- 
duce of dairy cows, 250; green, 307; straw 
chaff as, 307 ; markets, Prussian, 669 ; Mangel 
Wurzel as, for pigs, 716 ; do. injurious to, 397, 
411,475,491 
Footmarks, mysterious, 176 
Forbidden fruit, to get seeds of, 533 
Force, vital, 435 

Forests, Royal, 61, 85, 132, 133, 220, 221, 320, 
334, 358 ; Whittlewood, 133 ; New, 700, 732 ; 
Woolmer, 758 
Fork and spade husbandry, 3, 6, 22, 37, 3S, 63, 

76, 174 
Forks, steel digging, 289 
Fortune (Mr.), advice from, 84 
Fowls, to keep, 14 
Frames, coverings for, 773, 775 
France, agriculture in the west of, 106; mules 
of, 178; small holdings in, 363; cookery in, 
791 ; Yapp's Duties on Imports into, rev., 
790 
Fraser's (Messrs.) Nursery, 103 
Frigi Domo, injured by soaking in boiled oil, 

71 ; cause of do. 87 
Frost, severity of, 115; of 1813-14, 119; effects 
of on plants, 153, 154, 207, 242, 315, 564; do. on 
a Cherry tree, 454; in Hertfordshire, 175; in 
Berwickshire, 174; Vines killed by, 222; at 
Glasnevin, 260, 278; water an attractor of, 
2S1 ; in Italy, 336; protection of frames from, 
773, 775 
Fruits, Pears, to raise from seed, 21 ; Benrre 
Superfin, 22; Marie Louise, 3$; Choix d'un 
Amateur, 85; Beurre" Ranee, 317; grittiness 
of, 355 ; crop of, 565; decay in, 628; cracked, 
724; in paper bags, 742; Verulam, 805; 
Apple, DommiBka, 134; Gooseberry, 664; 
monstrous, 692; juice of Star, 712; Peaches, 
283, 726, 743, 758; double flowered crimson 
Chinese, 806; Fig, Pregussata, 154, 206; 
Orange, trifacial, 504; Plums, little known, 
661, 693; double, 692; Columbia do., 693; 
American do., 726; Cherries, brandy, 584; 
Currants, Champagne, 646 ; Gooseberry, sports, 
596, 612; small, to force, 358; to preserve, 
456; Forbidden, to get seed of, 533; to 
crystallise, 616; eaten by wireworms, 72G ; of 
Gardenia Rothmanni, 436 



1 



Fruit trees, Pear growing, 4 ; on Quince stiks a 
Natchez, 6; pyramidal, 72 ; seedling, It 7S8, 
$54; tor exposed places, 320; culture \ 37 ; 
do. in Scotland, 174 ; Gooseberry, to ]une, 
102; Currant, to prune, 102; to probata 
153 ; new way of do., 454 ; Cherry, enfts o^ 
the spring frosts on, 454 ; Orange, treanent 
of, 504 ; French, 727 ; Fig, 86, 102, 11 ; tc 
propagate, 174; on heavy clay, 659 ; Wjnut,. 
to graft, 678; Apricot, non-production ol336, 
358 ; in Orchard-houses, 806 ; Moss \ t tc 
remove, 40; composition for, 53 ; pnmi$ of. 
during the first year of planting, 86; ash 
for, 102 ; spring protection for, 24, 100,134,1 
135, 189, 239, 302, 317, 336, 373, 3S9, 406502,! 
"518, 677, 821 ; training wall, 469; select r 36;> 
dwarf, 614; effect of frost on, 153, 154,^07; 
242, 260, 278, 281, 315, 564, S40 

Fuchsias, pyramidal, 207, 391 ; monsbua 
bloom of, 740 

Fuel, consumption of, at Kew, 86, 102, 279 do. 
at Messrs. Weeks, $6, 102, 175 

Fumigation of soft plants, 7 

Fungi, Pear, 724; Cucuniber,301 



Gaines (Mr.) nursery, 23 

Galls, different kinds, 116 

Galton's Art of Travel, rev., 135 

Galvanised wire, 615, 662 

Gapes, cure for, 606 

Gardenia Rothmanni, fruit of, 436 

Gardens, Crystal Palace, 7, 263, 567 ; Kew, 28, 

5S3; consumption of fuel at do., 86, 102, 27$ 

Dr. Hooker's appointment in do., 451 ; Cactj 

house at do., 486; Glasnevin, extracts fro] 

the annual report of, 152; effects of the froi 

at do., 260, 27S ; refuse of, as manure, 40 ; Mj 

Rucker's, 338; botanical, 420, 484, 547, 62, 

660 ; continental do., 404, 405 ; irrigation q 

421, 438; about London, 239, 438; count! 

school, 538, 572, 714 ; Arundel Castle, 56J 

winter, 565; Gunnersbury Park, 551; tran 

planting large trees at do., 565, 582, 598, 61^ 

Wilkins' model, 723 ; Belvoir Castle, 759, 77J 

Enville Hall, 790; Chrysanthemums in tl 

Temple, 823; Orleans House, 839 

Gardening, notes from Australia, 119 ; Welsl 

119; Somersetshire, 5S1 ; landscape, 61*2 

Australian, 836 

Gardeners, for the Crimea, 373 

Gardeners' Benevolent Institution, 469, 437, 1 

anniversary, 405 
Garden Ferns, new, 333,463, 532, 660, 677, 70S 
Garden pots, new, 453, 470 
Garden walks, weeds on, 156 
Garden walls, 175, 277 ; protections, 24, 189, 239 
302, 317, 373, 389, 406, 502, 518, 677 : non do. 
336, 358 
Gas from green wood, 281 
Gas-lime, effect of on lawns, 2S1 
Gas stoves, 695 
Gas-tar, use of, 191, 208 
Gas-water, for killing insects, 192 
Genera Plantarum Florae Germanicw, 806 
Genetyllis, 807 

Geography, De C'lndolle's Botanical, rev., 615 
Geology and agriculture, 121; Ly ell's Manual 

of Elementary, rev., 304 
Geonoma corallifera, 68 
Geraniums, scarlet, 303; preparing do. for 

bedding, 357 
Giessen Botanic Garden, 405 
Gladioli, diseased, 676 

Glasnevin Botanic Garden, extracts from the 
annual report of, 152 ; effects of the frost at, 
260, 277 
Glass, paint for, 518; on Peach walls, 551, 
structures, coverings for, 677; artificially 
frosted, 726 
Glass walls, 175, 206 
Gombo, 264 

Goodsir on plant electricity, 70S 
Gooseberry bush, red and yellow fruit on a, 596, 

612 
GoosSberries, to prune, 102 ; sporting, 506, 612 
Gooseberry caterpillar, 24, 281, 302, 358, 500, 

517, 518,532, 533, 550,566; salt for, 540 
Gooseberry fly, 317 
Gore House, 283 

Gorse, culture, 14, 45 ; to sow, 93 
Gosse's Zoology, rev., 583; Aquarium, rev., 838 
Gossypium herbaceum, S55 
Gourds, golden, 6; large, 710; distinction and 

origin of, S03 - 
Grafting, Beet, 20; Rhododendrons, 6, 20, 22, 
38, 53, 70, 86, 102, 118, 134, 154, 502 ; Conifers, 
66; stocks v. scions, 438; Walnuts, 678; em- 
bryos, 627, 678, 692 
Grain, fallows with, 123; growth of,668; supply 
of, 748, 794; Caird on do., 731, 761, 762,777; 
Wheat, distance to plant, 7S0 
Grapes, Barbarossa, 119; growing, 389, 406; 
Golden Hamburgh, 67S, 693; Scotch Wnite 
Cluster, 824 
Grape mildew, 183, 440, 532, 682 ; in Madeira* 
205; new kind of, 264; Neapolitan, 693; re- 
medies for, 694 ; in Portugal, 773 
GrasB, Pampas, 6, 438; propagation of do., 614; 
Italian Rye, 285; to sow do., 29, 781; Mr. 
Telfer's do., 57, 158; remarks by Mr. Morton 
on do., 158, 177; seed of do., 210; weight of 
do., 211, 213; North country farmer's opinion 
of, 267; Dickenson on do., 3S0; to top dress, 
194 ; seeds, 861 
Grass farming, 587 
Grass land, gas water as manure for, 395; to 

break up, 842 
Grasses, permanent, 12 
Gravity, specific, 678 
Greenhouse, climbers for, 360 
Greensted Church, $35 
Griffith's Posthumous Papers, rev., 338 
Guano, to test, 146; imports of, 213; Bird 
Island, 225; v. nitrate of soda, 228; buying, 
344; adulterated, 395; to apply, 408; and 
superphosphate, 575; introduction of, 621 
Guatemala, botanical news from, 282, 336 
Guava jelly, to make, 614 
Gumming, causes of, 616 
Gunnersbury park, 551 ; transplanting large 

trees at, 552, 565, 582, 59S, 614 
Guthrie's Sermons, 854 
Gymnastic Polymachinon, Chiosso's, rev., 488 
Gymnogramma Ianata, 660 
Gynerium argenteum, 6, 433; propagation of, 
614 



INDEX. 



IlAIi.fVroftM I'vfniordlniiry, 281 
llatlrttOIMH, 487 

Jliirni Tillage-, hy Botfcomloy, rov., 444 

JIiintiiiTii mi Agricultural BtatltitlcH, mv., 74H 

Hapd»'ii(Mn««H.)expcrliumitH,28B, 605, (W4,fl'J7 

Harfcmpn Hull, 823 

Hiu-vmhi. w"]'k, economy of, 378; ('jih-il tin Hid 
781, 761,762, 777; ylold of, 794, 810, 827, BJ'J 

lliininiil, Food ninl Im Adulterations, rov., 71 

Haws, to vogotftto,789| to now, BOO 

ff lay, wcill minln, 837 

Haymaking and Clover 1 , 880 

IliiyHtimkH, to moanui'0, 211 

Heath, white MGdlterranoan, 8lt 

Mciiiii.-r, in transplant, mi 

lltmt 1 , bottom, for, bedding plants, 350, 80aj In- 
fluence of on the pr,ogrusn of vegetation, 421, 
437; of spring mnnthn, 429; "conferred by 
drainage, 601, 690, 782 

Heating, 800, 821 ; at Kew, 80, 102, 270 ; at Mgbhi'H 
Weeks', 86, 102, 175: oue uollur plan of, 261, 
318,835; at Porthwldden, 485, 72;,; Hood on. 
rov., 503; and ventilating, 518. 583; plantnand 
■rtlflolftl.082; WUIlrtinson.GSl; gas, 69S 

llohrlduti. horticulture In the, 046 

lii'dg«B,334 ( 582; Ynw, 020; formation of, 374; 
Thorn, 468, 606. 673; mixed, 486,618; Iwir to 
cut, 602, 633 560, i i) 

Uudge planls, 713 

lledgo knives, 500 

Hedgerow fences, 715 

Uomp, Dolamer on, rev,, 13 

Itendorson'M (Mejsra, E.G.) nursery, 859 

HorbN, Kwvot, 172 

Hntring on Paper Malting, rev,, 590 

Himalayan, vocation, 616 ; Journals hy 
Hookor, rov., 807 

Hogs, Cincinnati, 626 

MoIciih Bacdharatns, 35, 54, 100, 743, 790, 837, 854 

Holding*, small, 863 

Holly, (o restore, 222 

■oily hedgd, to renew, 40 

Holly plunder, S22 

HollyhockF, treatment of, 155; to propagate, 
224; paper, made fr»m, 450; rope, 456 ; culture 
of, 5S4; and Dahlia nhow, 679, 696; select, 
711 ' 

Honeydew,566; black, 192 

Hood, on Heating, rev,, 603 

Hooker's (Dr.), Ontury of Ferns, 191; report on 
Kew Gardens, 281; and Arnott's British ITlora, 
rev., 423: appointment in Kew Gardens, 461 ; 
Flora Indica, rev., 723; Himalayan Journals, 
rov. 807 

Hops, to K rowors of, 179; and sulphur, 563,579, 
581, 697, 630, 67S, 742 

Horses, keep of farm, 27 : labour, distribution of, 
74, 108; cost of do., 715; hoarded floors for, 
77; food. 139, 250; at the Agricultural Society's 
meeting, 609; remarks on, at do., 522,, 533 ; at 
Carlow, 656; Beans for, 637, 683; Suffolk, 
666 \ 

Horse Chesnut flour, 790 

Horse radish tree, S39 

Horticulture, Dr. Liudley's Theory of, rev., 359; 
in the Hebrides, 646 

Horticultural Society in New South "Wales, 691 

Hothouses, atmosphere of, 727 

Houses, plants in dwelling, US ; roof for a sum- 
mer, 304; Cactus, at Kew, 486; Mr. Phill- 
pott's, 485, 725 ; heating and ventilating 
plant, 518, 533; orchard, 175, 630, G93, 726; 
Apricots in ditto, 306 

"Humbert on Encumbered Estates, S00 

Hungarian fanning, 701 

Husbandry, spade and fork, 3, 6, 12, 22, 37, 3S, 
68, 76, 174, 697 

Hyacinths, feather, 408; culture of, 4S3, 531; 
list of, 4S4 ; in glasses, 661 

Hybrids, garden, 451 

Hydraulics, Dowuing's, rev., 775 

.Hygrometer, Mr. Vivian's, 355 

Ilylurgus piniperda, 612. 030 

Hypericum, oiigm>-of, 222 



tfes, treatment of, 40; trees broken by, 190 

Implements, chuff-cutters, 491 ; prizes for, at the 
Agricultural Society's meeting, 50S; remarks 
on at do., 606, 522, 571; new clod crusher, 
605, 652 ; show of, at Paris, 812 

India, fibrous plants of, 204; climate of, 723 

Indigo, green, 84 

Inkgull, British, 183 

•Insects, Gooseberry caterpillar, 24, 2S1, 302, 358, 
500, 517, 51S, 632, 533, 550, 566; salt lor ditto, 
540; red spider, 488; cure for ditto, 24; 
Freuch beans and do. 3S ; woodlice to kill, 54, 
441; British inkgall. lSS; Gooseberry fly, 
317 ; ants, cure for, 376, 390 ; cockroaches, to 
kill, 360, 421; Chinese silkworms, 436; and 
Page's composition, 488, SIS, o6Q, 59S; wire- 
worms, to kill, 493; reproduction of Aphides, 
550; Pear fly, 582; Pine beetle, 612; Mustard 
beetle, 726 ; memoranda concerning-, 742 ; 
Turnip flea, 746, 780, Sll ; Chrysanthemum 
field bug, 757; Oak-galls, 7S9; vitality of, 
819 ; Seychelles Dorthesia, 836 ; -Mussel scale, 
S37 ' 

Inventory, a Ladyday, 179 

Ireland, flax culture in, 27; do. trade in 45; 
winter in, 154 ; labourer's wages in, 181, 746; 
crops iu, 605, 637 ; farming in, 693 ; agricul- 
tural statistics in, 74S 

Ireland's recovery, Locke on, 2S, 246 

Iron, paint for, 104 

Iron roofs v. slate, 813 

Irrigation, 4S9, 681, 716; by submersion, 312; 
Indian, 363; garden, 421, 43S; pipe, 570, 586, 
604; subterranean, 709, 743, 76S, 804 

Isle of Wight, shell-rain iu, 710, 726, 743, 753, 
789, 821 

Isthmus of Suez Question, by M. de Lessens. 
rev., 583 

Italian Rye-grass, 2S5; to sow, 29, 781; Mr. 
Telfer's, 57, 153; Mr. Morton on, 163, 177; 
seed, 210; weight of do., 211. 213; North 
country larmcr'a opinion of, 267; Dickinson 
on, 330 

Italy, frost in, 336 

Ixlas, 3S7 



,f v i lON'fl 'Mr.) nuntery, 5% 

Jamaica, draining f< l* . u \ it cane In; 640 ; ti x- 

tile plants Ot, 853 

.in va, vegetation of, 889 « 

Johnston (Dr.), the late. 697, I ■ I 
Juulporus [\. riforml i, 420; drunacca, 707 



ICatjg, vju-I" rated Scoti I 

Karon' 1 Dr.) Plmula m Mnttpi . n v 694 

Knnnedy, dlnmlaaul of the Ulght Hon, T. P., 

220, 221 :: ;l 
Kijw gjn.i.'Fi , , consumption of fuel at, 

B3, 102, 270; appointment <<f Dr. Hooker In 

451 ; pnotU I -h-'ii'.", 480 
Kitchen G u Men, Dcmmer's, rev., 079 
Knives, pruning. 200, 222; budding, 020; Snynor 

& Cooke's, 772; Holmes', 822 
"Knowledge Is Pow»r," by Knlght.Tov., B5 
Koch's Crimea and OdQSSa, rev., 171 



L. 



Labels, 284 

Labour, distribution of horse, 74, 108; value of, 
589 

Labourers, 765; dwolllngs, 28, 211; chair, CO; 
and masters, 180; wages in Ireland, 181, 716; 
number of, on farms, 247 ; gathering at Coles- 
hill, 457 ; schools, 538, 572, 714 

Labuan, Motley's Natural History, rev., 790 

Lambs, disease in, 108 

Lambing season, 179, 211 

Lund Improvement Companies, 105, 122, 138, 
158, 161; cultivated and uncultivated, 247; 
waste, 7S0; reclaiming do., 361, 411 ; fertility 
and barrenness in, 361, 378, 393, 425, 442, 458 
621,537, 570, 586, 602, 617, G16; grass, gas- 
water as manure for, 305; drainage expe- 
riences in regard to, 287, 306,344, 394, 426, 
442, 666, 715; Yester culture of deep, 460; 
grass to break up, 842; Highland waste, 859 

Landed property, 826 

Landlord, 7G5; and tennnt, 683 

Landscape Gardening, 612 

Larch, advantage of, 336; supply of, 513; va- 
rieties of, 726 ; to plant, 759; to thiu, 773 

Larch cones, monstrous, 438 

Lastrea pilosissima, 677; recedens, 70S 

Laurustinus from seed, 614 

Lavergne's Rural Economy of Euglaud, &c, 26 

Law expenses, 45, 75 

Law cf tenancy, 810 

Lawes'(Mr.) testimonial, 491, S09; experiments, 
667, 6S2 

Lawns, effect of gas lime on, 2S1 ; mowings and 
sweepings of, as manure, 440; cure for worms 
on, 760 

Lawrence (Mrs.) death of, 54S; plants, 632 

Layering pot, 420 

Leases, farm, 124, 308 

Leaves, Mangel Wuvzel, 269 ; skeleton, 2S4; ex- 
crescences on Vine, 360; cure for burning of, 
469, 51S; Cabbage, monstrous, 677; colour of 
tree, 787 

Leptodaciylon califoruicum, 516 

Lettuces, to blanch, 156; Bedale Hall. 190, 222; 
May's Magnum Bonum, 206, 222, 4S3 

Libocedrns decurrens, twin, 35S 

Lichen dyes, 513 

Liebig's Agricultural Chemistry, rev., 35S; new 
principles of do., 521 

Lightning conductors, 693 

LUium giganteum, 224; nepalense, 564 

Lime and salt, 61; phosphate of, as manure, 
409 ; to apply, 590 ; superphosphate of, 493, 
633, 812; guano and do., 575; analysis of do., 
331, 604. 634 ; to make do., 750 ; refuse of gas- 
works, 797 

Lindley's Theory of Horticulture, rev., 359 

Linseed crushers. 60S 

Liquid manure, 723. 77S; subterranean applica- 
tion of, 12, 13, 53, 76, 10S, 119, 153, 190, 709. 
743, 758 

Locke's Ireland's Recovery, 28 

Loddiges' (Mr.) plants, 39; Orchid'?, 647 

Lois Weedon, cost of diggii.g at, 3, 6; cultiva- 
tion, 4, 37, 38, 76, 536, 636; modification of 
do., 27 

Lolinai temulentum, 373, 443 

Lomaria discolor, 661 

London gardens, 239, 4SS 

Longevity, Floureus ou Human, rev., 391; of 
seeds (see Vitality) 

Loudon's Encyclopaedia of Plants, rev., 33S 

Lowe's Natural History of Ferns, rev., 759; 
Magazine of Natural Philosophy, rev., 775 

Low (Mr.) nursery, 191 

Loy, Irish, 154 

Lungwort, 456 

Lycaste misooblsena, 7S3 

Lychnis Sieboldi, 116 

Lycopods, hothouse, 471 ; luminous, 743 

Lyell's Manual of Geology, rev., 3C3 



M. 



Machines, reaping, 13, 507, 652; trial of do. 
selected at the Agricultural Society's meeting, 
5S9, 635 649, 651 ; competition of do. at Stir- 
ling, 618; Australian do., 141; root-grating, 
6:-. mowing, 241, 303; threshing, 507. 780; 
transplanting, 582, 593, 614, 646, 710 ; Potato 
digging, 734; water drill v. dry, 773 

Machinery, oil for, 124 

M'lutosh's Eook of the Garden, rev., 155 

Mackennaon Chili, rev., 119 

Maclnra aurautiaca, 173. 203. 2SI, 302, 317 

Madeira. Botany of, 175; Vine disease in, 205 

Madras, climate" of. 241 

Magnolia Campbelli, 515 

Maladies, vegetable, 1SS (see Pathology^ 

Malt mills, 63S 



Mangel Win /,.■!, Utickroan on ilieKtmrtfi 
hardiness of, 2U; lea v« a, 200; >■ , 
pi«», 71**; Injurious to brwdlni sows, 397, 41 1, 

476,41(1 ; W hitting tOfl OD, 642; dJ*MAI i 

Uangoatetn, 209,4 a, 371 

Mann on ({^production 

HAnoren, liquid, 728,778] mbtorranaM ap 
tion ol do i ' i ■ m,n II 
749, 768 ; bl»od a«t, 28, 220, 807, 'Hi ; tim$ foi 
applying, 29, 1S9 . graraen rtfa I 
1 ori i": ■ — for, 10 for Tornlp*, 7fl 
sowago, 91, 157, l'.i, [93, I9tf, lf09, I 
foe top'dTOAi ing, 188; analyttiol I 
clal, 194. 788; 

troi . 284 nllro plio phat< , 229, 260 07,344; 
i;mt water aa, 396; pboApbatt ol llnw i 
inporphotpliAte ol do. ia, 881, 493 ■. i 
038, 084,760; Parr on, rav , n»; flah ■ I 
urine as,682; burn! clay 
of,7Jii; farm •yard; 779; Mlta , 

Market", Prussian food, I > 

Marl, n^ti of, 26; And murling, 121; bow tfl 
know, :■.' 9 

Marryal'n Monntatna and Molehill i, fat*, 108 

Martin Doyle*!) Lt son Boole, rav., 606 

Mawon's, Mr., V r lnlt to the AZOTAA, Su . 

MaMiion',1 .Iri.-.l vegetabloa, 151, 174, Wi 

Mi'juioivn, water, 6^7 
Meaflurement, cattle cafcaAA, 10, 11 
Meat manufacture, 195; dlscaaed, .'K/r ; it-: 

ot'papnw on, 079, 7IO 

Mcchl (Mr.), on Farmera' Claba, 26; "n town 

AOWOgO,9l; annual gatherin,;, 626; lOCtlire at 

Carllale, 567 
bfeconopals Himpllcifollo, 516; Nlpalcnfda, 61 S 

Melons, late, 1 IU 

Me'on pits, 760 

Me rat, on Tuherouti Plants as substitutes for the 

Potato, &c, rev., 76 
Meteorology, Lrew's, rev., 371 
Meteorological Essays, Arngo's, rev., 631 
Microscope, Schacht on the, rev., G17 ; cheap, 

771 
Mignonette, tree, 280 
Mildew, on Hoses, 3*3; Vine, 188, 440, 682, 682, 

710; and sulphurct of potash, 403; in M 

205 
Milk and cream, prices of, 213; cow in, 510 
Mill, Turner's corn, 556; malt, 633 
Millie and her Places, rev., 668 
Milner's Crimea, rev., 487 
Mines, plant growing in, 663 
Mississipi, Pnars on Quince ntocks in, 
Mistletoe on Oak, 3S3, 406, 438 
Mole, the, 748, 780 
Mollusca testacea, Clark's, rev., 407 
Monkshead poison, 319 
Moon, red, 120 
Moore's Popular History of the British Fcrn3, 

rev., 807 
Moringa pterygosperma, S39 
Morphology in Ferns, 24 ; iu Nyruphma, 54S 
Mosquito Tobacco, 313 
Mosb on trees, to remove, 40 
Mountain Ash berries, 64S 
Mowing machines, 241, 300 
Mules, French, 178 
Mushrooms, natural, 2S1, 303,317, 074; deformed, 

792 
Mustard beetle, 726 

Mustard cake, sold for Rape cake, 73. 70 
Mustard oil, 26S 
Myatt (Mr.), death of, 5G 



Naples, climate, 221 ; Vine disease, 693 

Natchez, Pears on Quince stocks at, 6 

Natural tflstory, ignorance of, 53; popular, iZ S: 
of Labuan, rev., 790 

Natural Philosophy, Lowe's Magazine of, rev., 
775 

Naturalists, hint to, 35S 

Nectarinia pectoralis (pectoral snnbird). 790 

Nectarine, Stanwick, 531, 646; white, 643 

Nepenthes, culture of, 549 

Nephrodium venustum, 677 

Nephrolepis davallioides, 388 

Netting, woollen for coverings, 24 

Newdegate on The Customs' Tariffs of all Na- 
tions, rev.,*5S3 

New South Wales, Horticultural Society in, 691 

New Zealand, seeds for, to pack, 744 

Nitrate of soda, 124. 138; v. guano, 223 

Nice, climate of, 37, 69, 85, 118,189,221,302; 
vegetation of, 37 

Nitrophosphate mauure, 229, 266, 307, 344 

Note book, Chinese. 242, 318, 502 

Nursery Gardens, noticed, Messrs. Gaioes'. 23; 
Loddiges". 39; Jackson's, 53; Eraser's, 103; 
Chandler's, 176: Low's, 191; Rollissou's. 223 : 
Barnes', 2S3 ; Veitch's, 319, 663, 307 : E. G. 
Henderson's, 359; J. Waterer's. 424; Lof- 
diges',647; Salter's, 679, S07; Turner's, 695; 
Paul's, 711 

Nurseryman, what constitutes a? 616, 630 

Nut, the (Cory Ins avellana), 599 

Nut bushes, to prune, 153 

Nympbseas, gigantea, 203; monstrous, 
affinities of. 723 



Oak, plantations. 117: Mistletoe on, SSS> 406, 

43S: on a "Willow, 433; Durmast, 696, 72S ; 

British, 72S, 742. 756, S03, S21, S54 ; rin^s ol 

ancient, S21, S35 
Oak-galls, 739 
Oats, averages, 44, 59 ; for fodder, 290 ; returns 

respecting the state of, 553. 554: disease, 5S9 : 

chlorotised, 5S6 
Obituary, Mr. Myatt, 56; Mr. Eolden, 93: Mr. 

Pusev, 473: Mrs. Lawrence, 54S; Dr. John- 

ston,597, 653 ; M. Pescatore, S20 
Ochro. 264 
Oil. Frigi Domo injured by soaking in boiled, 

71: cause of do., S7 ; for machinery. 1-4: 

mustard, K6S : Beech. S07. S51 
Oilcake. 5SS: poisonous. 10S; to detect adulte- 
ration in, 362; analysis, 557; from Cotton 

seed. 60S 
Oncidinm Skiiyieri, 629 
Onion. Potato. 205; disease, 421. 4S4. 502; failure, 

454 : fly, 457 



7J7 

■ 

■ 

tftatintotf 

i • ■ 

■ 

■ 

■ 
Ouvlran 
0*en'*(l'ft>fJ Lacttu ■ <r, oxc, r*r». 

" . tord P*v«rihan>, 46; d*;. 
i 



Vxaut Mud, to sow, 

■ ■ 

Paint t«r Iron 164,1 

for gljuv, 618 

L'ampai ( ptopagaUgB 

in pou, 39 

Papav, Infloenoe of, on meat, 679, 710 

Paper, materials for, 87,166; HoUylwck, MA\ 

:*; »»»p, 7.VJ 

Pariii, exhibition <,f, 173, '. . -» re- 

specting, 207; admiitloD v>, '£11; *<rv 
at, 3ii .' ;-;: Prof. WfUem 

- 

Parka, Edinburgh, 339 ; London, 2 
aeroAA Bt JameVa, 629, I - 
876; Bonderiai 

Patron manam, nsr^ HI 

Passiflora. Australian, 710; dnnabarina, 72* 

l'a*itnrt;Jt, weeding of, V26 

Pathology, vegetable, 4, 20, ?/;, - 
117, 133, 152,173, : 
301, 316, 834, 3.>i, ::'-i. :r,r,.:>- 
■r.j. 468, 186, 516, 
644, 661 I I ■ 
821, 6 • 

Paul's (HesATa.) nursery, 711 

Paulovnia imperiali 

Pa yen on diseases, 788 

Peaches, Amygdalna peraiea, 283; double 
flowered, 726, 743, 758; double Crimea 
Chinese, 806 

Peach walls, glass on. 551 

Pears, remarks on growing, 4 ; on Qoiooe stacks 
at Natchez se from leeda. 'J\ : 

Benrrc" Superf n. 22: Marie Looise. 36; Cbcii 
d'un Amatenr. 65: culture, in S«.Mai>d, 174: 
Efurre lUnc>;. ::17 : gritfr 
565: decay in, 628; cracked, 724: to ripen In 
paper hags, 742; Vamuu ;ce of, 

623; varieties of Doyenne Blanc, 835 

Pear trees, culture of, 37. 174: pyramidal, 72 
seedlinjr . 101, 788, 820,837 ; for exposed places 
320; cankered. 837 

Pear seeds, preservation and sowing of, 54 

Pear fly, 682 

Peas, early, 53, 101. 156; boiling, ISO: trans- 
planting late, 262: new. 408; E*rly I 
Marrowfat, 4SS; select, 520. 532: returns res- 
peeing the state of crops of, 553, 554: ever- 
lasting, 593, 6eS, 716. 745 

Peat, uses of, 60 : fur evergreens. 222 

IMa;v<: niuni Endlicherianux 5£ 

Peutstemon, 119 

Peon's Maxims, &C, on Angling, DEI 

Percepierre, 281, 303. 317, 336 

Perfumery, Pit^ie'a Ax: of, rev., 753 

Peruvian guano, 

Pescatorea, rev„ 599 

Pescatore (M.}_ de3ih of, S2») 

Pheasants, treatment o£ 379 

Phlebodinm muHiseri&le, 469; ica^nale, 660 

Phillpott's (Mr.) houses. 4^3 

Phosphate of lime as manure, 409 . 

Piesse's Art of Perfumery, rev., 759 

Pigeons, 123 : laughing, 2*11 : raana.' ,22 
value of, 290 

Pigs, dentition of, 103; Mangel Wurzel f - " 
do. injurious to breeding sow-*. 397,41: 
491; at the Agricultural Society's meeting, 
509 ; remarks at do., 524 

Pinus, insignis, 190, 317; spinulosa, Griflith:, 
and Eh asy anus, 334: Beardsleyi. 453: CtaSg- 
iana, 453:" Roy lease, 612; Mace uensis, 334 

Pine beetle. 612 

Pipes, to clear choked, 421; irrigation by, 
583,604 

Pitcher plants. 549 

Pits, Mr. Philpotfs, 725: Heywood h we. 713; 
Melon, 760; Cucumber. << 6: turf, 659. 854. 

Plants, new. 4. 2-?. 53, SL 116. 132. 152. 173, 205, 
241. 331. 316. S44. oJ5. c7. . i^,. 

516, 564. 5S0. 596, 312, 629, 644, 7., 74 " 
75S, 804. S52: soft, to fumigate, 7: Mr. Lod- 
diges', 39 : :ood of. 76 : in dwelUng-bonses, 115 : 
ejects of the frost on, 115. 153. 154. 207, .... 
260. 275,315. 364: tepid ward for. 153: fibrous 
of India. 204: for baskets, 208: becdiiig tor 

ng borders, 251; barcine — 
Chinese, 318: London's Encyclopedia of, rev., 
33S; and bottom beat, 356, 390: spring B 
ing, 358; stealers of. 35S; yinegar, 336, S57, 
390, 632: nursery names :" 389, 46: vital 
force of, 435 ; nectar-secreting organs c f, 
Hinialavan. 515 ; pitcher. 549 : scarce British, 
567; specific do. of, 315; and artificial heat. 
SS2 : importance of air to, 595 ; Mrs. Law- 
rence's. 632 : lifting, 662; growing of, in mines, 
653: sap of, 694; and elcc:r";::7 i 3; ledge, 
713 ; production of, 725 : teinle. bo3 

Plant-bosses, beating sad venularlng. 51S, 533 

Plantations. Oak., 117: in VTs.lc>. 776 

Planting, 551, 597, 538,629, 645; of grain, 124, 
7S ; Artichokes, 189; Shallots, 232; ewx- 

. greens in peat. 222; Straw l rri£s»504; £s£ps 
712: pruning :Vni: trees dnriLg the first yeir 
■■". SE : Lwt* "" 
Platyloma Brovmi. 335 
Pleaxo-pneumonia, in cattIe,71CS 

Pltiush. ani its uses. l«.y, 1 9, 666: sieiru, 322. 
345,364,631,652,780, 7STJ96; FL.kei's, 6S3 7 
' 
Ploughing in snow. 123: and steam colli vaiio 
267, 57l7; Wheat withoct, 747 : iniiue, 781 



VI 



INDEX. 



Phims, little known. 661, 603; double, 692; 
Columbia, 693 ; American, 726 

Podolobinms, 5 

Poinsettla pulcherrima, 3S 

Polvanthus. in pots, -10 

Polvgalas, 372 

Polymachfnon, Gymnastic, 4SS 

Folypodium (Arthropterisj tilipes, 3SS 

Pomatum, 759 

Pond, to bottom, 469, 4S6 

Poplar, Black Italian. 104,317,502,759; Lom- 
bardy and do., 175 ; and varieties of Larch, 726 

Portugal, Vine disease in, 77:1 

Portulaccas, treatment of, 136 

Posoqueria revoluta, 173 

Potash, snlphuret of, and mildew, 403 

Potatoes, cattle, 19, 318; Fluke. 55, 174; substi- 
tutes lor, 76; Lapstone, 175 ; am u run-plan ted, 
206; at the Cape, 262; not hurt by frost, 262, 
281; and tar, 301; curl and dry rot in, 334; 
Bennett on, rev., 493 ; culture *f, 522 ; returns 
respecting the state of crops of, 553, 554; 
digging, 656 ; growing, 572, 5SS ; " calico " v. 
disease, 598; method of cultivating, free from 
disease, 677; value of haulm of, 700; seedling, 
710; digging machine for, 734; produce of a, 
7S1; crops, sound, 77S; in bread, 82S; pro- 
duce of, S28 ; sweet, S20. S39, 854 ; in peat, 854 

Potato disease, 565, 662, S37 ; Malani's observa- 
tions on the, 300 ; in Wales, 373 ; in Essex, 550 

Potato sets, roasted, 190 

Pots, ornamental hanging, 6; Pansies in, 39; 
Polyanthuses in, 40; ill effects of keeping 
Conifers in, 281 ; Chinese flower, 357; layer- 
ing, 420; new garden, 453, 470; Vines in, 822 

Potting, lifting plants from the open ground for, 
662 

Poultrv, 162; keeping, 14; dairy, 124; com- 
mon, 370; profits of, 429; pigeons, 123; laugh- 
ing do., 211 ; manure, 250 ; value of dung, 
290; entries at the Agricultural Society's 
meeting, 524; cure for gapes in, 606; to fatten, 
619, 635, 650, 667; Shows, Bath, 412; Anerley, 
589 

Preserve, and copper vessels, 241 

Preserving, Pear seeds, 54; vegetables, 23, 151, 
174, 190 ; frnit, 456 

Primrose, Chinese, 7, 23 

Pritzell's Iconum Botanicarum Index, rev., 338 

Protections, wall, 24,336,373,677; straw, 135; 
snow, 100, 134 ; spring, 189. 239, 302, 317, 389, 
406,502,51S; for frames, 773, 775 ; for borders, 
821 

Pruning, frnit trees during the first year of 
planting, S6; Gooseberries, 102 ; Nut bushes, 
153 

Pruning knives, 206, 222 

Prussia, food markets of, 669 

Puddling, 56S; ineffectual, 469, 486 

Pulmonaria officinalis, 456 

Pumpkins, S03 

Pusey (Mr.), illness of, 5S; death of, 473 

Pycnopteris Sieboldi, 463 

Pyracantha, 582 



Qctecus, lamellosa, 516 ; sessiliflora and pedun- 
culata, 72S, 742, 756, 790, 803, 821, S24, 835, 854 
Quick, to sow, 806 
Quince 6tocks, Pears on, in Mississippi, 6 



Rabeits, to prevent from barking trees, 88 
Radishes (Raphanus sativus), 680 
Rain, in Devon, 6; Dorset, 22; Dumfriesshire, 
38; in Itcben Abbas, 87 ; at Rothamsted, 134; 
at Cirencester, 154; in Herts, 175; at Witham, 
190; amounts of, 3S1 ; fall in July, 525, 533 ; 
shell, 711, 726, 743, 758, 789, 821 
Rain guage, farmer's, 411, 461 
Ranunculuses, to water, 359 ; culture of, 727 
Rape-cake, poisonous, 42 ; Mustard-cake sold for, 

73, 15S; as food, 179 
Raspberry, yellow, 154 
Raspberry seeds, Dorchester, 739 
Rata, water, 135; trap for, new, 453, 486 
Reaping machines, 13, 507, 652; Australian, 141 ; 
trial of, selected at the Agricultural Society's 
meeting, 5S9, 635, 649, 651; competition at 
Stirling, 618 
Red spider, 488; care for, 24 ; and French Beans, 

38 
Reproduction, Mann on, rev., 534 
Rheum nobile, 516, 565 

Rhododendrons, grafted, 6, 20, 22, 38, 53, 70, 86, 

102, 118, 134, 154, 502; soil for, 54; standard, 

69; glaucum, 119; hardy, 424; hardiness of 

hybrids, 154; seedling, 173; hybrid, 190,206, 

317, 390; citrinum, 205 ; Edgworthi, 262; Dal- 

housijc, 373; Brookeanum, 404; javanlcum, 

fruit of, 486 ; Falconeri, 550 

Rhubarb, to force, 208, 242, 72S ; and Seakale, 262 

Rice fund, 140 

Roads, good, 12 ; economy and cost of do., 396, 

412 
Robinia pseud-Acacia, 249 
Rollisson's (Messrs.) nursery, 223 
Rondeletia anomala, 756 

Roofs, brick arches*, tiled, 123; iron v, slate, 813 
Rooks, food of, 363 

Roots, machine for grating, 60; v. Beans, 108; 

Seakale, 134 ; excrescences on Cucumber, 220; 

in drains, 228, 268, 363; adventitious, 335; on 

the 6tems of Vines, 358, 454 ; transport of, 852 

Root crops, culture of, 228, 249, 796; finger and 

toes in, 572. 804, 810 
Rope, made from Hollyhock, 456 
• Roses, mildew on, 86; manure for, 264 ; treat- 
ment of yonng, 317 ; in beds, culture of. 709, 
727,743 
Rose stocks, 6SO 
Rotation of crops, 91 
Rothamsted gathering, 491 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 280, 583 ; consump- 
tion of fuel at, 86, 102, 279 ; Dr. Hooker's ap- 
pointment in. 451 ; Cactus house at, 4S6 
Royal Forests, 51, 85, 132, 133, 220, 221, 320 334, 

35S, 700, 732, 758 
Royle on Fibrous Plants of India, 20i 
Rucker's (Mr.) garden, 338 
Rumex vesicarius, 372 
Russia, Books on, rev., 39 ; Tegoborski on the 



Productive forces of. rev., 243 : north region 
of, 408; cattle disease in, 443,476 
Rye-grass, Italian, 285; to sow, 29, 7S1 ; Mr. 
Telfer's, 57, 168; Morton on, 15S, 177; seed, 
210; weight of do., 211, 213; North country 
farmer's opinion of, 267 : Dickinson on, 380 



St. James's Park, road across, 629, 643, 645, 675 ; 

sketch of do., 676 
Salix Babylonica var. annularis, 726 
Salt, for Asparagus, 66, 604 ; and lime, 61 ; for 
Gooseberry caterpillar, 640; a fixer of am- 
monia, 665, 700, 732; bacon to, 702; its uses, 
849 
Salt water, effect of on seeds, 242, 27S, 356, 580 
Salt water aquaria, sea-weed for, 599 
Salter's (Mr.) nursery, 679 
Salvia splendens, 241 
Samphire, 281, 303, 317, 336 
Sandiway Farm, 861 

Sand drainage, 268 ; hills, cultivation of, 717 
Sap, in plants, 694 
Sarracenia Drummondi^302 
Savings Bank, Marylebone,475. 812 
Scale, mussel, 837 

Schools, reformatory, 2S8 ; gardens for, 538, 572, 
714 ; Martin Doyle's Village Lesson Book for, 
rev., 605 
Science, unity of, 535 
Scillas, 357 

Scotland, Arbori cultural Society of, 100, 135 ; win- 
ter in, 135, 153, 190, 222; Pear culture in, 174; 
agricultural statistics of, 106, 180, 211, 227; 
number and sizes of farms in, 227 ; pipe irriga- 
tion in, 570, 5S6, 604 ; Edinburgh, 339 
Scripture, Tares of, 454 
Seakale, old roots of, 134; from seed, 174; and 

Rhubarb, 262 
Sea-water, and seeds, 242, 278, 356, 580, 773, 789 ; 
preserving of, in a healthy state in salt 
aquaria, 535 
Sea-weed, for salt water aquaria, 599 
Seeds, to pack, 24, 744; Pears, to raise from, 21 ; 
do. to preserve and sow, 54; Broccoli, 70; 
Seakale from, 174; Italian Rye-grass, 210; 
weight of do., 211, 213 ; and sea water, 242, 
278, 356, 580, 773, 789; Cauliflower, to sow, 
262; sowing and earth temperature, 260; for 
the Crimea, 318 ; Forbidden fruit, to get, 533 ; 
Shaddock, to get, 533; Preony, to sow, 600; 
Californian Laurel, to sow, 600; Laurustinus 
from, 614; Astragalus, 632; American, 648; 
Cotton, oilcake from, 698; Australian, to sow, 
696; Raspberry, Dorchester, 739; vitality of, 
739, 743, 758, 773, 805, 837, 854 ; resuscitation 
of, 741; Turnip for, 765; transport, 852 
Seeding, thin, 12, 620, 637, 782, 763 ; thick and 

do., 227 
Senecio mikanioides, 84 
Sewage, 91, 157, 161, 193, 196. 209, 212, 506 
Shaddocks, to get seeds of, 533J 
Shallots, to plant, 222 
Shamrock, the real, 284 

Sheep, cross bred, 26 ; mountain, 45 ; Shropshire, 
44; dentition of, 108; poisoned by Yew, 249; 
food for, 248, 289, 321, 323 ; at the Agricultural 
Society's meeting, 509 ; remarks on at do. ,523 ; 
fattening properties of, 603; farming, 717; 
dressing, 813; Australian, 812 
Shell rain, 710, 726, 743, 758, 789, 821 
Short horns, 89, 245, 247, 263, 2S6, 305, 307, 309, 

322,410,525 
Shows, agricultural, 764 
Shrubbery, trenching, &c, 710 
Shrublaud Park promenade, 583 
Silkworm, Chinese, 436 
Slate roofs v. iron, S13 
Slugs, to kill, 192 

Smithfield market, new, 25, 41, 42, 57, 74, 229, 
364, 397 ; plan of, 43 ; opening of, 411 ; old, 813 
Snails, water, and aquaria, 568 
Snow, a protecting material, 100, 134 ; ploughing 

in, 123 
Societies: agricultural, advantages of, 66S 
Agricultural of England, 91, 179, 180, 411, 
459, 525, 557, 748; pi euro-pneumonia, 108; 
disease in lambs, 108; poisonous oilcake, 108; 
dentition of ox, &c., 108; veterinary science, 
108 ; oil for machinery, 124 ; planting of grain, 
124; nitrates, 124; shedding, 140 ; Australian 
Wheat, 140; stoppage of drains, 140; Cock's- 
foot Grass, 140 ; analyses of manures, 140 ; 
Journal of, rev., 140, 477 ; agricultural che- 
mistry, 161; French agricultural show, 211, 
475; labourers' cottages, 211; essay awards, 
268; atmospheric supply of manuring matter, 
289 ; management of dairy cattle, 324, 345, 
379, 427, 443, 475 ; Prof. Way's lecture on 
chemical principles involved in the production 
of butter, 345 ; use of fish as manure, 492 ; 
half-yearly report, 364 ; Russian cattle disease, 
448, 475; death of Mr. Pusey, 475; Paris im- 
plement show, 812; Australian sheep, 812; 
Carlisle meeting, 91, 268, 308,505,506,556; 
list of prizes for implements, cattle, horses, 
sheep, and pigs, 508, 509, 510: remarks on 
ditto, 506, 522, 523, 524, 538, 572; pavilion 
dinner, 510; Baron Ricasoli's speech at ditto, 
524: poultry entries at, 524; trial of reaping- 
machines, 589 ; general meeting, 844 

Agricultural Improvement of Ireland, 380 ; 
annual meeting, 540 

Arts, uses of charcoal, 60; sewage of London, 
161, 196, 212 ; Denton on drainage at, S25, 828, 
841 

Bath and West of England Agricultural, 
annnal gathering, 412 

Botanical of Edinburgh, 38, 262, 358, 51S 
533,567 . 

British Meteorological, 243 
Caledonian Horticultural, 206, 374, 439, 503, 
838; Dahlia and Hollyhock show, 679, 696 
Chester Agricultural, 845 
Entomological, 119, 191. 358, 407, 487, 566 
663, 678, 759, 822 
Flax Improvement of Ireland, 124, 242 
Gloucester Agricultural 
Highland Agricultural, agricultural statis- 
tics, 45 ; chemical department,45 ; plough and 
its uses, 109; Journal, rev., 268; agricultural 
statistics, 557; show of, 45 

Hitcham Horticultural, 550, 646 

Horticultural, 83, 87, 154, 222, 299, 318, 390, 

551, 740, 774, 853 ; anniversary, 303 ; medals 

awarded at the ordinary meetings of, 81, 146 

217, 314, 3S5, 769: exhibitions, 3; garden 



noticed, 71, 139, 207, 303, 375, 439, 51S, 599; 
fall of rain at for the years 1841—1854, 8; 
temperature at, 99 ; exhibitions at, 333, 419, 
467; discontinuation of do. ,709 ; reports of do., 
336, 422, 470; award of do. for May, 333; for 
jHne, 41S; for July, 467; promenade at, 480; 
orchard-house, 611 ; sate of plants, 744 

Linnean, 22, 55, 103, 135, 175, 206, 282, 338, 
407, 439, 759, 806, 822, S54 

Malton Agricultural, causes affecting the 
productiveness of the Wheat crop, 541 ; show, 
641 

Manchester Agricultural, progress of agri- 
culture, 621 

National Florlcultural, 304, 440, 472, 620, 
535, 567, 695 
New South Wales Horticultural, 691 
Paris Horticultural, 173, 500, 548; regula- 
tions, 207 ; admission to, 277 

Pomological, 6, 175, 679, 743; anniversary, 
634 

Royal Botanic, report of its exhibitions, 
319,406,454; awards of, 322, 416, 450; anni- 
versary, 551 

Royal Dublin Agricultural, 210; spring 
show, 249 
Royal South London Floricultural, 320, 515 
Scottish Pansy, 603 
Stornaway Horticultural, 646 
Tyneside Agricultural, demands upon the 
farmers, 621 

Wirral Agricultural, agricultural statistics, 
844 

Farmers' Clubs : 
Mr. Mechi on, 25 

Berwickshire : reaping machines, 13 
Botley : agriculture leases, 124, 308 
Chertsey : high prices, 781 
Crewkerne : allotments, 733 
East Suffolk : agricultural statistics, 492 
Golspie : sheep farming, 717 
Grimshoe : economical feeding of stock, 796 
Haddington : winter Wheat, 764 
Hatfield : cultivation of the soil, S12 
Killucan : stall feeding, 700 
Knighton: Turnip crop, 717 
London: subjects for discussion, 46 ; Mechi 
on town sewage, 91; Morton on the different 
cultivations of Italian Rye-grass, 158; culti- 
vation of root crops, 228, 249 ; application of 
steam power to agricultural purposes, 345 ; 
economy and coBt of good roads, 396, 412 ; stall 
feeding, 761 
Loughborough : agricultural statistics, 732 
Newton Abbot : farm servants, 765 
Oxfordshire: application of liquid manure, 13 
Padiham : peculiarities of agriculture. 652 
Peterborough : prices of Wheat, 748 
Smithfield : S09, 825 ; show of, 826 
Tipperary : advantages of agricultural so- 
cieties, 668 

Wakefield : effects on Turnip crop of various 
kinds of manure, 76 

Wattington: supply of food, 748 
Winchcomb : annual meeting, 700 
Witham : ploughing, 716 
Soils, for Rhododendrons, 54; Coleman on, 342; 
Johnston's Analysis of, rev., 364 ; fertility and 
barrenness in, 361, 378, 393, 425, 442, 45S, 521, 
537, 570, 586, 602,. 617, 618 ; for annuals, 651 ; 
treatment of clay, 697 ; culture of, 812 
Sowerby's Fern Allies, rev., 759 
Sowing, Pear seeds, 54 ; Rye-grass, 29 ; Clover, 

308; thick and thin, 459 
Sows, Mangel Wurzel injurious to breeding, 397, 

411, 475 
Spade husbandry, 3, 6, 12, 22, 37, 38, 68, 76, 174, 

697 
Sparrow clubs, 427 
Spider, red, 488; cure for, 24; and French 

Beans, 3S 
Squashes, S03 

Stables, boarded floors in, 77. 
Stainton's Entomological Annual, rev., 263 
Stanford's Map of the Crimea, rev. 743 
Star Apple (Chrysophyllum cainito), juice of, 

712 
Statistics, agricultural, 29, 45,90, 138,377,458, 
491, 492, 551, 601, 634, 652, 66S, 683, 732, 
842, 844, 857; Lock's observations on do. r 227, 
247 ; Scottish do., 106, 180, 211 ; Irish do., 748, 
S45 ; Hannam on do., 748; of cattle feeding, 
75, 90, 107, 125 ; dairy, 250, 341, 363, 379,425, 
427, 441, 443, 459, 474, 475, 490, 522, 538, 572, 
588, 732, 747 ; and corn trade, 619 ; new form 
of, 843 
Steam, cultivation, 75, 226, 266, 322, 345, 379, 
410, 426, 427, 443, 458, 459, 553, 554, 570, 573, 
620,730, 781, 811,858; cultivators, 362, 364, 
473, 507, 650, 652 ; v. ploughing, 267 
Steam-engines, 651, 684, 700, 812 
Steam-plough, 322, 345, 364, 634, 652, 780, 796 ; 
and its uses, 109, 179, 6G6 ; Fisher's, 683, 700, 
731 
Steel, tempering, 187, 206 
Stephanotis floribunda, 104 
Stephenson the Yester Deep-Land Culture, rev., 

460 
Stock, measurement and weight of, 10, 11, 45, 
510 ; market, new Smithfield, 25, 41, 42, 67, 74, 
229, 364, 397 ; plan of do., 43; opening of do., 
411; feeding, 179, 732, 796; statistics of do., 
75,90,107, 125; Mr. Hatton's system of do., 
,77; how prize are fed, 125; to stall feed, 700, 
761, 811 ; food, green for, 307 ; straw chaff as, 
307; for young, 557; pedigrees of, S9, 139, 
180; short-horned, 89,245,247, 265, 266,305, 
307. 309,322,410, 525; pleuro-pn'eumonia,108; 
shedding -for, 140; breeding, 211; will they 
pay their keep? 250; management of dairy, 
324 345, 379; show, Paris. 341, 393, 395, 441; 
Prof. Wilson on do., 795; disease, Russian, 
443, 475 ; at the Agricultural Society's meet- 
ing, 509; remarks on do., 572; shows of fat, 
729 ; fattening of at Rilrush farm, 811 ; 
Report of, at Smithfield Club, 609, 825, 826 ; 
do. Birmingham, 826 
Stocks, Brompton and other, 104; v. scions, 438 
Stockhardt's Chemical Field Lectures, Tev. 807 
Stone, meteoric, in a Willow, 388 
Stone brashes, analyses of, 122 
Stone breaking, 7SI 
Straw chaff as food, 307 

Strawberries, second crop of, 6 ; late, 208; Nim- 
rod, 241; Sir Harry, 487, 565, 682 ; to plant, 
504; culture, 518; new Belgian, or Delices 
d'Automne, 614, 63\ 647, 662, 694 ; Hautbois, 
664; growing, Mr. Underhill on, 693 
Strophantus capensis, 664 
Subsoiling, 540 

Suffolk Natural History Club, 5S2 
Sugar, equivalency of starch and, in foods, 27 



Sugar-cane, culture of, 646 

Sulphured Hops, 563, 579, 581, 597, 630, 678, 742 

Snlphuret of potash and mildew, 403 

Summer houses, roof for, 304 

Sunderland Park, 646, 662, 693, 710 

Sunflower, the, 6S3, 796; fibre, 712 

Superphosphate of lime, 493, 633, $12, 859 : 

analysis of, 3S1, 604, 634 ; and guano, 673 ; 

to make, 750 
Swainsonia galegifolia, 37 
Sweet William, monstrous, 2S0 
Sydney, Horticultural Society in, 691 



T. 



TalegAlla, nidification of, 469 

Tamarisk, 728 

Tan beds, 264 

Tanks, material for, 24 

Tar and Potatoes, 301 ; a disinfectant, 301 
mineral coal, 389 

Tares, Cabbages after, 229; of Scripture, 454 

Taxus adpressa, 356 ; Lindleyana, 484 

Taylor's Bee-keeper, rev., 599 

Tea, scented, 517 

Tecoma velutina, 820 

Tegoborski, Productive forces of Russia, rev., 
243 

Temperature, in Devon, 6 ; ground, 40; at 
Chiswick, 99; since the year 1813—14, 115, 
134; of February in Berwick, 174; compari- 
son of, between the late winter and that of 
1S54, 241 ; effect of, on dairy produce, 267, 
289, 344; seed sowing and earth, 260; of 
spring months, 429 ; fluctuations of, 662 ; and 
drainage, 651, 699, 732 

Tenant and landlord, 683 

Teneriffe, botany of, 175 

Textile material, 87, 155, 204, 853 

Theory of Horticulture, Dr. Lindley's, rev., 359 

Thermometers, position of, 134; Drew on, rev., 
374 

Things, common, 38, 53, 69, 85, 102, 118, 134, 
153, 174, 222, 302, 317, 357 

Thompson on Annuals, rev., 551 

Thorn, gigantic Cockspur, 677 

Threshing machines, 507, 780 

Thujopsis dolabrata, 241 « 

Thyrsacanthus barlerioides, 132 

Timber, American, 262; Black Italian Poplar, 
104, 317, 502, 759; Lombardv and do., 175; 
Larch, 336, 518, 726, 759,773; durability of 
774; Elm, 216; American do., 262; cork- 
barked ;do., 790 ; Canadian, 796 (see Oak) 

Tineina, history of, 855 

Tiptree, annual gathering at, 525 

Tithe commutation, 44, 59 

Tobacco, Mosquito, 318 

Tomato sauce, 664 

Tomatoes, to sow, 222 

Tourgheuieff, Russian Life in the Interior, 39 

Town gardens, 239 

Town sewage, 91, 157, 161, 193, 196, 209, 212 

Trade memoranda, 87, 153, 174, 223,307, 506,821 

Training Nut bushes, 153; trees on walls, 469 

Transplanting, Heather, 104; late Peas, 262; 
Carriere on, 499 ; evergreens, 499, 517, 533 ; 
trees at Gunnersbury. 552, 565, 5S2, 598, 614; 
notes on, 581, 597, 598, 629, 645; machines, 
582,598,614,646,710; Fir trees, 600; spring, 
615; midsummer, 630, 662, 726 

Traps, cricket, 136; rat, new. 453, 486 

Trees, forest, 51, 132 ; age of, 84 ; to prevent 
rabbits from barking, 88 ; Poplar, Black 
Italian, 104, 175, 317, 502, 759; do. and varie- 
ties of Larch, 726 ; reclaiming umbrella- 
headed, 152 ; broken by ice, 190 ; Elm, Not- 
tingham, 206; American do., 262; cork-barked 
do., 790; manure for Rise, 264;.Argan, 284, 
303; Mignonette, 2S0; Argan, 284, 301 ; Wil- 
low, meteoric stone in, 3SS ; weeping do., 726; 
ofUpsala, great, 533; Olaus Magnus and his 
nnknown, 550; machines for moving, 682, 
598, 646, 710; Barron's do., 552, 565, 682, 598, 
614; transplanting, 5S1. 597, 598, 615, 629, 
630, 645, 646, 662; Fir, to transplant, 600; 
Mountain Ash, henries of, 648; Oak, Mistle- 
toe *on, 388, 406, 438; on a Willow, 438; 
Durmast, 696, 72S; British, 728, 742, 756, 803; 
Pine, 190, 317, 334, 453, 612; wounds, 648; 
paint for do., 154,156; Larch, advantage of, 
336; supply of, 518; varieties of, 726; to 
plant, 759; to thin, 773; Beech, to remove, 
776; colour of, 787 ; grouping of, 787; fruit, 
Pear, growing, 4; on Quince stocks at Natchez, 
6; pyramidal, 72; seedling, 101, 783; fores- 
posed places, 320; culture of, 37 ; do. in Scot- 
land, 174; Gooseberry, to prune, 102; Currant, 
to prune, 102; to propagate, 153; new way of 
do., 454 ; Cherry, effects of the spring frost on, 
454; Orange, treatment of, 504; French, 727; 
Fig, winter, 86, 102, 119; to propagate, 174 ; 
en heavy clay, 659; Walnut, to graft, 678; 
Apricot, non-production of, 336, 358; in orchard 
houses, 806; Moss on, to remove, 40; compo- 
sition for, 53; pruning of during the first 
year of planting, 86; wash for, 102; to pro- 
tect, 24, 100, 134, 135, 189, 239, 302, 317, 336, 
373, 389, 406, 502, 518, 677; training wall, 
469; select, 536; dwarf, 614; effects of frost 
on, 153, 154, 207, 242, 260, 27S, 281, 315, 564 

Tree wounds, paint for, 154, 156 

Trellising, galvanised wire, 662 ; horizontal, 824 

Trenching u. draining, 179 ; &c, cost of, 710 

Trifolium incarnatum, 621, 797 

Tropreolums. to increase, 63 ; tricolornm, 335 

Tulip-;, Mr. Groom's, 360; to plant, 712 

Turf pits, 654, 854 

Turner's (Mr.) nursery, 695 

Turnips, manure for, 76, 108 ; grating, 137, 139^ 
Swede, as food, 174, 206 ; culture of, 228, 777; 
Orange jelly, 475; starting, 540; fingers and 
toes, 572, 804, 810; crop, to preserve, 717: 
varieties of, 729 ; to store, 747 ; pests of, 746v 
780, Sll ; for seed, 765 ; history, 794 



Underwood, 840 

Union, Newton Abbott, report of agricultural 

committee of, 24S 
United States, Pears on Quince stocks in, 6 ; 

Axes, 171 ; timber. 262; winter in, 456 
Upsala, great tree of, 533 
Urine, as manure, 582 



[NDEX. 



•, ii 



VjVooinium Hallgntim and sorpens, 016 

Vonda holvola, 810: CatbcartI, 816 

Van Ulouion's Lund, vegetation in, 635, 855 

Viinlllii crystals, 582 

yegetablos, preserved, for tlio Orln , v.: 1 ,; 

Massoi H (Jhollot's dried, 151, 171, 100; 

DIolytrn npae(abllln ft, 202 

Vegetable maladies, ihs 

Vegetable pathology (see Pathology) 

Vogotation, of tho Crtmoa,88, 69, 171, 189, 101 ; 
snow a protootor of, 00, 134 ; Nlco, .'17, 60, 86, 
118, 180, 221, 002; of Java, 889; Influoncoof 
heal on tho progress of, 421, 487 ; Himalayan, 
r,lfi; In Vim Dfemen's Land, 686, 866) pro- 
gress of, 608; of Asia Minor, 707, BOO; of Ah. 

Mil l.lll,8fl) 

Voltoli's (Mr.) nursory, .'110. (103, 807 
Ventilation and boating, 518, 033; Dr, Arnott 

596 

Votorlnary solonoe, 108 
Victoria Fif/.i'iiyana, '203 
Village architecture, Weaver's hints on, rov., 

207 
Vitiligo horticultural snelotlos, 550 
Vines, killed by frost, 222; to propagato, 962; 

to Htop blooding in, 317; origin of the, 8C6; 

stain roots of, 358, -154; growing, 380, 4011; 

Over fUmlgatlng, 078; in pots, 8122 
Vino mildew. 188,410,582,682,710; In Madeira, 

205 ; new, 261 ; Neapolitan, 003; remedies for, 

1101 ; iii Portugal, 778; Cathlllon, 855 
Vino Leaves, exereseences on, 300 
vim. borders, 678 ; ohamborod, 744 
Vinegar plant. 880, 357, 300, 032 
Viola caplllarls, 162 
VlolntN, Niiupolltan, 280 
Vitality of soad8„789, 713, 758, 77:1, 805, 837, 854 
Vitriol, green,! 2 ; blue, for Wheat, 307, 323, 303 



Waous, labourers', in Ireland, imi, 740 

Wales, Potato dlsoasoln,378; plantations In, 776 

Wiiikit, weeds on, 160 

Wall", garden, 175,277; glass, 200; train". [OH, 
400; Poach, glass on, 561 

Wall ii s, protection ol 24, 189, 289, 302,317, 

886, 373, 889, 106, 602, 518, 677 ; rosult of not 
protecting, 886, 858, 821 ; training of, 169 

Walnut, to graft, 678 

VViiiiliiui i-iihoh, 014, (117 

Wasps, 470, 602 ; embedded In stoiu)/819 

Wasp-papor, 756 

Water, how to gol good In day districts, 22 ; to 
purify, 186; toplu, for plants, 188; powor, 1775, 

181, 190, 208; wheels, 175. 190; v ol to 

do,, 200; an attrootoc of frost, 2hi ; (tanan 
culusos to, 350; SOO, and needs, 212, 278, 350, 
580, 773, 780; gnu, fur killing Insects, 192; 
do., manure, 895; mijiiily of to wells, «ic., 470 

Water-drill v. dry, 778 

Water flltor, cheap, 102 

Water Lily, monstrous, 548 

Water meadows, 587 

Water snails and urinaria, 508 

Wntorof'fl (J.) nursery, 421 

Wax, Chinese white, 338 

Way, Prof,, Chemical principles Involved In tho 
production of butter, 315; use of fish us 
manure, 402 

Weather, Feb. 3, 80; at Chiswlck, 99; and farm- 
Ing, 122; slncn 1818— '14, 115, 110, 131; in 
Stirlingshire, 222: Mr. Glalshor on the, 243; 
at, Knobworth, 818; in Dorset, 358; in May, 
874, 475; tomporature of spring, 420; in 
ArgyloHhiro, 742; in Septombor, 80G 

WeatlinrcockH, zinc, 646, 002, 093 

Weddell's Obloris Andlna, rev., 607 

Woods, on walks, 100 ; poreoniul, 099 



W<-'-k,-, ,Mi iri coi lumntlofl of An 

Weigh' • 18, 610 ; -I 

Italian 11; e ■< a i I, 211/ 312 oi 
716 

'■■'■ t " 

i '|i[ily of wall. i i 

What In a nargoli 

Wheat, culture of, Loll v.v,,|.,„, 4. 27. .37, 
.38, 76. S 6 886 V 

Imports, B averagos. 14, 50; Australian, 
ii. orl (In of, 141,1 
.i. pth to cover do., 41 1; - r>: 

Iliiniy'i,, 280, 0; and 

b -.H. k, l. ...... :■;,... 

427; in liampshln 
report re pei ting tbi 

688; do. eanses affecting tba p 

the, .1' returns respes ting tlu itats 1 1 
581, 701, B10; mldgo, 567, 686 ; to son 
iimiiiI in, 937, 668; growth of, 668; night 
flowering, 862 o |. .iii.ii.i. i . irlth, ri ' . pro 
dnce "i. 718 growing, I 
without ploughing, 747; prlcoof ■ 
balance iineer, I '41 lupp] ■ of, 74 ' laurel on 
ditto, 781,761,762, 777; winter, 764; distance 
to plants, 780 

Whitethorn berrle . ! 

Wliittington on .Miu.gil Will/..;!, 112 
Whittle'. I Ion il, 13.3 

wllklns' model garden, 72.3 

Wllllanm on combustion, 681 

Willow, meteoric stono in, 388; weeping, 72*;: 
Oak on a, 438 

Wilson, Agriculture, Post and Present^ 108-. 
agriculture of the French Inhibition 
790 

Winter, Figs for, 86, 102,111); of, 1813-14, 1 111, 
1.31; In tlio north, 135, 153,100; In Ireland, 
154; effects of, 115, 151, 207, 242, 260,278; of 
1854 55,241; at (Ilosnevin, 260, 278; in the 
United States, 450 ; garden, 505; the late In 
Devon, 773 



■ . otea by, I'm 

.2, 138,220,221 

■ 

Wool, i -elidbl 

•I 710 

Wool,,,. 



Vam, ' ;■», «ll, «« 

i, 766, 77.1, r. 
YapaQna, a CDS) *, 768 

Yapp's Duties on Doooru info Franc-, rtv.. 

Yards, envemd, 16 

... 

limn by rtl/pl.eo*, ivr , 
400 

Vo«r, shwp polsemd by, 219 

Yew berrli 

Vew bfldgi 

Yorkahlre, Babies' Flora of, rev,8; crops is. 

879. 486 
Youth, crime, sad punishment, l&t, 248 



ZKennra peadula, 356 

Zephryaatbes, 6 

Zoology, Gossa's Marine, a I 



LIST OF WOODCUTS IN THE PRESENT VOLUME. 



A. 

Abies Krcmpferi, 644 
Acrophorus hispidus,66l 
Adiantuni cultratum,660 
Apple, double, 692 
Astragalus pod, 632 



Beet grafting, 20 

Bridge, St. James' Parle, C76 

British Ink Gall, 189 



Calceolaria violacea, 852 
Catasetum incurvum, 4 
Chair, cottager's, 69 
Chinese flower pot, 357 
Chrysanthemum field bug, 757 
Cottage, at Harlaxton, 823 ; front, 561 
Cucumber fungus, 301 



Davallta fiissecta, 469; brJIafp, 532; tenni- 

folia, 709 
Dorchester tcmulue, 740 



E. 



Enytlle Hall Conservatory, 7S1 
Escallonia pterocladon, 36 
Escholtzia tennifolia, 3yl 



Ferns, new garden, 358, 469, 532, 660, 677, 70S 
Fuchsia bloom, large, 740 



G. 



Galls, different kinds of, 116 
Gardens, plans of. 613 
Garden pots, new, 453 
Gardenia Rothmanni, 436 
Gooseberry caterpillar, 500 
Gourds in hanging pots, 6 
Gymnogramma lanata, 660 



H. 



Hailstones, 487 
Harlaxton, cottage at, 823 
Heating, diagrams illustrative of, 4£5 
Hedges, formation of, 374 



Insects, British Ink-gall, 1S9; Gooseberry 
caterpillar, 500; Pine beetle, 612; Chrysan- 
themum field bug, 757; Seychelles Dorthesia, 
836 ; Oak gall, 189 



K. 



I Knife, Sayiior and Cooke's, 772 



Layering pot, 420 

Lastrea pilosissima, 677 ; recedens, 70S 

Linseed husk, 362 

Loy, Irish, 153 



Mustard husk, 362 



K. 

Nephrodium venustum, 677 
Nephroleple davallioid.es, 3SS 
Nymphtea, monstrous, 548 



Oak-gall, 1S9 
Orchids, chlorosis of, 316 



Paris Horticultural Exhibition, plan of grounds 

501 
Passiflora cinnabarina, 724 
Pear, Choix d'un Amateur, 85; Verulam, S05 
Pelargonium excrescences, 725 
Pine beetle, 612 
Platyloma Browni, 3SS 
Plums, bladder, 532 
Pots, Fry's, 453; Layering, 420 
Potato starch grains, 188 
Protections, fruit tree, 24, 189, 2S9, 373, 821 
Pycnopteris Sieboldi,4C9 
Pyracautha, 5S1 



Rape husk, 362 
Rat-trap, new, 453 
Rhododendron Brookeanum, 404 
Root excrescences, 220 
Roots, adventitious, 335 
Rose, monstrous, 510' 



St. Jamks' Park Bridge, 676 

Scakale pots, 453 

Smithfield cattle market, plan of the new, 43 

Spring protections, 24, 189, 239, 373, 821 

Starch grains, 18S 

Steam culture, diagrams illustrative of, 613, 620 

Sweet William, monstrous, 280, 452 



Thujopsis dolabrata, 241 

Timber, effects of decayed branches on, 52 

Tragacanth, 205 

Trees, reclaiming umbrella-headed, 152; effects- 

of decayed branches on, 52 
Tumulus, Dorchester, 740 



Verulam Pear, 805 



Wa^l protectors, 24, 189, 239, 373, 821 




GARDENERS' CHRONICLE 



A N i) 



AGRICULTIJ 




GAZETTE. 



A ©tamped Newspaper of Rural Economy and General News.-The Horticultural Part Edited by Professor Lindley- 



No. 1.— 1856;] 



SATURDAY, JAM ARY 6. 









|] ifoUf 0/ 

, hi) ■'. lirOfcHWW m. 

Hll,'" HI,. IHV 

AnnijaKlUt of •,••■■■■•• 

(i. rwlokalitre lunum* Uul> .. 

i.,.i.'h.|j.i, In-r [cultural 

— Mtloiiltiirnl 

ii mi', Rportlnit of 

ilnic 'urvuni 

Onttli'. infiiiBurimifiU mill 

U "I lit a-11 o 

Cryiinl Pftlnca 7 » 



J l « 

II r 

):i o 

u r 

i:t a 

H it 

18 *■ 
7'' 

•1 A 



tiaed 

re, tov 

lint; mill iilniiin.. 



IS « 

111 r 

o 

7 c 

, 14 a 



.ViiHilnatlnjf hi 
Gorso culture? 

GourtlH, pililcn ii ft 

Ornsicn, pcrrrumont \-2 i> 

(Jyiicrlum ur^oiitdim Il ft 

Hun. Socioty'a oxlilbltionn .... » « 

Husbandry, dprnle it c, d a, 12 u 

Lols-Weouon, cunt of (IIkkIhic 

nt It c-fi « 

MnClllllP I, '< ■■ I'm-; 13 a 



Alnimri', Niihtornutriin np] i I 

c ' liquid 13 <•— 13 l> 

Oxford (fat man* Olul) 1» '< 

I'ntliolofry,vi>Kuiitlil<'. I '' 

PCD ' iwlog 4 *" 

— — nt Nntclicz i' " 

I'liinln, DOW '1 '' 

— BOft, finrilKiitliiiC 7 r 

PodoloblumH '• 6 

PomoloRloiil Boo fl o 

Poultry iCKOping .- I'' " 

PrlraroBC.Chln 7 A 

llnlii tn Uoyou 1 * 

Kcniilni; iiiurliltirn > ;1 '/ 

IMiudodondroni, grafted fl « 

Hondri, Kuod.... '- , 

Seeding, thin '- * 

Spfldfl liiiHlinnilry -I <". ° ". »2 « 

Strnwborrioit, locondcrop of .. >< e 

Tomparnture or Devon eft 

V .:■■ ti.hh |»lltlll>l(>K) ' '' 

Vitriol, KreuD » ft 

Wf-UliiKtnniK gift An ten 7 c 

VVhoat, LoI>*V>.«doa 'in 

— I'liyno'it 1- ? 

Zcphryanthce ft 



COUNTY ov GLOUCESTER and CHELTENHAM 
ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. — Tim clays 
iit.'il fov the Exhibition B of the above Society for 1855 are 
WEDNESDAY, Ma* ffj WEDNESDAY and THURSDAY, 
June (J nnd 7; arid WEDNESDAY, September 5.— Schedules 
nmy bo obtained on application to Henry J. CocnitANE, Secretary. 
11. Colonnade, Cheltenham, Jan. 6. 



GARDENERS' BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION. 
SEVENTH APPLICATION. 

HENRY SCHNEIDER, of Ford, Colerne, Chippenham, 
through his Advertisement, again appeals to the sympathy 
and kind support of the Subscribers of this Institution, being 
now 00 years of age, and in very destitute circumstances. 
Ills testimonials remain unimpaired, and he is encouraged to 
make another application to his kind friends who have hitherto 
favoured him with their votes, and other subscribers who will 
'•haritubly lend him their aid at the lorthcoming election in 
«> miliary next. 

Tho following gentlemen will be gratified in receiving proxies 
in his favour:— Mr. Gregory, Cirencester. Gloucestershire; Mr. 
Burbank, Grittleton, Chippenham, Wilts; Mr. Spencer, Bowood, 
Calne, Wilts; Messrs. Garraway, Mayes, & Co., Bristol; Mr. 
Trotter, Badminton, Chippenham, Wilts; Messrs. Arthur Hen- 
derson & Co., Pine Apple Place, and John Arthur Henderson, 
Esq., 01, Hamilton Terrace. London. 



/^ARDENERS' 



_ BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION. 

FOURTH APPLICATION. 
"WILLIAM THACKER begs earnestfjlto appeal to the sub- 
scribers, through the medium of an advertisement, from his total 
inability to incur, for the fourth time, the heavy expense of 
issuing circulars. He is aged 68, and he rests his claim to their 
benevolence on having- been 50 years a gardener and five years a sub- 
scriber to the Institution ; and that both his wife and himself are 
totally incapacitated, through infirmity, from supporting them- 
selves. His case is strongly recommended bv Mr. Alex. Dancer, 
Fulham ; Messrs. J. & C. Lee, Hammersmith Mr. T. Gaines, 
Battersea; Mr. Barto Chaundy, Lewisham. 



WANTED, 15,000 large strong QUICK, not less 
than 3 feet in height.— Address, post paid, stating full 
particulars as to price, &c, to S. H., Post Office. Great Mis- 
senden, Bucks. 

TXT ANT ED, HOTHOUSE GRAPES, both Black 

* * and White. Gentlemen, gardeners, &c, having any to part 
with, will find an immediate purchaser tor them, at good prices. 
Address, Lewis Solomon, Covent Garden, or Crystal Palace. 



TO BE SOLD, very reasonable, 10,000 or more 
GOOSEBERRY and CURRANT TREES, strong plants; 
reat varietv of ORNAMENTAL FOREST TREES, from 
S to 12 feet high; LAURELS, Bushy LAURESTINES, Ac- 
Apply to Mr. C. Clark, 179, Windmill Street. Gravesend, Kent. 



AMERICAN APPLE TREES. 

TO BE SOLD, from 800 to 1000 very superior 
AMERICAN APPLE TREES. The Trees were raised 
from seed, and grafted in America, and imported four years ago. 
To parties about to plant Orchards this is an opportunity rarely 
offered. — To view the Trees and to treat, apply to J. Gregory, 
Yardley Gobion, near Stony Stratford, Bucks. 

MANGOLD WURZEL SEED. 

TO BE SOLD, LONG RED and YELLOW 
GLOBE, growth of 1S54, from superior stock.— Apply to 
R. S. Heiys, Kelvedon, Essex. 



On eat .".■■-. - ' i 

FUCHSIAS WITH WHITL COROLLAS. 

IUCOMBE, PINCE and CO. bog Lav.- toannounci 
-J that thoy shall bo prepared to Bond oul tiro splendid nnd 
ontiroly novol Seedling FucnslM, early In May n«xt. vi?„ ■.— 
FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. 
I'ur,. white corolla, with brilliant Bcarlot sopal \, fluoly n 
an extremely lovely and novel variety. 

CALANTHIFLORA-PLENA 
(The Doudlb Snowdrop Corolta'd Fuchsia,) 
Pure double white corolla, resembling a One large double mow- 
drop, with rich scarlet nopals ; altogether distinct from anything 
of tho kind ever yol produced. Price 10*. Qd, each. 
The usual discount to the Trade when throe or more an I 
Kxetor Niirscrv, Exoter. -EftTAULisnRD 1720. 



J. ( 



EAKLY bANILL O'kOuHKE PEAS. 

G. WAITE begs to inform tho Trade that he is now 

ready to execute ordors for this valuable early Pea. Price 
can be had on application. 
Seed Establishmen t, 181, Hi_'h Hnlhnrn, London. 

N EW CAULIFLOWER. 

WAITE'S " ALMA," far superior to Walcheren, 
very large and firm heads. Price to the trade 24.*. per lb.; 
smaller quantities 2s. 6(2. per oz. No orders attended to for less 
quantities than one ounce— Seed Establishment, 181, High 
Holhorn, London. 



CAMELLIAS. 

CHANDLER and SONS beg to inform their frieuds 
and customers that they havo a large stock of young 
CAMELLIAS this season, beautifully Bet with flower bud h, and 
now in a fit state to travel without injury. Fine plants, 30a. and 
upwards per dozen. — Wandsworth Road, VjiuxhalL 

RHUBARB ROOTS for FORCING or PLANTING. 
— Stronp; one-year planted roots of HYATT'S VICTORIA 
nnd LINNAEUS, MITCHELL'S KOYAL ALBERT, at 6s. per 
doz.; HOWARD'S PRINCE ALBERT, 12s. per dozen. This is 
a larger variety than the Victoria, and is extensively cultivated 
about Manchester. Price to the trade of the above, per 100 or 
1000, on application to Messes. J. MYATT and SONS. 
Manor Farm, Deptford, Jan. 6. 



SEKD WHEAT. — Samples and Prices of RED 
HYBRID, NURSERY, and other kinds of Wheat from the 
Chalk, sent on application to Mr. PI. Ratkbird, Basingstoke. 
The Red Hybrid and Nursery are well suited for late sotting 
after T ur nips. 

EVV SEEDS JUST HARVESTED can now be 

obtained of the most genuine description, from 
William E. Rendle & Co., Seed Merchants, Plymouth. 



N 



LYNCH'S STAR OF THE WEST CUCUMBER, 
the best frame variety in cultivation. For descrip- 
tion, sccRendle's "Price Current and Garden Directory'" 
for 1854. 

Price Is. 6<J. and 25, 6d. per packet. — Apply to "William E. 
Rendle & Co., Sped Merchants, Plymouth. 

DIOSCOKEA BATATAS— THE NEW CHINESE 
POTATO. — This new esculent was fully described by 
Professor Lindley in the Chronicle of December 23, 1S54. 

The Subscribers are now importing a choice lot of 
Roots, and can supply than on the following terms; — 

Four Tubers £0 10 1 Fifty Tubers £5 5 

Ten „ 1 2 6 | Hundred „ 10 

First Orders will have the best Roots. -Apply to 
WILLIAM E. RENDLE & Co., Seed Merchants, Plymouth. 



CHARLES SHARPE and CO.'S Wholesale Cata- 
logue of Seeds is now ready, and may be bad on application. 

DIOSCOREA (JAPONICA) BATATAS, New Chinese 
Potato. — A choice list of imported roots of the above. Price to 
the trade on application. 
Nursery and S e ed Establishment, Sleaford. 

CHARLES SHARPE and CO. beg to draw the 
attention of the nobility, gentry, and clergy to their superior 
collection of Seed Potatoes, which they can recommend as de- 
cidedly the best in cultivation. Price per bushel, of 4 stones: — 



Early 



Ash-leaved Kidney 
do. do. Jackson's 
Round Frame 
Martin's Globe ... 

King's 

Hen's Nest 



Early Emperor 
Cockney 
Oxford 

White Rough 
Fose's Seedling , 
American Native 



For Late Planting: — 
Yorkshire Regent, 7s. | Prince Regent, 7s. [ Fluke Kidney, 8s. 

JAMES CHARTRES and CO. beg to announce that DIOSCOREA (JAPONICA) BATATAS, New Chinese 

they have added a NURSERY to their Seed Establishment, Potato.— This was described in the Gardener^ Chronicle of 

and arc iiow prepared to supply FRUIT TREES, PLANTS, &c. December j!3, which see for mode of cultivation, &c. Price, per 
of every description, all of finest quality, and at moderate prices. 
—York Nursery, Hanger Lane, Stamford Hill; and 74, King 
William Street, City, London. — Jan 6. 



GENUINE SEEDS. 
TAMES CHARTRES and Co. beg to inform their 
V patrons and purchasers of Seeds generally that their un- 
rivalled Stock is now arranged, and they earnestly solicit early 
orders, as many choice articles are deficient in quantity this season. 
Seed Warehouse, 74, King William Street, City,*London. 

GOLDEN DROP GREEN FLESH MELON] 

J CHARTRES and CO. have succeeded in saving 
• a limited quantity of Seed of this splendid variety, which 
they can with confidence recommend: it is of moderate size, 
oval shape, and beautiful gold colour. Six Seeds 2s. Gd.— Seed 
Warehouse. 74, King William Street. City, London.— Jan. 6. 

ARTHUR HENDERSON and CO. beg leave to 
inform their patrons and friends that their Stock of VEGE- 
TABLE and FLOWER SEEDS (containing many choice and 
iwrw kinds) is now ready for sending out. 



root, 2s. 6d.\ per dozen, 24s. 

Nursery and Seed Establishment, Sleaford. 



EARLY SEED POTATOES.— Jackson's Improved 
Thorough High-bred Early Ashleafs, price 9s. per bnshel, 
and the celebrated Short-tops, 7s. Gd., are unequalled for quality 
and yield; they by far surpass the "old stock," which is gene- 
rally a sluggish bearer. British Queens, 7s. 6d., the earliest round 
variety, known ; Early Frame and Ashleaf Seedlings, Ss. ; 
Regents, from prepared cuttings, 6s. Free to London; no 
charge for sacks. All orders must be accompanied with a remit- 
tance. — Joseph Wilson, Seedsman, Ipswich, 

r rHE FLUKE KIDNEY POTATO.— This excellent 
-k variety is now planted here as the principal crop, being 
more free from disease and more prolific than any other in culti- 
vation. It was raised in Middleton, and may be had genuine in 
any quantity at 5s. per bushel of 56 lbs. — Apply to John Holland, 
Bradshaw Gardens, Middleton, near Manchester. 



'I 'HE FLLKE POTATO.— A new second early 
-i- variety, surpassing every other in its capability of resisting 
the Potato disease, and without exception the finest and most 
Their Seeds may bo fully relied on as being in every respect l prolific Potato in cultivation. Price per cwt., 15s., bass included. 
of fust-rate quality, and true to their sorts. Catalogues may be ; To be had genuine of THOKNHILL & DICKSON. Lawrence 
had on application.— Pine Apple Place, Edgeware Road. London. | Hill Nurseries : and No. 1. Wine Street, Bristol. 



S 



2UTT0 



. 



i 
.■ 

: I 

A« tint pub! 

not yet r«'C<:l 

■ ■ 
fr.'i* in rci 
AddromJoHi* Hi;-rrny AH^y, B#edO 

SEEDS FOR TML f ■ 

SUTTO i on thefot 

■ 
/ ■, ■ i ■ ,■■/. 

RENDLE ^ PBH I 
DIRE( TORY for 185 

To be /""/ ' i i 
Willum B. Rekdi I - / >mr/nth. 

VECETAB' E AND FLO^l 

J HO I; '.'Itclien 

• i lard en an< 

application.— W« h N I 

"""PRICE NURSERY CATALOGUES. 

A PAUL a*o ION will be h»ppy to Jonrard tf)4 
• following priced 
one postage stamp ch:— .'. 

I ; I 

Gbessho i 

BULH 3, — Nur T-ri' shunt 

FRUIT TRL' I 
SHRUBS, &c Cfttelog i >y te h*4 on 

application to A'. 

tfST' A quantity of fine Tn 

FOREST AND ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS. 

DAVID UEID AKT kVD 

Flobists, Lf-ith Walk, I- 
CATALOGUES as above are ready, and to b« had free on 

application. 



EXOTIC NURSERY, CHELSE*. 

JAMES VEI'ICH, Jin., will be happy to forward 
his new Retail VEGETABLE, AGRICULTURAL 
FLOWER SEED LISTS on application, and deaires t/j unre 
those who may kindly favour him with their orders, that 
spared no pains in procuring his supplies from ttM 
on the Continent as well as in this country, and that he will n*e 
his best endeavours to give his customers entire aatisfe- 



SEED GROWERS' SOCIETY.— The . Members of 
the above Society are now prepared to send LI - 
AGRICULTURAL, GARDE>\ and FLOWER SEEDS 

who are desirous of having them genuine and direct from th*: 
Growers. — Applications addressed to the Secretary, Joi; 
Jun., Feering, Kelvedon. Essex, will meet - 



r) OBERT KENNEDY, Agent for Messrs. Phuz and 
^ Son, Seed Growers, Erfnrt, has much pleasure in an r. 
he has received their Catalogue of Flower and Vegetable Seeds 
for the trade for 1855, which abounds with new articles of great 
interest, and will be forwarded, per po^t, on appli: 
R. Kennedy, Bedford Conservatory, Covent Garden, London. 

P.S. Also, R. Kennedy's General Catslogne of British sod 
Foreign Ferns forwarded on receipt o f six pr-stage L- 
GERMAN FLOWER ;EE:S. 

MOSCHKOWITZ and SIEGLING, Erfurt, beg to 
inform the trade that their new Wholesale CatalT 
Choice German and other Flower Seeds, is cot ready, and may 
be had on application to their Agent, ilr. H. Ii - 

church Street, London. 

AMERICAN PLANTS. 
JOHN WATERER begs to announce that he h&3 
v published a new Catalogue of his Rhododendrons, &c, as 
exhibited by him in the Gardens c 

Regent's Park, London. It describes the colours of all the 
Rhododendrons considered worthy ofcnltivation, -with a Treatise 
on their successful management, and may be had by enclosing 
two postage stamps. 

The American Kursery, Bagshot, Surrey, near FamboTongh 
Station. South-Western Railway. 



AMERICAN PLANTS. — A Descriptive Priced 
CATALOGUE of HARDY AMERICAN PLANTS for 
the coming season is just published, and may be had by enclosing 
two stamps for postage. As everything in t".:e -^27 of American. 
Plants is grown to an unequalled extentaithis Knr- 
purchasers would do well to pro vide themselves with this Catalogue. 

WATERER and GODFREY. Nephew* and So 
late Hosea Waterer. Knap Hill Nursery " ~ey. 



AMERICAN NURSERY. 

GEORGE BAKER'S DESCRIPTIVE CATA- 
LOGUE of AMERICAN PLANTS, i-c. as eih:"t: 
him in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Eegenrs Park, may be had 
I bv inclosing two postage stamps. 
j *G. B. begs to call attention to his ns 
;■ Hollies. Coniferous Plants, Ornamental Shrubs, ic— American 
I Nursery. Windlesham, near Bagshot. S^rrr- 
StatJon, South- Western Railway, where conveyances may be 

' obtained. 

NEW WHITE PHLOX. 
Plants T. \?.t t es M 

JDOBSOX and SON beg to announce that thev sj-e 
• in posses?; n of the entire stock of a new '■' 
PHLOX, named Omnif ora compacts from its pr: 
I and exceedingly dwarf habit, h was exhibited r.: the . 
1 FloricnltuxarSociety. Sept. 7. l?x>L wfceni: 1 
, of Merit. As a bedding plant it will be a great acquis::: 
1 the scarcity of white flowers of this class: plants :__:r_ :ii> -:^: 
Scarlet Geraniums it has 3 very pleasing effect, The "ft 
report is given of it in the " National Almana*c''_i*. r jhibjesr^?— 
"A white, of dwarf habit, verycomr ■ : ._-.- smalL 

of good shape and substance: strongly reco: 
Extra strong plants in W •.-■'-.. atSs. eacft 

WoodlaiiQs Nursery, Islew^rtttr- 

.; 



- — 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 0, 



TWO NEW CUCUMBERS. 

SIR COLIN CAMPBELL AND 
GENERAL CANROBERT. 

'HE ABOVE are two of the Finest imJ most Superb New Hybrid Cucumbers ever yet sent out for Exhibition, 
Wiuter Cultivation, nud eveiv other purpose for which a Cucumber is required. 




SIR COLIN 

The above Cut is an exact representation of one of the fruit 
grown Uiis summer, which measured exactly ten of its diameter 
long, being 2.) inches, with not more than half an inch handle, 
it is a spleudid Black Spine, of a dark green colour, and free 
rom ribs or shrivels; grows very quick, sets free, and curries its 
bloom welL As a Cucumber for Exhibition nothing can surpass 



CAMPBELL CUCUMBER. 

it, and is very prolific, often throwing out four or five fruit from 
every joint, and the vines are short jointed. The fruit is solid, 
and eats very crisp, nnd for market it keeps its bloom well for 
many days, not turning colour at the stem or point as most 
varieties do Fruit was cut from the above in January last, and the 
same plants continued to produce tine fruit until the end of October. 



CUCUMBER. 



GENERAL CANROBERT 

swell off two or three fruit at a time on a plant, during the depth 
of winter, and carry them out well, which it does with less heat 
than any other : this has been proved when several varieties 
have been grown together, this having the coldest part of the 
house. The object of the raiser of the above superb varieties 
has been to obtain perfection and hardiness, in which be has 
succeeded, by continually hybridising different varieties. 



This is also a most superb variety for winter cultivation, for 
■which it is best adapted, being a hybrid from Lord lvenyon s 
Favourite and Phenomena. It has a great advantage over 
Kenvon's in length, growing to about IS inches in the same 
time' in which Kenvon's will grow 12 inches; it is equally as 
hardy and productive. Of a dark green appearance, Black Spine, 
and a free setter; fruits freely during the whole of the winter, 
and always grows a very even size from stem to point. It will 

Sold in Packets of Five Seeds, 3s. 6<f . each, or 1 Packet of Sir Colin Campbell and General Canrobert for 6s. 

The followirj" fiue varieties of Cucumbers and Melons, which have been thoroughly proved and have given the 
greatest satisfaction to all Purchasers, can be supplied. 

MELONS. 



Captivation 

Phenomena 

Lord Kenvon's ... 

Essex Hero 

Victory of Path ... 

Gordon's White Spine. 

Sunderland Wick 



CUCUMBERS. 

... 2.5. 6d. I Hunter's Prolific .,. Is. OS 

...2 G j Mills' Jewess 1 

Cheltenham Surprise ... 1 

Manchester Prize ... 1 

Sion House True ... 1 

Cuthill's Black Spine ... 1 

Conqueror of the West... 1 



The Queen 
Bromham Hall... 
Incomparable ... 
Golden Ball ... 

Bowood 

Victory of Bath... 
Camerton Court 



... 1 

... 1 

... 1 

... 1 

... 1 

... 1 



Beechwood Is. 0d. 

Windsor Prize 1 

Emperor 1 

Fleming'sHybd. Persian 1 
Blackali's Green Flesh 1 
Bailey's „ 10 

Snow's Hybrid 1 



A Packet of either of the Melons will be given to alt Purchasers of the two new Cucumbers advertised above. 
A Remittance must accompany every Order by Cash or Penny Postage Stamps, and the whole, or any part (as the case may be), 
ifill be immediately forwarded. 

EDWAED TILEY, NURSERYMAN, SEEDSMAN, and FLORIST, 
14, Abbey Church Yard, Bath, Somersetshire. 



The New Chinese Potato, Bioscorea (J aponiea) Batatas. 
MR. JOHN HENDERSON, 

Formerly of the Firm of John A. Henderson & Co., Pine Apple Place, London, 

HAS tbe pleasure of informing the Public that he has just completed the Purchase from M. Paillet, of Paris, 
of his entire Saleable STOCK of the above introduction from China, the nutritive properties of which are said so far to surpass 
the ordinary Potato that it is likely, not only to act as an auxiliary, but entirely to supersede that valuable but uncertain esculent. 
Tbe most satisfactory results have followed from personal experiments, and proved that when cooked in the ordinary manner, 
from tbe large amount of farinaceous properties it contains, it can never become waxy, as is too generally the case with the 
Potato. Its flavour resembles in delicacy an early Ash-leavf.d Kidney; but, independent of the above excellent qualities, there 
is every probabilitv of its taking a still more important position in the economy of this country, for, when dried and reduced to 
powder, it is equal to the best Arrow-root; or mixed in the proportion of one-third with two-thirds of wheaten flour, it makes 
an extremely light and wholesome BREAD, as well as very superior PASTRY, 



Messrs. Yiuiorin & Co.. speaking of it, observe:-" Of all the 
esculent roots proposed as substitutes for the diseased Potato, 
the DIOSCOREA JAPONICA is certainly the only important 
one. It is easily propagated. The tubers are large and long, 
tbe flesh very mealy and devoid of any peculiar or disagreeable 
flavour. Tbe DIOSCOREA JAPONICA is, in our opinion, a 
precious acquisition." 

M. Pelk, Horticulturist, Paris, in his Supplementary Catalogue 
of this autumn says : — " A new alimentary root, introduced into 
France by M. Montignt, French Consul in China. Serious 
experiments have shown that this tuber will be much more 
advantageous to cultivate than the Potato, both in regard to its 
quality as well as produce." 



M. Paillet, to whom the Imperial Society of Agriculture and 
Commerce of France has awarded the sum of 3000 francs as 
encouragement for having brought it into cultivation, also notices 
that "this tuber attains at least 1 to 2 lbs. weight. In its growth 
it is less delicate than the Potato, which unfortunately has of late 
years much degenerated. It does not require particular care, and 
its abundant produce amply repays cultivation. Its taste is 
pleasant, and being a root which contains a large amount of 
farina, will be a great addition to the FOOD of the PEOPLE 
as soon as it becomes generally known. It is so hardy that it 
has passed the winters of 1853-4 in the open ground, without 
having in the least suffered from frost. It is also found that the 
sTEais and leaves, which are very numerous, foim, an excel- 
lent FOOD for CATTLE." 



Tubers, with description of the Chinese Mode of Culture, to be obtained of Mr. JOHN HENDERSON, Kingskebswell, South 
Devon, at the following prices, for cash only :— 

4 Tubers £0 10 1 10 do £1 2 6 | 50 do £5 5 | 100 do '.£10 

Post-office orders are requested to be made payable at Newton Abbot, South Devon. Tbe usual discount allowed to the trade 
when not less than 50 are taken. — P.S. All orders unaccompanied by a remittance will be considered as not received. 



To Farmers, Potato Growers, and Others. 



BASS and BROWN'S NEW AUTUMN CATA- 
LOGUE, supplied free for three Penny Stamps. They have 
this season a very fine and vigorous stock of the finest Roses, 
among which are a number of very superb new Continental 
varieties, consisting chiefly of the perpetual class. The following 
selections will be highly approved, 

RO SES. 
100 Standards in 100 very superior varieties £7 10 



50 



6 10 



4 



4 
3 
2 10 
1 10 



100 
60 „ 50 varieties ditto, all selected from 

perpetuals 

100 dwarfs and half standards, or all dwarfs, in 100 very 

superior varieties 

100 ditto in 50 varieties, dilto • 

50 ditto in 50 varieties, ditto, all from perpetuals 

Fine mixed dwarfs, per 100... 

Hardy Herbaceous Plants, Hollyhocks, prize-named Goose- 
berries, Strawberries, Standard Dwarf and Trained Fruit Trees, 
Flower Roots, and a variety of desirable articles offered in selec- 
tion for present planting, for which see Gardeners' Chronicle, 
Oct. 14, page 659, and Oct. 2Sth, page C90.— Goods, carriage free 
v 'not uuder20s,), to all the London termini, and all Stations on the 
London and Norwich Colchester Line. Plants added gratis with 
orders of 40s. and upwards. 

Seed and Horticultural Establishment, Sudbury, Suffolk. 



JACKSON'S PATENT PREPARATION 

FOR 

PRESERVING POTATOES, WHEAT, AND OTHER SEEDS 



MESSRS. J. and H. BROWN offer the following 
CHOICE PLANTS, &c, which they will forward to any 
part of the United Kingdom or the Continent: — s. d. 

Andromeda floribunda, fine, per dozen 12s. to IS 

25 Azaleas, new hardy Belgian varieties, one of a sort on 

their own roots 20 

25 Azaleas, American varieties, do. do. 16 

Hardy Heaths, Ledums, and Kalmias, per dozen 6 f> 

25 Hardy American Plants, one of a sort -.. 10 6 

12 Rhododendrons, including Scarlet, "White and Rose 

hardy varieties 12 O 

Fine hardy Scarlet Rhododendrons, 2 feet, per dozen ... 12 O 
New hardy Yellow Rhododendrons, each ... 3s. Gd. to 5 6 • 

6 Fine hardy Magnolias, one of a sort 10 O 

50 Dwarf Roses, two of a sort, on their own roots 16 f> 

Standard and half standard Roses, per dozen ... 12s. to 15 

Fine climbing Roses, of sorts, per dozen 6 

Greenhouse Azaleas, choice varieties, per dozen 18 

12 Camellias, well set with buds, fine sorts 30 

Orchidea Plants, fine species, per dozen 40 

24 Choice Ericas, one of a sort 16 

6 Bulbs Lilium Lancifolium, one of a sort 12 

FRUIT TREES. 
Fine standard and dwarf-trained Peaches, Nectarines, 

Apricots, Plums, Pears, and Cherries. The best and 

most approved sorts of these respective kinds, to name, 

each, 85., or, per dozen 30 O 

Untrained or maiden do., Is. Gd. each, or, per dozen ... 15 

Apples, dwarfs and standards of best sorts, per dozen,J/Js. to 15 O 
Fine Gooseberries, Currants, and Raspberries, per dozen 3 
Figs, Medlars, Quinces, Walnuts, and Mulberries, each ... 2 
Filberts, new thin shelled and red skinned, per dozen ... 3 
Strong Vines, from eyes and layers, in pots, per dozen ... IS 
Large stock of Transplanted fine Scotch Larch and Spruce 

Firs, cheap. 

New Gardens and Greenhouses furnished on moderate terms. 

Priced Seed List for 1855 by pos?. 

Albion Nursery, Stoke Newington, London. — Jan. 6. 

HOLCUS SACCHARATUS, OR CHINESE SUGAR CANE 
(See Gardeners' Chronicle, Dec. 30th, 1654.) 

MR. JOHN HENDERSON, formerly of the firm 
of John A. Henderson & Co., Pine Apple Place, London, 
bas the honour to announce that he is prepartd to supply Gentle- 
men, Amateurs, and Professionals, with seed of this most valuable 
and estimable plant. 

As the Dioscorea Batatas seems well adapted to make good any 
deficiency arising from failure in the Potato crops, so this appeai-s 
admirably calculated to meet many wants of the present day. That 
it may be used for the purposes of distillation, and may therefore 
preserve the grain of the country, is not less certain than that 
the leaf and stem (after the saccharine matter has been extracted) 
contain a large amount of fibre, of such a nature as can be em- 
ployed in the manufacture of every kind of paper. In both these 
points, as well as in many others, this plant demands the atten- 
tion of every Gardener and Amateur throughout the country; 
the more so as from the necessity that at present exists for the 
production of fibres that may be used in paper manufacture a due 
remuneration may be fairly expected by growers, even after the 
plant has, so to speak, paid itself by the saccharine matter 
extracted from it. 

Mr. Henderson hopes, in a few days, to have ready for the 
press a more lengthened account of this plaut, as well as a com- 
plete statement of the latest experiments in connection with the 
Dioscorea Eatatas. As there are many varieties of the Holcus 
W. J. H. can only be responsible for seed fonvarded by himself, 
which he is prepared to do iu sealed (packets, at Is., 2s. Gd., 5s. ? 
and 10s., according to quantity. 

Orders to be accompanied with a remittance to Mr. Johx 
Henderson, Kingskerswell, Newton Abbot, South Devon. 
P*.S. Price to the Trade can bo had on application, 

TO "GENTLEMEN ENCAGED IN PLANTING. 

WATERER and GODFREY respectfully invite 
attention to their stock of the following very desirable 
HARDY PLANTS. 
Araucaria imbricata, from 2 to 
7 feet high ; as handsome as 



From DISEASE, the RAVAGES of the SLUG, GRUB, and WIREWORM, in addition to which the CROPS are brought 
forward in HEALTH and VIGOUR, and the yield is greatly increased, in proof of which the following extracts are given 
from numerous letters received by Mr. Jackson. 

EXTRACTS:- 



" One ot the fields of this farm, the property of Mbs. Stanbury, 
was planted with Regent's Potatoes in April last, some of which 
were prepared by you. The result now is, that the whole of the 
crop from the unprepared sets is thoroughly diseased, and hardly 
worth the trouble of taking up ; while those raised by the side of 
them from the prepared sets, are not only iu a beautiful state of 
preservation from the disease, but the produce is much greater, — 
the Potatoes are more numerous than the others; indeed, if there 
were no such thing as the disease to be feared, it would be worth 
the trouble and expense of preparing the sets by your process, 
even for the sake of the improved crops. I shall certainly, for 
the future, prepare all my Potatoes for seed by your process ; and 
I intend to adopt it for preserving my Wheat from the Smut. 

"G. B. Baxter. 
" Eelmont Farm, Eltham, Kent, August 28, 1854." 
" Admiral Sir J. A. Gobdon, K.C.B., Marlee nouse, Blairgowrie. 
" Sir,— I have received your i>ote of the 16th, The Potatoes 
that came here from England, prepared by Mr. Jackson, 
were planted iu a piece of new ground, and according to the 
directions sent by him along with them as to distance between 
tbe plants, &c. They came up well, with strong healthy stems; 
I have now taken the whole crop up, and there is not the 



slightest appearance of any disease amongst them. They are of 
large equal size and very prolific. There' were long black unpre- 
pared Kidneys planted in the same patch, and a great deal of 
them are not fit for use, at least a third part are diseased. I 
hope Mr. Jackson's process may be widely known, as it is a 
great boon. — I am, &c. t John Shanks, 

" Forester, Kildrummy Castle. 
" Kildrummy Castle, Aberdeenshire, November 17, 1854," 

" I am very much pleased with the result of the experiments I 
have made with your Prepared Potatoes; for I planted them, 
without any manure; in ground where for several years I have 
hardly had a sound Potato, and I now find the crop perfectly free 
from disease, and in a very fine condition; while those of the 
same sort, unprepared, which were planted at the same time, and 
nest to them, are diseased and eaten by worms. 

" The Potatoes from the Prepared Seed were so remarkably 
good that I was induced to weigh them, and I found , to my great 
astonishment, that they were as 200 to 150 of the others, or about 
25 per cent, in favour of your preparation. 

" T. Austen, Nurseryman and Seedsman. 

•' Blackheatb, Kent, 24th August, 1854." 



Sold by Messrs. Chaklwood & Cummins, Seedsmen, Covent Garden; and John Kernan, Seedsman, 4, Great Russell Street, 
Covent Garden; all Seedsmen and Chemists; and at the Patentee's, 18, Cannon Street, London Bridge, in Packets of One,,Two, 
Three or Fcur Founds, or in Bulk for the use of Farmers and Potato Growers. 



plants can be. 
Cedrus Deodara, in any quan- 
tity, from 1 to 3 feet high 

Do. do., 4, 5, 6, 7„ 8, and 10 

feet high ; splendid plants 

Cedars of Lebanon, 3, 4, G, and 

10 feet high 
Pinus Douglasi, 3. to 10 feet 

„ insiguis, 2 to 7 feet 

„ Menziesi, 3 to 7 feet 

„ pinsapo, fine plants, 3 to 
6 feet 

„ Nordmanniana, 1$ to 3 ft., 
all from seed and remark- 
ably handsome 

,, nobilis, lj to 2 feet; a few 
larger, 5 and 6 feet high, on 
their own roots, and with 



Pinus canadensis, 3 to 8 feet 
Cupressus macrocarpa or Lam- 
bertiana, 4 to 7 feet 
,, thyoides variegata, 3 to 
4 feet (the variegated white 
Cedar) 
Juniperu s, Upright Irish,perfect 
columns, 3 to 7 feet 
„ cbinensis, 2 to S feet 
Yew, common English,3 to S feet 
„ Irish, 4 to 10 feet 
„ gold-striped, 1,', to 3 feet 
„ do., tall standards, 4 to 7 ft.. 
„ Dovaston, or Weeping,, 
worked on tall straight 
stems 
Thuja aurea, the finest plants in' 

the country 
Libocedrus chilcnsis, the finest 

plants in the country 
Large variegated Hullies 
n Standard Bays 

Standard Orna- 



perfect leaders 

„ Montezuma, 2 to 4 feet 

Also an immense stock of large Evergreens, 
mental Trees, &c. 

All the plants here offered may be seen, growing m our 
Nursery; they are removed every year, and will travel any 
distance with perfect safety. Of some, such as Araucarias, 
Deodaras, Golden Yews, Thuja aurea, Finns nobihs, Nord- 
manniana, we have any quantity; and the plants, for root and 
branch, are not to be surpassed. Priced Catalogues will be for- 
warded on application, enclosing two postage stamps, to Waterer 
and Godfrey, nephews and successors of the late Hosea Waterer,. 
Knap Hill Nursery, Woking, Surrey, near the Woking Station r 
South-Western Railway, where all trains stop, and where capital 
convevances can be obtained. 

The2J. stamp Tvill also include, a descriptive Catalogue of their 
American Plants, Roses, an Nursery Stock iu general. 



1855.] 



Til E GA R DE \ ERS' CHB \ I < L E 



q UTTON'S SHOUT SEED LIST.— 
O On inn last I'iiiK of the present Number of this 

.'I'd/icr will I"' ■«'i'ii <•■ I'inii'i'v I'int i'f II"'- trading levnds of 
Seeds, which it is hoped will he found convenient to 
Gentlemen writing out their Seed order). 
Early com mands will hum: the preference of ..rum sorts. 

Button & Honh, Seed Growot'B, Heading, 
O.UTTON'S COMPLETE COLLECTIONS, 
O CARRIAGE FREE. 

rAiiTicin.Aiiii of Hid South and QuAia'miM contalnod In But- 
TON'B'CoHectlonB of Seeds will bo Hunt post ft'oo on receipt ol p 
Btamped onvolopo wlthaddroiB. 

y<v/ </i« perusal of lias List, U mil be seen thai, the wry 
lest kinds of Vegetable Heeds may he obtained in full 
quantities, and proper proportion* for one year's supply 
of a large garden for the sum of 'il.,a/nd other complete 
OoUectibns of equally choice sorts for smaller Gardens at 
"21., \l. bs., and I 6b. Tim economy of coBt It) by no moans tbo 

only advantage gal I by ordoring one of those Collections, 

AddroSB, John Sotton St Bows, Beofl OroSvoi'H, Io-iidlng. 

Ki:,\Di,i,'s complete collections ok 
KITCHEN GARDEN SEEDS are now ready 
T!icy can be had to suit various sized Gardens at the 
following prices : — 

No. 1 COLLECTION S8 

„ 2 „ V 

„ 8 „ 15 

" 1 " ... 15 

Tho qunntltlOB are fully detailed In tliolr ",PrIco Cnrront and 
Burden Directory," a new edition of whtoh Isjusl rinullBhed, 

William E. Rkndli & Cp., S t Growers, Plymouth. 

Ebtaiilibhicd 68 V igaiib. 

C1HAHLWOOD and CUMMINS linvo to otter Seeds 
) of the Ul.iu.u GIGANTEUM In paokflts of 100 s Is, al 

20»., free by post. Also AcornB of tbo following vailetlOB of 
American < tulcn : — 

Quorous alba \ 

;;,KX ::: .::»**«* *■«■ 

,, nigra ' 

One-year's Smiling Plants of oach ... per 100 ... 80. 0,1. 

Abies plnsapo per 100 Heeds 8s. Qd. 

They will also Lave in time for this Season's sowing Seed of 
the O sago Orange, at is. per lb., for which early orders are soli- 
cited. Their Catalogue of Agricultural, Garden, and Flower 
Soods are roacly. and will be Rent free oil application, 
li, Tavistock Kow, Covent Garden, 
COLE'S CRYSTAL ~WHITE, & COLE'S DWARF 
RED CELERY. 
T THORNELEY,COLE,&Co., Nurserymen, Seeds- 
" • hen, and Florists, Wltlilngton, near Manchester, beg to 
nnnounco that they are now prepared to supply these two well- 
known varieties, raised by Mr. W.Colo (late of Dartford). 
CRYSTAL WHITE, A oz. packets, free by post, for 12 stamps. 
SUPE11U DWARF RED, X oz. pktB., free by post for 9 stamps. 
Price per lb. to the Trade on application. 



€M <&Kt?$ mtx& (Btivtmitlt. 

SATURDAY, JANUARYS, 1855. 

♦ 

For some time past it has been known that the 
Council of the .Horticulturai. Society had it in 
their contemplation to introduflfe very considerable 
changes into the meetings botlv in Regent Street 
and at Chiswick. We have not, however, felt at 
liberty to introduce the subject until the plans had 
been finally settled. The Society having at length 
announced its intentions, we are now able to say 
with ceitainty what they are. 

It appears that the number of meetings in Regent 
Street is to be six only : the months of November, 
February, March, April, May, and June being 
selected, and that upon each occasion the subjects 
of exhibition are to be collected upon a scale ap- 
proaching tliat of the Garden Meetings, as far as the 
space to be found in a London house may permit. 
In connection with this plan, it is proposed that 
the objects of exhibition shall be open to inspec- 
tion for four clear hours in the months of February, 
March, and November, and for five clear hours on 
other occasions. A schedule of objects, the pro- 
duction of which the Council are ready to reward, 
is provided for each day of meeting, so as to enable 
gardeners entering into competition to be prepared 
beforehand, and also to render each meeting a horti- 
cultural illustration of the advancing season. In 
making the arrangements for these as well as for 
the Garden Meetings, the Council have received 
the active assistance of Mr. Ingram, of the Royal 
Gardens, Frogmore, of Mr. Fleming, of Trentham, 
of Mr. Si'encer, of Bowood, and of Mr. Davidson, 
of Shrubland Park, under whose advice the classes 
have been settled and the amount of prizes deter- 
mined. The co-operation of gentlemen of such 
acknowledged horticultural eminence cannot fail to 
he regarded as a guarantee that the best interests 
of the Society and the public have been consulted. 

But so far as the meetings in Regent Street are 
concerned the objects of exhibition are by iio means 
limited to those enumerated in the schedules. On 
the contrary, we are informed that the Council invite 
the exhibition of every valuable article connected 
with gardens, which may be either remarkable for 
novelty or intrinsic excellence, and that the merits 
of such objects will be recognised as far as the funds 
of the Society will allow. Among the unenume- 
rated articles which are more particularly pointed 
out are Ornamental Plants, and Useful Fruits or 
Esculents of all kinds, Models of improvements in 
Horticultural Buildings, Improved Garden Imple- 
ments, and whatever contributes to Garden Deco- 



ration. The Council will also be glad to i m o 
the production of i ampli i Id trating the opi ra 
tiori of Arboriculture, whenevci thi cnlated 

to throw lighl upon either the theory 01 prai i 
that important, brancli of rur;il <-. on i ,i [ion the 

quality of British-grown timber. 1 adde'd. 

Raw Materials from the Vegetable Kingdom a 
in ah , Manufactures, or u Pood (Agi 
produce excepted), whethei of home or colonial 
growth. Even Honey in the Comb i eluded, 
as it has hitherto I" i a. 

It must be owned that this ia a very exU 
scheme, but wo think not more so than may be 
i pected from a corporation chartered "for the 
improvement of Horticulture in all its bran 
ornamental, as well as useful." These words, which 
nre taken from the charter of incorporation, plainly 
show that in the minds of the advisen ol thei 

when llio charter wan grand I pnrpc 68 of utility 
were to be placed before thoBe of ornament; by 

now including thorn on equal ground, the : 
is working out the main objects for which it wan 
instituted. Its career opened with an 
exclusive attention to subjects of utility ; at a sub- 
sequent period ornamental gardening received the 
greatest encouragement ; of late years both have 
been combined, but wo have never before seen 
objects of utility placed by the Society in so pro- 
minent a position. Arboriculture and the Raw 
Materials of Manufactures ! how extensive a field 
of inquiry do these two subjects occupy, and of 
what great importance to mankind. 

The greatest uncertainty exists as to the real 
value of even our own wild Oaks, to say nothing of 
the effect produced upon the commercial value of 
timber by different modes of cultivation ; little 
or nothing is known of the real quality of the 
timber produced by the numerous coniferous and 
other trees introduced to cultivation during the pre- 
sent century ; and even as regards some of the 
timber trees wild in Europe, there is scarcely any 
satisfactory evidence concerning the influence pro- 
duced upon the quality of many of them by climate, 
soil, or situation. 

So with regard to textile materials, or substances 
of a similar nature. The consumption of such arti- 
cles has become so enormous that the gravest social 
questions are connected with an abundant or deficient 
supply of materials, to which, a few years since, 
small importance was attached. The supplies, for 
instance, of Hemp have become so insufficient for 
the wants of manufacturers, even in periods of poli- 
tical tranquillity, that recourse is already had to the 
importation of many other substances, and there is no 
doubt that the existing demand will hereafter be 
greatly increased. It is, therefore, a question of 
the highest public importance, whether more skilful 
cultivation may not be applied to the crops of 
textile plants already cultivated among ourselves, 
so as to augment produce without deteriorat- 
ing, if not improving quality ; whether new kinds 
of plants are not at least as suitable to our climate 
as those already grown among us ; and, most 
especially, what of the innumerable species inhabit- 
ing our foreign possessions, of which at present 
little is known to science and nothing to commerce, 
can be the most profitably introduced to notice, 
whether by cultivation in the climates that are 
natural to them, or by mere collection in the wild 
state. 

Cotton offers a still more striking instance of the 
pressing necessity of this investigation, and of 
further attempts being seriously made, not only to 
improve its quality in those British colonies which 
already produce it, hut to introduce it to others 
which have not been hitherto thought suitable to 
such a crop. Of course we do not overlook the 
extensive experiments that have been made by the 
East India Company— experiments worthy of so 
great a body ; but it is greatly to be wished that 
such attempts should not only be continued in 
India, but imitated wherever circumstances are 
favourable to the operation. 

Another class of plants consists of those which 
can be employed in the manufacture of paper. Raw 
material for this purpose is already becoming so 
scarce that even straw is largely employed in the 
absence of a more suitable substance. Neverthe- 
less, we are perhaps surrounded by plants whose 
fibre may be advantageously converted, although we 
are at present ignorant of their possessing the pro- 
perties required by the paper-maker. It is possible 
that such plants might be profitably cultivated ; it 
is still more possible that the refuse of certain 
branches of cultivation may have a market value 
now unsuspected ; and it is at least certain that our 
tropical colonies abound in the requisite substances, 
now- wild and unrecognised, but susceptible of ready 
collection or cultivation. 

Upon these grounds we feel persuaded that the 
proposals now made by the Council of the Horticul- 



eventoally enable ui to know with certainly 
what our home- Ol I 

i of ana ded 

n of intelligi I 
bibilion of result*, and a <y the 

ol medals and reward*, appi 

bject. 

If from tl Of the plan .'or ex- 

tending the importance ol tru 

• ardou 

there also madi , allhoii rand*. 

In the firsl place they ai 

instead ol Saturday*. We are, moreover, ini 

that " the coldnes* of our spring d the 

backwai I 

rendered tbi G •'■'<.• i* 

part of May, that ' 
anxious to Re 

vick ; 

and they announce officially that Her Maj 

Commissione™ for the I 1851 have 

most obligingly placed the grc I re lfou*e at 

ol the Socii I which 

the great meeting on Wedni 16, will b<: 

held in that garden instead of Chiswick. 'I hi* will, 
we imagine, be found a very satisfactory ai 
'I be ground* belonging to the Royal Commi* ,',!iem at 
Kensington Gore are very conveniently situated, 
and v-ul adapted to the proposed purpose; and it 
must be owned that to drive five mile* from 
Park Corner to see an exhibition in a garden when 
the trees are not in leaf, and all that renders such a 
place most attractive is necessarily absent, doe* 
seriously task the zeal of the admirers of Garden 
Meetings and Chiswick flower show*. Jn June and 
July the exhibitions will be held in the Garden of 
the Society as heretofore. 

We observe with pleasure that the Council have 
contradicted as follows an unfounded report, to 
which we adverted some months since : — " It has 
been confidently asserted within the last two years 
that the Society is about to abandon it* Garden. 
Such a statement is wholly without foundation. The 
Garden is held of His Grace the Duke of Devonshire 
upon a lease, which does not expire till Michaelmas, 
1881. It seems almost unnecessary to add that if it 
had been the intention of the Council to surrender 
the Garden, the Fellows of the Society would have 
been immediately acquainted with the fact, and not 
left to derive their information from common 
rumour." 

Such is the substance of the announcement that 
has just been made. To borrow once more the 
words of the Council :— " The Society has now 
existed as a corporate body for forty-five years, 
during which period it has constantly promoted the 
interests of Horticulture to the utmost extent of the 
means at its disposal. A very large proportion of 
the finest exotic plants and fruits now common in 
our Gardens has been introduced by its collectors. 
A distinguished naturalist (M. Botteri; is at this 
time engaged in exploring the rich vegetation of 
Orizaba, and his contributions, which have already 
begun to arrive in England, will speedily be in course 
of distribution." We therefore trust that, even 
amidst the din of arms, this great national institution 
will be so supported that it may continue to remain 
what it has hitherto been, the most distinguished 
association of its class. 

There is a letter in our pages ti-day. 
T. R., on the cost of digging at Lois-Weedon ; and 
we have inserted it, — not because we regard the 
writer's objection as sound or his practice either 
good, or like that of Lois-Weedon, but simply as a 
vehicle for a few words of explanation on a point 
which is generally useful to the cultivator of the soiL 

The writer states his practice to be to dig hi • 
land two spits deep. He does not state the depth, 
of his staple ; but, taking it at the outset to be 
6 inches, and each spit to be 10 inch - - 

20 inches deep at once, bringing np 14 inches of the 
raw clay subsoil, which will take years and years to 
become pulverised and mellow, and fully prod 
and for this comparatively unproductive operation 
he has to pay the heavy penalty : ' - ™e- 

Le: him mark the difference of the prac: 
Lois-Weedon, and he will no longer wonder at the 
difference in the cost. The rule laid down in the 
" Word in Season to the Farmer " is " to bring uj 
only 4 or 5 or 6 inches of the subsoil, accord 
i;s nature, whether tenacious or loamy or light. To 
bring np more at the outset would I - A and 

is expense" (p. 53, 13th ed.). And the 
reason for that rule, with reference to heavy land 
especiallv. is that it may have time during the 
vears fallow to become mellow and productive for 
the succeeding crop ; that its mineral elements of 
fertility may become gradually soluble : and that its 



4 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 6, 



texture may be changed from cohesive clay into 
friable mould. 

To follow this rule, then, in the case of a ploughed 
staple of b" inches, only 4 inches of heavy subsoil are 
to he raised at the outset, and the depth altogether, 
either at two shallow spits of 5 inches each, or at 
one full spit, will then he 10 inches. The cost, 
then, at the outset, of digging this one spit will be 
about 60*. the whole acre, or about 30s. the half 
acre — a price which, of course, will vary a few 
shillings under special circumstances in the condition 
of the soil, and according to the employer's know- 
ledge of the value of labour. 

At the next digging another inch of subsoil is to 
be raised, and as the first 10 inches will now be 
pulverised by constant stirring and exposure, this 
second easier digging can be accomplished without 
raising the price ; and so on, year after year, till a 
well pulverised depth of two full spits be attained, 
" beyond which it is neither needful nor convenient 
to go." 

There are other objections to Mr. Smith's scheme 
of cultivation, resulting in failure; and, we really 
think we cannot do better ' than lay before our 
readers what Mr. Smith himself says, in the preface 
to the new edition of his pamphlet, in a few words 
to those who have tried the plan and succeeded : — 

" I have still a word for those who have tried the 
plan, and not succeeded ; and in repeating what I have 
said in the former edition, I again bespeak the indulgence 
of those whom it may concern, wherever they may be. 
I reiterate, then, my declaration, which I make with 
great deference but with the utmost sincerity, that 
I never Inao an unsuccessful case where I hare known 
the plan to have been strictly carried out. Is it not 
possible then, 
that the ob- 
scure direc- 
tions have 
been misun- 
derstood, in 
some cases, 
in others 
unknowingly 
overlooked ? 
Let me be 
forgiven if I 
presume to 
think it possi- 
ble, and with 
that impres- 
sion repro- 
duce them in 

another form, and place them 
in a stronger light, clear, dis- 
tinct, aud tangible, — the form 
of question and answer ; and 
let the unsuccessful experi- 
menter look each question 
boldly in the face, and reply to 
it himself. Any annoyance, 
any distasteful recurrence to 
catechism, rather than stumble 
on in error. 

" To begin with the material 
on which you work, put it to 
yourself : — 

,: 1 . 'Is it Wheat land I am 
cultivating, — clay or loam ? If 
not, have I manured it ? Be- 
fore commencing, did I drain, 
clean, and level ? 

" 2. ' In sowing, did I drop or drill my 
well-selected seed, early; and give it a solid 
bed. 

" 3. ' In digging the intervals, did I bring 
up only so mucb of the subsoil as could be 
thoroughly pulverised and mellowed for the 
succeeding crop ; of clay only a few inches, 
of any subsoil just so much as would lose its 
rawness during the twelve-months' fallow ? 

" 4. ' In cleaning the rows of Wheat and 
the spaces between them, did I hand-pick 
and hand-hoe the weeds, and keep the sur- 
face open. 

"5. 'In scarifying the intervals, did I, besides cutting 
up aud removing the hungry weeds, so time the opera- 
tions of cleaning and stirring, that I fed the Wheat plant 
as it required it V 

" In the latter question is a high refinement in farming 
which has been left in the directions to the judgment of 
the operator. The intelligent farmer is fully aware that 
early in spring a well-timed application of guano or 
nitrate of soda is of infinite service to the poverty- 
stricken plant. Now, a judicious stirring of the inter- 
vals, under similar circumstances, is equal in its good 
effects to a top-dressing of either ; just as an ill-timed 
and injudicious application of the horse-hoe is equal in 
its ill effects to a top-dressing of guano or the nitrate 
given without discretion ; and the result of that is now 
well known, in late tillering, over-luxuriance, and 
mildew. 

" There are many other questions to be responded to, 
but these may he considered the leading ones. One and 
all must be satisfied in order to full and entire success ; 
most of them being indispensable to any success at all. 



And if, as judge, accuser, aud fc defendant in one, a man 
confess himself unable to reply to them affirmatively, he 
stands convicted out of his own mouth, and I leave him 
to the sentence of his own honest judgment." 



New Plants. 

108. Catasetum ixcuhviim, Klotzsch, in Allg. Gartcn- 

zciti'.iH/, June 17, 1854. 
The singular plant now figured was obligingly sent us 
last summer by the Lord Bishop of Winchester, who 
had purchased it at one of Warczewitz's sales, under 
the name of C. secundum. The flowers are repre- 
sented by our artist of the natural size, so that they are 
probably the largest yet discovered among the race of 
Orchids. Of a dull green, streaked and stained with 
• purple, the great blossoms resembled nothing so much 
as some portentous Arachnid seizing upou the shaggy 
ear of an unhappy animal, and turning it inside 
out in the struggle to grasp it, till a pair of horns 
with which the Arachnid seemed furnished could be 
plunged into the ear, in order to hold it fast. It is 
most like C. saccatum, and, we presume, is what has 
been called C. incunum by Dr. Klotzsch. Whether it 
is a monster, as it well may be, or merely a gigantic 
form of C. saccatum itself, we are unable to say. No 
one, indeed, in the present state of knowledge can 
pretend to form a positive opinion as to what are 




measures may correct the existent evil, aud the affected 
organism may return to its normal slate of health and 
perfection. It is, therefore, strictly speaking, improper 
to distinguish functional from organic disease. Our 
powers of investigation may not be sufficient to detect 
the organic change in what is called functional disease, 
which may notwithstanding be more or less serious. Ic 
is to be understood, then, that in speaking of functional 
disease, it is not asserted that no organic change has 
taken place, but only such a degree of disarrangement as 
is not perceptible to ordinary powers of observation. 

237. Functional disease is seldom so- formidable as 
organic. From the very nature of the case, if death 
takes place, there must be some organic lesion, and the 
disease then ceases to be functional. Functional disease 
may, however, so depress the vital powers as to render 
the organism which is subject to it more exposed to the 
baneful influence of any accident, or as to induce serious 
organic disease, in consequence of defective elaboration 
of the sap, inactive generation of cells, insufficient 
deposit of nutriment, premature thickening of the cell 
walls, or by exposing the various matters which enter 
into their composition, or into that of the solid and fluid 
substances which they inclose, to the ordinary rules of 
chemical decomposition, and consequently to ultimate 
deorganisation of the constituent parts of the plant. The 
functional malady has in fact induced organic change, 

238. However true it may be that vital force is only 
a name for a certain set of phenomena, so long as the 
cause of those phenomena is unknown, there is no 
serious objection to the term, provided we retain a 
proper consciousness of our ignorance. In functional 
disease this vital force may either be excited to such 
an extent as to produce unnatural development of dif- 
ferent parts, to exhaust the powers by over excitement, 
or by the production of insubstantial cellular tissue 

which is not at all adapted for the maintenance of 
its proper functions, or to resist external in- 
fluences which under other conditions might 
be harmless ; it may, on the contrary, be 
depressed so as to prevent the completion of 
certain processes, as the formation of the floral 
envelopes or the proper impregnation of the 
ovules when formed ; or, again, it may be so 
deranged as to induce abnormal conditions of the 
contained fluids, or the walls by which they are 
inclosed. These various conditions again may 
be so combined or modified as to afford the cul- 
tivator many useful objects of cultivation, often 
in consequence of their inducing organic change, 
insomuch that the promotion or sustenance of the 
peculiar functional derangement is the point to- 
which his skill is principally directed. While 
on the one band, for instance, sterility is the 
most injurious functional derangement which 
can occur, as in those trees which are cultivated 
simply on account of their fruit, there are others 
where the grand object is to encourage it as 
much as possible, or to defer the formation of 
fruit to the most remote period. A variety of 
Turnip or Cabbage, for instance, which has a 
tendency to run to seed, is perfectly useless for 
the objects of the cultivator, as fertility can 
only take place at the expense of the unnatural 
development of the cellular tissue of the root. 
The functional peculiarity, whatever it may be, 
which in the particular variety induces an 
organic hypertrophy, may at the same time 
induce a second functional derangement by 
which the formation of the organs of repro- 
duction is retarded ; and other eases might be 
induced where it is either altogether prevented 
or where the formation of perfect seed is a com- . 
paratively rare occurrence. 
_ 239. Tlte true bearing of the terms func- 
tional aud organic being thus explained, and 
their intimate connection with each other, I 
shall proceed to the consideration of specific 
diseases, keeping the distinctions above stated 
as strictly in view as it is possible, where they 
are so apt to elude the nicest appreciation. M. J.B. 



natural, what monstrous, what permanent, what 
accidental states of the genus Catasetum. The best 
service that can in the meanwhile be rendered to science 
is to publish figures of ther flowers of as many forms, 
Iarvee, species, or whatever else they may prove to be 
as appear to be different from each other. Eventually 
we shall no doubt learn how to interpret them. As 
regards the name of O. secundum, the drawing and dried 
specimens to which that name was provisionally given, 
although simUar in form, were so very different in 
many respects, especially in size, that we can scarcely 
believe this plant to be what was intended. In fact, the 
name was suggested by the numerous flowers growing 
in a long secuud or one-sided raceme. 



VEGETABLE PATHOLOGY.— No. LIII. 
236. Classification op Disease. — a, Internal or 
Constitutional. — Functional. It is probable that no 
constitutional disorder of the system can exist without 
concurrent organic change. Tliis change may be only 
temporary. New circumstances or proper remedial 



PEAR GROWING. 
The observations of "H. S. H." in the 
Chronicle, pp. 806, 807, 1854, prove that their 
author is an attentive cultivator. He has the 
rare good fortune to possess Peartrees which have 
attained the age of three-quarters of a century. He- 
wishes to leave his trees as they are, aud he is per- 
fectly right. I would never induce any one to fell, or 
to mutilate large fruit trees, even if they only yielded 
fruits fit for kitchen use. It requires too much time 
and trouble to rear them. Pear trees of that advanced 
age must have retained all the vigour of youth, and 
by proper treatment may be preserved a long time in 
this state, and yield every year full crops. The care 
which this description of tree requires is not expen- fl 
sive, and in an ordinary year will not exceed the oue-S 
fifteenth or one-twentieth of the produce. ' 

It is only necessary to bring the trees under a good 
system of pruning, to remove carefully all insects, toll 
supply manure every year in order to repair the ex- 
haustion resulting from very heavy crops. Let us 
suppose that the trees have been grown from their youth 
without pruning, that the main stem divides at a certain 
height above the ground, and that the upper branches 
have taken the directions natural to the varieties cul- 
tivated by " H. S. H." It is even possible that among' 
them there may be some which, haye preserved an up- 



'1855."' 



T II B G A I! !) E N ER8' Cll RON [CL 



right stem. Tlio pruning applicable to tlic-Ho consists 
in removing, every year, llio over-luxuriant Bhoots 
which spring up in tho interior of the tree, and also 
tho branches which cross and main; confusion! Tin; 
secondary ami lateral branphes should bp kept in a 
horizontal direction, or made to form a wide angle witli 
tlio vertical stem, or with the larger branches. 

If tho pruncr observe branches that, are too near caoh 
other ho must thin them out, in oi'dor that the air may 

eirculatc freely, and that tlio solar rays may have access 
to produce their beneficial influence on the organs of 
fructification. If ho see that these organs are too 
numerous, he must cut oil' part, especially spurs that 
aro clustered, weak, and exhausted from long and 
abundant bearing. Judicious pruning will invigorate 
these large trees, and retard the period of their 
decrepitude. It ought to be borne in mind that the 
finest ami best flavoured fruits are borne on young spurs 
from vigorous branehen, or on tho upper part of the 
vortical stem, lu cutting off weak and bad placed 
branches, the cutis not made level with the bark of tho 
stem or branch loft, but, only to the basement of tho 
branch cut off [to those projecting rings which may bo 
observed at the bases of lateral branches]. These 
wounds heal much better if they are immediately 
covered over with a mixture of clay ami cow-dung. 
Uruisod and cankered portions and excrescences should 
be cut to tho quick, arid then covered with tho above 
composition. These operations should bo performed 
according to tho nature of the soil and the vigour of the 
treo — before the winter solstice in a dry soil ; and, alter 
the severe frosts are over, in February, where tho soil is 
strong and rather moist. 

Immediately after tho trees aro primed they should be 
cleanod from those insects with which they are usually in- 
fested, ami more especially old trees. Iudeed, tho older 
tho tree the greater is tho number of insects by which it 
is attacked. The withered leaves, rolled or stuck on the 
branches, twigs, or spurs, harbour myriads of insects. 
The wrinkles between tho fruit buds or in the axils of 
tho ramifications, the small grey rings which surround 
the fruit-buds, and tho larger ones of a bright brown 
colour which surrouud the last year's shoots, the nests 
of every kind which may be observed in the crevices of 
tho old bark of aged trees, contain legions of insects 
known to the entomologist. All lliese receptacles ought 
to be carefully removed. The old bark should be 
.scraped oil' smooth from the trunk, and the latter done 
over, from top to bottom, with a composition of clay, 
cow-dung, and about one-third of wood ashes. A first 
cleaning, carefully performed, will preserve the tree, and 
the labour in following years will be of less importance. 
If, on the contrary, the cleaning is omitted, all sorts 
of insects will be hatched at the first flow of sap : some 
perforate the corolla and devour the ovary of the young 
fruit ; others attack the fruit already set, and destroy 
it ; others cut the shoots, and devour the leaves, 
destroying the verdure of tho Wee, the vegetation of 
which thus receives a mortal strCTfe in the midst of its 
spring or early summer development. When we see 
the fruit drop successively in May, though scarcely set, 
we must not attribute it solely to the severity of the 
climate. There aro other causes. Has the tree suf- 
ficient nourishment in the situation in which it is placed I 
Have there not been left upon it too- many fruit spurs, 
producing a superabundance of flowers, teuding to 
weaken the productive powers * In this weak ttate, is 
it not possible that insects, if not previously removed, 
will complete their work of destruction ? Induce good 
vigour in the tree by pruning and thinning the braucbes ; 
keep it clear from insects, and give it as sufficient 
nourishment as we would to other productions of the 
soil : in these things consists the great secret of the 
culture of full-grown Pear trees. 

What is the kind of manure that a full-grown Pear 
tree requires as nourishment and as a stimulant ? 

I shall confine myself to the practical consideration 
of this question. The Pear tree, when planted in a 
kitchen garden, finds, by means of its fibrils, the 
nutritive substances which it requires. For strong 
soils, the preference is given to horse-dung mixed with 
rotten straw. For light soils, on the contrary, cow-dung 
is given. By the use of horse-dung in strong moist 
soils the ground is rendered warmer and mare porous. 
On the other hand, the excessive heat of light soi's is 
moderated by cow-dung. It is in these decomposed 
manures that the spongioles of the roots find the 
nourishment indispensable for the production of 
fruit. Nightsoil, cow-dung, or other manures in a 
liquid state likewise produce stimulating effects 
upon the vegetation of the tree and its products. 
It' is also to be remarked that the Pear tree 
planted in a kitchen garden always yields fruit, 
and continues to be tolerably vigorous, provided that 
the spade in the hands of an ignorant workman does not 
destroy the upper roots of the trees, and thus neutralise 
the benefits that otherwise would result from the manure. 
If the trees are in an orchard where domestic animals 
are allowed to graze, the same nourishment as in the 
case of the kitchen garden must be given, otherwise the 
trees will become barren ; or if they, by chance, bear 
some fruit, it will be small and without flavour. The 
turf should be removed round the tree to the distance 
of 2 feet, iu order that the air and the sun's rays may 
produce their beneficial e fleets upon the roots near the 
surface. Throughout the winter these should be covered 
with leaf-mould and various manures suitable to the 
nature of the soil. At the end of autumn the turf 
of an orchard should have a top dressing of ashes, lime, 
rotten horse dung,'cow dung, or sheep's dung, according 



to the nature ol tlio Boll. I his gi Dl , .•: 

should be repeated every two years, and in 
quantity ns the soil may require. An orchard 
kept Cor fruit troes only n quires stimulating manure 
every year, to the fun'. not oi .;j to 3 buslu i'" 
50 square feot. .Stimulating manure in a liqul I 
given in the first fortnight in Muni,, will contribute 
greatly lownnlM starting the trees into a good stati ol 
vegetation, and will promote Iho sotting of the fruit, 
as] ocially d the trees nave been well thinned and cleaned 
from insects. 

it in needless to add that Ihe varieties of Pears plant I 

in an orchard ought to be of a hardy vigorous nature, if 
wo wish to obtain satisfactory result*. They ought to 
be selected from umongHt those varieties that are adapted 
for orchard culture. This important point di erves to 
ho treated of in a special article. J. </■ JongllC, Bi • , 
/Jo:. 'JO, IBM. 

I'OhOI.OIillJM 

TlIESE, when well-managed, are very band IOIUi 
plants, and well worth a place* in even -< |i el colleotioni 
lu procuring young plants of any of them from the 
nursery beginners Bhould be very careful to obtain such 
as are stocky, healthy, and not under or Over-potted ; 
for any of the Podblobiums will be found to be some- 
what difficult subjects if they aro ever allowed to get 
into a bad state of health, and of course they should no'. 
bo purchased in that stato. If they are obtained at the 
present season they will merely require a careful i upply 
of water and a rather airy situation in the greenhouse 
during winter. Early in March place the young plants 
in tho closest part of the house near the glass, and have 
soil &C. in readiness to give a shift as soon as it may be 
necessary; but defer this until the pots are moderately 
filled with healthy active ro its. After potting water 
cautiously, keeping the atmosphere rather close and 
moist, and sprinkling tho plants lightly over-head on the 
afternoons of fine days, in order to encourage the roots 
to strike into the fresh soil. When fairly established 
after shifting, a more liberal supply of water will be 
necessary, but this must still be administered with care, 
and air should be freely admitted on fine days,butavoid 
cold drying currents. Plants that have several shoots 
should have these tied out directly after potting, keeping 
them thin and the points rather low, in order to induce 
the back buds to push forward, and those that are at all 
inclined to be straggling should he stopped as soon as the 
roots are supposed to have got hold of the fresh soil. 

As the weather becomes warmer in spring give air 
more freely, and do not through impatience subject tire 
plants to an artificially warm temperature ; for few of 
our greenhouse hard-wooded plants bear anything like 
forcing, and the Podolobiums are perhaps more impatient 
of such treatment than most others. About the beginning 
of May the young plants may be removed to a cold 
frame, which will be the best possible situation for them 
during summer. If cold stormy weather occurs after 
the plants are removed hither, cover Ihe glass at night, 
and regulate the admission of air during the day so as 
to prevent their sustaining any check. In fine weather 
too much air can hardly he given, and a thin shade 
should be thrown over the glass on the forenoons of 
bright days ; also keep the atmosphere moist by fre- 
quently sprinkling the floor of the pit, and the plants 
should be lightly syringed every fine afternoon, shutting 
them up before the sun is quite off the glass, so as to 
give them a good steaming for the evening, but air 
should be given before night. Healthy vigorous plants 
will probably want a second shift by Midsummer, and it 
will be safer for beginners to give two small shifts in the 
course of the season than to give a large shift in spring ; 
the second shift should be given as soon as it may be 
wanted, in order that the plants may get moderately 
well rooted into it before wiuter. Attend to the stop- 
ping of any over-luxm'iaut shoot and to keeping the 
shoots nicely tied out, and aim at securing well-placed, 
useful growth, and not such as will require to he largely 
cut away next spring. Discontinue shading and sprin- 
kling over head as soon as the weather becomes cool in 
autumn, and give the plants the benefit of the night 
dews, placing the lights when the weather is at all doubt- 
ful so that they will throw off heavy rains. Remove 
the plants to a light airy situation in the greenhouse 
before there is any danger of their suffering from damp 
or cold ; and during winter give them a careful supply 
of water at the root, and turn them partly round at 
least every fortnight. Also examine the under side of 
the foliage occasionally for red spider ; aud if there are 
any indications of the presence of this enemy, lay the 
afl'ected plant oil its side on a clean mat, giving the 
foliage a good washing with the syringe, and let this be 
repeated as often as may be necessary to thoroughly 
eradicate this pest. In spring the plants should be 
removed to the warmest part of the house, and moist- 
ened with the syringe on fine afternoons, to en- 
courage them to start into growth. See to stopping 
or cutting back the shoots as may be wanted, re- 
moving the flowers as they make their appearance, 
and treat them during the summer as recommended 
for last season. After a second season's growth, if 
all goes on well, they should be nice-sized little speci- 
mens ; and if they are considered large enough to be 
worth attention for flowering, let tliem occupy a cool 
part of the greenhouse until after flowering, when the 
shoots should receive whatever pruning or training may 
be necessary, keeping the plants rather moist until they 
start into growth, when they should be repotted, treating 
them during the remainder of the growing season as 
nearly as on former years as circumstances will admi f . 



i i • them In a cool i ■ '<!.ou>*- 

when they become loo l"i II well 

which, with careful treatment, will laal for ■ 
prepared for the • 

'jg plant! to L lie 

careful to keep theui peril ctly free from red spider, ami 

: die soil in pi pi '■• OS to Dioistatt, giving 

■ 11 it in absolutely necessary, :.- I 

■ 

bi " i d small and libei 

■and, ' ome unall 

coal. In pol ling use pf< 

o soil in a i 
moisture,! 

I the water , r 

a plant until It actually requires more pot room, nor 
when lit i . a healthy 



I.I: PI 
(Tcrcnt kinds of Annuals we bare now i 
many iu cultivation, and yet their number i'. y<mrly 

i tod, many ol thi m 

showy plants which adorn our fiow-r gardens, whilst 
othi i i an Invel table for the i 
houses, &c. My object iii furnish 

not in'.r' ly t" . eh »re 

bo well no mi. I 

pulchclla, and the common Cai it to make a 

few common-place remarks on some of thi 
kinds, or, if not rare, Mich as are seldom seen En ealliva- 

ii m ' much as tl to be ; while atti i 

time any seedsman may supply neatly the whole <.'. 
them for a very trifling sum. 

Barlonia aurca. — A showy Californian plant, with 
rather a stra ' large 

bright yellow Bowers, and numerous long 
grows from 10 inches to '-' feet in height, and is veil 
adapted for patches on borders. 

Bahia lalifolia. — This is a strong-growing Cai 
plant, which branches very much, and rises about 2 ft 
in height. Its flowers are star-shaped, of a pale yellow, 
and ore produced in abundance. It is well adapted for 
patches. 

Cacalia scmrMifolia. — This is a very beautiful Ea't 
Indian plant, of erect habit ; it out a foot in 

height, and bears flowers of a golden ur. It 

is a most desirable plant for patches or beds, and 
requires to be sown thickly. 

Calandr'mia umldlata is a very dwarf plant, which 
throws up numerous scapes of blossoms, about 6 inches 
in height. Its flowers are of a rich glossy red colour. 
It is a charming little plant, either for rod 
patches, small beds, or pots; it requires to be sown in 
pots early in spring, as it does no: bear trans plun ting 
well. It is a native of Chili. 

Calandrinio discolor. — This is also a dwarf Chilian 
plant, with thick fleshy leaves. It throws up its 
racemes of flowers about 12 inches in 
flowers being of a rich rose colour. It is well adapted 
either for patches or beds, and requires the sa-X'. - 
ment as C. umhellata. 

Calceolaria clulidonioidcs. — This can be had in flower 
in any season of the year ; it grows about 18 inches in 
height, and produces abondar.ee of pale yellow blossom/, 
which are, however, of short duration. It is a desirable 
plaut for filling up vacant spaces, as it comes into flower 
so soon. It was introduced through I. Ai;der;or : 
of Edinburgh. 

Campanula (Specularia) rincajiora is a pretty plant 
"when grown in masses ; it rises about 12 inches in 
height. The flowers, though rather small, are of a 
deep blue colour, with a white throat, and are produced 
abundantly. It is a native of New Holland, and is 
altogether a good thing. 

Campanula (Specularia) pcrtiagonia. — This mcch 
resembles the former in habit, but has larger flowers, of 
rather a paler colour. It is a native of the Levant. 
There is a variety with white flowers called C. penta- 
gona alba. 

Ccnia turbinaia. — This is a Camomile-like 
plant, which flowers mest profusely. The flowers are 
of a white colour, and rise about 6 or 8 inches in 
height. It is well adapted for borders or beds, or it 
would even make nice edgings. C. turbinata formosa is 
a variety with yellow flowers. 

CliMonia pvlcheUa is a delightful little arnnsl, which 
is not so much cultivated as it should be. It is 
adapted for pots, patches, or beds, and is best sown 
where a gentle heat can be afforded it. It is a native of 
N. W. America. 

. — Ti.'s I? a showy plar- 
star-shaped pale yellow flowers, with a purple centre. 
It grow-s from 13 inches to 2 f*et huh, w-.th thin wiry 
stems, and is of a straggling habil s a mcrt 

beautiful bed, or it may be sown in patches, 
native of Mexico. 

Dianthiis Gardncri is a neat Pink, which thr:' 
its flowers about a foot high. 1 re of a deep 

red colour, with a fringed e^e. It is well worth crow- 
ing in pots, and forms a beautiful bed through the 
summer. It comes from the south of Europe. 

- . - - 
which grows alcut a fcor in hei_h:. ai ". has "lowers 
much resembling those of Clarkia Tuickell3, though 
darker ; it is a most profuse bloomer, and is 
adapted for 1 i . r . _ .- . := i- 

>sa native .: Xorth America, 



6 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 6, 



Eucnidc Bartonioides is a very showy South American 
plant, with large flowers of a bright yellow colour. It 
grows about a foot high, and is of rather a straggling 
habit. It is a tender plant, and only suitable for pots. 

Eutoca viscida. — This is one of the best of annuals. 
Its flowers are of a deep blue, and are produced in 
great abundance ; it grows about a foot high. It makes 
a pretty bed, or good specimens of it may be grown in 
pots. It is a native of California. 

Gaillardia picta.— This is a splendid thing, with star- 
shaped flowers of a purple colour, with a yellow edge ; 
it grows about a foot in height, with slender stems. A 
good plant either for beds or patches. It is a native of 
Louisiana. 

Gilia achUUafolia is a neat Califomian plant, of erect 
habit, and when sown thickly makes a most beautiful 
bed. Its foliage is of a dark grass-green, and its 
flowers of a dark purple and blue colour ; it grows 
about 15 inches high. It is a stronger growing plant 
than G. tricolor. 

Gfnaphalium (Hclichrysum') bracteatum. — The old 
Everlasting. This, although a very old New Holland 
plant, is not seen in cultivation so much as it deserves 
to be. Its large yellow flowers render it a very con- 
spicuous object. It grows about 3 ft. hign. There are 
also white varieties of it. It is best grown in patches 
on borders. 

Qodctia Schami.—Ol all the Godetias this one is the 
best. It grows about 15 inches in height, and produces 
an abundance of large pale rose-coloured flowers, stained 
with a bright red blotch in the centre of each petal. It 
is altogether a very desirable plant, well adapted for 
beds. It is a native of California. 

Hdiophila irijida is an interesting little plant, either 
for green-house decoration in spring, or open borders in 
summer. It grows about 9 inches high, and produces 
abundance of small blue and white flowers. It is a 
native of the Cape of Good Hope. 

Hibiscus africanus. — This is a profuse blooming plant, 
which well deserves cultivation. Its flowers are dull 
white, stained with purple ; it grows about 18 inches 
high. It makes a pretty bed, and is also a good thing 
for borders, keeping in bloom throughout the summer. 
It i3 a native of Africa. 

Ipomcea Burridgi. — This plant resembles the com- 
mon Convolvulus major, of which it is a variety. It is 
a profuse bloomer, with rosy-pink flowers, melting into 
white in the centre. It is well adapted for covering 
trellis-work. /. H. Bechnan. 

[To be concluded next v>eeh) 



Home Correspondence. 

The Lois-Weedon Cultivation. — I have always been 
interested in the perusal of Mr. Smith's pamphlet, but 
one stubborn fact has invariably met me, viz., the cost 
of the double digging, and I may also add that of the 
single or common digging or forking. I am a nursery- 
man, and have many acres of land with a stiff clay as 
subsoil under cultivation with the spade; this is a fine 
Wheat soil, and has often given from 5 to 7 quarters 
per acre of Wheat when under the plough. Now this 
land when first broken up, and indeed, always, costs is. 
per rod to double dig, i.e., to dig two spits deep, and 
bring the bottom spit to the top; this of course is 81. per 
acre. Now if I understand it correctly, I read in your 
columns last week that the double digging of the spaces 
between the crop on an acre amouuting to half an acre 
of land, costs only 11. 10s., or 4^d. per rod. Again, the 
single digging of the same quantity of land, costs 10s., 
or lid. per rod. Every year I have many acres of 
land double dug; the stiff clayey land costs invariably Is. 
per rod, or 4/. the half acre, and when the subsoil is 
broken up for the first time, often Is. Id. or Is. 3d. per 
rod, and a tender loamy clay without stones that has 
been nearly a century under spade cultivation costs I0d. 
per rod ; this is the lowest price I have ever given, and 
the labourers require being looked after very sharply to 
make them do it thoroughly and well. I have lately em- 
ployed Parkes's forks, which have made the work less 
laborious, but have not decreased the expense, as their 
wear and tear is most rapid when employed for double 
digging. For single diggiDgor forking my price is, for 
stiff badly working soils 3d. per rod, or It the half acre; 
for friable free-working soils, 2Jd. per rod. Now this 
great difference in the cost of labour in counties so near 
to each other as Hertfordshire and Northamptonshire is 
of vast importance to the carrying out the Lois-Weedon 
system. I am inclined to think that there must be some 
error in the Lois-Weedon prices. Perhaps some 
Northamptonshire friend can throw a little light on the 
subject. T. JR., Herts. 

Pears on Quince Stocks in Mississippi. — The following 
extracts from the proceedings of the American Pomo- 
iogical Society just published, are of interest as showing 
the effects of a warm climate and rich soil on Pears. 
The soil near Natchez, in which the tree3 alluded to 
below grow, is a rich black vegetable mould 18 inches 
in depth, resting upon a stratum of hard clay, under- 
laying which is a yellow loam filled with fresh-water 
shells. Climate : winters generally mild and open ; 
snow seldom falls ; the thermometer has been known to 
fall to 14°, but this is very unusual ; the temperature 
during the months of Hay, June, July, August, and 
September is almost torrid, the thermometer rarely 
falling under 30°, and often rising to 90" and 95". The 
latest kinds of Pears ripen early in the autumn. 
Williams' Bon Chretien, on the Quince, fruit large, many 
weighing fully 1 lb.; in eating during all July and August ; 
requires gathering before ripe and ripened in fruit cellar. 



Duchesse d'Angouleme : trees on Quince stocks, six 
years old from the bud ; 20 feet and more in height ; 
stems 6 to 8 inches in diameter ; fruit large, many li lb.; 
flesh buttery, and very juicy ; in eating all July and 
August. Beurre Diel : on Quince stocks ; trees seven 
years old, large and vigorous, bearing heavy crops ; 
after thinning this season, 150 specimens were left on 
each tree, weighing from 1 to li lb. each ; they ripened 
finely in the cellar ; in eating all July and August ; 
quality first-rate. Winter Nelis : on Quince ; fruit 
large ; flesh buttery and very melting, abounding in 
rich aromatic juice ; in eating October and November ; 
quality quite first-rate. Chaumontel : fruit very large, 
weighing 1 lb., ripe in October and November ; flesh 
buttery, sugary, and melting, with a slight perfume. 
Glou Morceau : on Quince ; trees ten years old, large, 
and growing very vigorously ; fruit large ; flesh buttery 
and exceedingly sugary ; ripe in October. Marie 
Louise : fruit large ; flesh very sugary, having also a 
high vinous flavour ; ripe in August. T. U. 

Zcphyranthes. — Am I correct in supposing that what 
they now call Z. Candida is that which we used to 
call Tubispatha ? I should also bo glad to know 
whether the other species (such as Rosea, Atamasco, 
Carinata, and Grandiflora,) are as hardy as that one 
which flowers in my border without being near any 
flue. A. H. — [The learned author of Amaryllidacese 
considered Z. Candida to be separable from tubispatha, 
almost as a genus, which he called Argyropsis. The 
other species are always regarded as greenhouse plants, 
unless in very mild climates.] 

Tlie Golden Gourd in its present coat of rich green 
and gold makes a pretty substitute for flowers in hang- 
ing pots in verandahs and 
other dry places, where they 
last a long time, and become 
arieh orange colour. Somerset. 
Gynerium argmteum. — I 
have been rather appealed 
to in reference to this plant ; 
but I can add little to what 
has been already said about 
it. Its head-quarters are un- 
doubtedly in La Plata ; it is 
found abundant near Cor- 
rientes, on the Parana, as 
stated by " A. W.," of Liver- 
pool ; it is also abundant 
at Conception, and on the 
river Salado, and may extend to Buenos Ayres, 
but I did not see it at the latter place. " A. W." has 
confounded G. argenteum with G. saccharoides when 
he states that it is found at Sanguexuga and San Paulo, 
in Brazil ; the latter is found there very abundantly, 
and I think is far the more ornamental of the two — the 
panicles being longer and thicker, the stems stronger, 
and the leaves nearly twice the width. My friend D. 
Moore, Esq., of Glasnevin, states that the two plants 
which he raised were both females, and that there cannot 
be any male plants in the country. I have enclosed you 
a spikelet from the St. Vulcen's plant, and one which I 
received yesterday from Kew ; the latter is evidently a 
male, the anthers being very distinct ; I am not aware 
where the Kew plant came from. Yon will perceive 
a great difference in the colours of the spikelets, but 
this may be owing to the weather. K. S., Woodlands, 
near Dublin. [The plant from Kew is no doubt a male, 
that from St. Vulcen's is a female, as is the plant in the 
garden of the Horticultural Society. The differences 
you remark are sexual. It was too late to use the male 
Kew plant when it was ascertained that it was a male.] 

Rain and Temperature during 1854, at Castle Hill, 
Devon : — 






Quantity 
of Rain. 


Greatest 
quantity 
during 
24 hours. 


Highest 
tempera- 
ture 
during the 

month. 


.Lowest 
tempera- 
ture 
during the 
month. 




3.86 
2.37 
0.99 
0.29 
3.52 
3.21 
3.74 
1.69 
1.82 
5.87 
3.38 
5.70 


Date. 
29 

5 
10 
29 

3 
12 
31 
14 
14 

9 
29 
18 


0.48 
0.99 
031 

0.10 
0.34 
0.72 
0.76 
0.61 
0.62 
1.04 
1.74 
n.7:! 


Date. 
20 
21 
31 

8 
17 
25 
25 
2S 

4 

1 

1 
14 


50 
52 
65 
75 
74 
80 
85 
90 
85 
75 
57 
50 


Date. 

6 
10 

1 
25 

4 

7 
20 
IS 
22 
27 
27 
11 


17 




20 




19 




SO 


May 


29 




34 


Julv 


40 




4? 




..,-, 




4 




IS 




19 






Quantity dur- ) 
ing the year ( 


36.44 





A. Saul. 

Grafted Rhododendrons. — My remarks on grafted 
Rhododendrons (seep. 821,1854) assumed considerable 
leDgth, because I was called upon to explain the 
principles on which my objection to them was founded; 
and this led me away from the practical part of the 
subject. I would now offer a few further remarks on 
the practical objection to such plants, which holds good 
alike in small and in large gardens, and is altogether 
independent of the question whether the finer varieties 
are dwarfed by grafting or not. These remarks apply 
equally, if not with greater force, to Azaleas, which it 
is now also the fashion to graft, as to Rhododendrons 
proper. I do not of course speak of greenhouse 
Azaleas, to which grafting is in many cases specially 
applicable, but of the common shrubby species. All 
these plants, both Rhododendrons and Azaleas, ore 
thorough shrubs, continually throwing up sucker-like 
shoots from the root stock wherever light has access to 



it ; and the character and beauty of the plant consist 
in this its natural growth. Now a grafted plant is pre 
eluded from exhibiting this habit ; nor is this all, the 
stock possesses and retains it, and the utmost vigilance 
will scarcely prevent such shoots pushing up from the 
stock and starving the graft. Their shoots may be 
destroyed in the nurseries, where the plants are con- 
stantly looked over, but when once the plants are 
transferred to beds and masses in private gardens, these 
shoots are sure to be overlooked. I have never yet 
looked through a collection of grafted Rhododendrons 
without detecting such shoots which had escaped the 
gardener's eye, and often formed nearly half the 
apparent plant. In the case of Azaleas, the evil is 
still greater. Azalea pontica, which is employed as the 
stock, is a very strong growing kind, with a peculiar 
tendency to throw up sucker-like shoots ; and these 
will in a single season out-top the rarer variety grafted 
upon it. The Azalea has in fact a very great tendency 
to renew even its natural growth in this manner — the 
older branches growing feeble, and the plant being 
renewed by strong shoots from below ; and this is 
especially the case if its growth be checked by removal. 
As far as my experience goes something of the same 
kind takes place with all grafted Azaleas. They look 
more like branches broken off and stuck in than real 
thriving shrubs, and they are surrounded with a forest 
of suckers. I consider that a grafted Rhododendron 
is quite as objectionable as a grafted Fir tree, 
though from a different cause, and much more inex- 
cusable. It is difficult, or at least tedious and trouble- 
some, to strike the genus Pinus from cuttings, and they 
do not make good plants ; so that, if you wish to 
propagate a rare species, of which no seed has yet 
ripened in England or can now be procured from 
abroad, you are almost reduced to the expedient of 
grafting. In the case of Rhododendrons there is no 
such excuse. They strike from cuttings with little 
difficulty, and are propagated so easily by layers that 
natural layers may be found around most old plants : 
they are, moreover, raised with the greatest ease from 
seed, and the individuals of a batch of seedlings differ 
so little from one another, that out of the many hundreds 
of alta-clerense which were raised from the same batch 
of seed, and dispersed throughout the country^every 
individual may be recognised at once as belonging to the 
same species, though some slight individual differences 
may be detected between them if compared. In con- 
clusion, I believe that whenever a collection is formed 
of grafted Rhododendrons, before many years have 
elapsed the bed will be found to consist principally of 
Rhododendron ponticum, the grafts having perished 
and the stocks assumed their place. /. B. 

Cuthill's Black Prince Strawberry. — I potted a 
quantity of this variety in the latter end of July last, 
and by the end of October I found that they were throw- 
ing up blooms ; I therefore placed them in a Vinery 
whose temperature ranged from 50° to 55°, where they 
still continue to bloom and set fruit. I gathered a few 
ripe berries on the 18th of December, and on Christmas 
Day I had a beautiful dish of ripe fruit. To-day, again, 
(1st of January, 1855), I have gathered another dish 
equally good, and I have still a quantity of fruit set and 
blooms appearing in succession so as to promise a 
supply for the next two months. I think that by bring- 
ing back the early forced plants of other varieties into 
the houses and introducing this variety early in autumn, 
Strawberries may be gathered every month in the year, 
as I have only been out of them 6 weeks since February 
last. George James, Pontypool Park. 



Jeoricticg, 



Pomological, Jan. 1st. — Mr. John Lee in the chair. 
Specimens of a Sefedling Apple, exhibited by W. 
Marshall, Esq., of Ely, were found to possess a brisk 
flavour and considerable juiciness, with the aroma of 
the Osliu. A collection of 8 varieties of apples, from 
orchards in Gloucestershire, were sent by G. S. 
Wintle, Esq., of Gloucester ; among them were fine 
examples of Golden Harvey, grown on a clay soil; also 
of Ashmead's Kernel, from a light loam on a sandy sub- 
soil. The others were chiefly Cider Apples of the 
neighbourhood. Mr. Cranston, of Hereford, exhibited 
specimens of 10 varieties of Pears and 11 of Apples : the 
former embracing many of the seedling varieties raised 
by the late Mr. Knight. Four new members were 
elected. 



^.ctiasi of 3$0Q£t£i. 

The Flora of Yorkshire; with a Supplement. By H. 
Baines. 8vo. Longmans. 
This is a reissue of the author's original work com- 
bined with a new supplement of about equal dimensions. 
The latter has been prepared by Mr. J. G. Baker and 
Mr. John Nowell, aud when we say that it forms a 
worthy companion to Mr. Baines' very useful work, we 
place it where it should be, alongside the best of our 
local Floras. The Supplement may be described as 
a critical inquiry into the districts really occupied by 
undoubted Yorkshire plants, and the claims which the 
doubtful inhabitants have upon the Flora, together 
with the relation that exists between the distribution 
of the vegetation and the geological formations of the 
county. In these considerations the new editors are 
evidently at home ; they are well acquainted personally 
with the greater part of the facts on which they rely, 
they have had excellent assistance from judicious and 



1855.] 



T II B <; A IM) E N BRS' C II EtO I CLE; 



experienced correspondents, and tHey have evinced great specimen* as those, and eipcclally the Palms, wi 
good sense in separating tlio alion species now over- ' not «ay, serve in on eminent degree to nary Hie 
running tlio country from the true original denizens of ancc of the place, and incroase Its interest, In the 
the land. The book will be read with interest, not only by borders in front of the shrubs Hyacinths and other 
the inhabitants of Yorkaliire and the neighbouring spring bulbs have been planted, with a view to keep up 
counties, but by all who take an interest in the distri- a little gaiety in the early part of the year, 
bution of plantH. The boskets of plants suspended bom the roof still 

„ look green, and some of the climbers trained no the 

supporl i are growing freely, a Wistaria brought from 
Garden Memoranda. ,\i„ ,„.„. [,odulges bos been replanted with safety, and 

The Crystal Palace, Sydenham — Many have been nn8 now nearly reaobed the top of the trail opi roi 
of opinion that plantH would not succeed Inside the Preparations are being modi for planting tin 
palaco, and Homo have oven gone so far as to say that [login and other choice aquatii in In the 

tlio diliieultioH which brHot the attempt would ho found west nd of the hoiiHe. The soil is put in, tin 
to he altogether insurmountable. Such, howevdr, wo | water pipea are laid, and in due time thi 
aroha]i]>y to report, Iiiih not proved to ho the faot; in- |„, f,l|cd with water. At thi othl I I nd of the boil 

deed, experience as yet is wholly in favour of the pro- water Is already Btockod with Water Lilies, among 

joct; for the plants of all kinds with which the building which the blue one iH still in flower, 
has been furnished could not, we think, nil things eon-, [n the tropical end of the building, some few of the 
sidored, possibly ho in better condition than they are at tender Palms and very tender stove plants have, as we 
the presont time. It is true that Homo of the Palms and | )ft vo stated, been injured a little lor want of warmth, 
vory tender Btovo plants have suffered a little for want j 'phis has, however, been remedied, as wo have already 
of warmth; but this has been remedied by partition- B tated, by enclosing this part with a canvas screen, 
ing off the part appropriated to their growth by a which completely cuts it off from the rest of the house. 

canvas Hereon, and now all is going on satisfactorily. Since this lias been done, any amount of beat can be 

As regards Conifers, the building may ho said to ho maintained which is nccossary. As regards the eon- 
rich in Norfolk Island Pines (Arauoaria excelsa), two dition of the Palms here little can he said at present ; 
magnificent specimens of which, presented hy his (Jraeo thoy appear to havo got well over tho effects of removal, 
the Duke of Devonshire, aro planted in tho centre trail- and to ho in good condition to commence growth 01 DOS 
sept. Thoso are even now too largo for any ordinary I n8 spring shall have sot in. Among them are 
conservatory ; hut here, wo need scarcely any, they havo ' no i,| specimens which, however, look small in this 
room enough for ample development. In tho south ' great glass-house, compared with what they did in' the 
transept on the west side aro two other specimens of Palm-house at Mr. Loddiges'. The Palmetto, especially, 
this Pine, one presented by the Messrs. Veitch, from J ; a n vorv f m0 example of this fine Palm. It Blonds 
their nursery at Exeter, and tho other hy tho Ilorticul- conspicuously at tho end of tho transept, and is p 
turol Society, from its large conservatory at Chiswick. \\ a a cement-covered brick basin, 1G feet in diameter. 
Tho latter has been but recently planted, and has its ; Xhe Musas, with their broad leaves, are very effective ; 
trunk and branches covered with damp moss, in order but at present this part of the house is rather hare of 
in somo measure to prevent exhaustion till the roots ' foliage. 

have taken hold of the soil. Two more examples of i Out of doors the grounds are fast approaching eom- 
this noble tree from Windsor, presented by her Majesty, pletion. All may be said to he finished down to the 
deserve remark 
the building, 
to their new 



v. Ii.de ol 

bi movi d to agn 

• useful 

leaved plants ol all kinds will withstand wit 

■ 
tin in, provided tie b ry. I have 

had Cini ,.» l nl ,,j i'.. 

much injured after 

damp. l.'-t the plants bi i re )ou 

...» 

plant be b< fari 

■, and it will soon lx! !.■ 
of plants adhering from fumigation. | 



Cihki /' . ' , ...-.■ »iu, lei 






jeirom ivmuBor, presenieuuyner ivjajesr.y, pletion. All maybe said to he finished down to the 
trie : they stand near the north-west end of water temples, which are nearly up ; the cascades below 
and look as if they had already " taken " j them have been formed, and the ground about them put 
situation. In front of the tombs have been . mt0 shape. What still remains to be executed, is 



very appropriately placed a few plants of the funereal 
Cypress. 

The noble Orange trees from the Chateau de Neuilly, 
which line the sides of the transept, appear to he in 
perfect health, with tlio exception, perhaps, of a few 
specimens which have been lately imported, and which 
suffered from salt-water and other accidents consequent 
on removal. Most of these trees are of immense size, 
with broad heads and clean stems, and serve in no 
ordinary degree to embellish the noble edifice. They 



the part about the islands where the extinct animals arc- 
placed. Water has now been let into all the lakes 
except the large ones below the cascades. 



FLORICULTURE. 

Carnations. — Your correspondent's remarks (see 
. 839, 1854) respecting the colours running or sport- 
ig of his Carnations, will doubtless be read with in- 
are associated in places with standard Bays, and huge tere9t. I for one am sorry to say that I have had half 
specimens of variegated and common American Aloes. ] a dozen of my best flowers sport this season, and I am 
A fine plant of tile latter, in the " Geographical dis- ; at a loss to what to attribute it. I certainly cannot say 
tribution of plants," is stated to h\ve borne without the j that high manuring is the cause of the evil, for in my 
least injury 14° of frost, showing 'that these plants are case, having nothing but green manure by me, I had 
rather more hardy than many have supposed them to he, them potted without any manure at all; high manur- 
and that they might possibly be even employed, if pro- iug cannot, therefore, be the sole cause of flowers 
tected a little in winter, for out-door decoration. sporting, although no doubt more flowers run from that 

The rocks in the Europeau and Chinese departments j cause than any other, for they are not so liable to sport 
are becoming tolerably well covered with plants, and in the open borders in common mould as in rich soil. 
the Hypnum-like Saxifrage, which has been introduced | I have generally noticed that in hot dry summers the 
pretty plentifully here, appears to be a good plant for flowers are very apt to sport; and I have no doubt 
clothing the soil about them with verdure. In the that the season, as well as the soil, has a great deal to 
north African and Australian departments a few Ferns ' do with the evil : we generally find that Scarlet Bizarres, 
are growing in great luxuriance, and in the last-named Purple Bizarres, and Scarlet Flakes are the classes that 
division we noticed a good plant of the Casuariua toru- j are most liable to run, being very rich and high in 
losa or Australian Beef Tree. colour. I am of your correspondent's opinion that 

The plants in beds have been mostly re-arranged, and j manure water should not be applied until the pods begin 
apparently replanted as skilfully as it is possible with to burst ; but it is a good plan to water them with a little 
regard to effect. The Camellias, which at present form clean soot water, in order to keep the foliage of a good 
the hulk of flowering shrubs of any size in the building, dark colour. The following compost lias been recom- 
are well set with buds, and therefore a graud display of mended by an eminent grower for flowers apt to sport, 
this glorious flower may soon be expected. White or we may say for the more delicate kinds, which are 
Chinese Azaleas, too, of which there are some huge the most likely to sport : — 3 barrows full of good loam ; 
specimens, promise to blossom well ; these are planted ; 1 ditto old rotten cow-dung ; 2 ditto ditto horse-dung ; 
in peat, among masses of roots, which form as it were a ; -i ditto sand ; h ditto lime rubbish, or old plaster, to be 
sort of pot for them. Scattered throughout the beds are mixed well together 12 months previous to its being 
such plants as Dractena indivisa, Yuccas, New Zealand j used. E. B. 

Flax, Hedychiums, aud even Palms, all of which serve I The Chinese Primrose. — What more useful flower 
to give an exotic appearance to this the cool part of the have we than this? My greenhouse at the present 
house. Of Hakea Victorias there is a fine plant, as well ■ time is as gay as it well can he with well-grown plants 
as of Acacia grandis and decurreus ; indeed the latter of all the best varieties of it. Some of my sorts, all of 
are, perhaps, the largest specimens of the kind in the j which I raise from seeds every year, have flowers which 
country. Aralia crossifolia stood 14° of frost here, as measure upwards of an inch and a half across, and in 
did also Stadmannia australis. Berberis nepalensis colour are of a deep glowing crimson. The beauty of 
grows uncommonly well here, as do also Ficuses of all ' a fine head of such blossoms may therefore be belter 
kiuds, whose ample foliage is very ornamental. The imagined than described. Fine blooming plants of the 
two great Epacrises, bought at Mrs. Lawrence's sale, j Chinese Primrose, that will contiuue in flower through 
have been planted out, aud promise to do well. Inter- 1 the whole of the winter months, may be produced as 
mixed with the above are smaller specimens of many ( follows : — In order to obtain strong plants, the seed 
interesting plants, among which we remarked the ! should be sown not later than the first of May in a 
Camphor tree, Olives, various Eucalypti, Gardenia i well-drained store pan, in a light sandy soil, and put 
Eothmanui, Franciscea confertiflora, and other plants i into a cool frame, as near the glass as possible. When 
which are usually kept in stoves, all apparently in a large enough to be pricked off into store pans the young 



healthy condition, 

Among the Palms which hid fair to succeed in the 
temperate part of the building, where the thermometer 



seedlings should be allowed a square inch between each 
plant ; when that space has been filled, let tliem be 
potted singly into 3-inch pots, and as the pots become 



has been down a9 low as 36", are Areca sapida, Corypho | filled with roots, shift into a size larger pot, giving them 
australis, Latania borbonica, the Wax Palm. Ghamae- | their final shift into 6-inch pots in the early part of 
dorea elegans, Cocos plumosa, Chamcerops Martiana, September. The compost in which I have found these 
Sabal Blackburniana, Seafonhia elegans, and one or two I plants to thrive best has been equal parts turfy loam 
others. Caryota urens has been tried, but it is evidently ; aud leaf-mould, aud a little sharp sand. While grow- 
euflering from cold. Near the above are some immense ing, a cool pit or frame suits them best : g've plenty of 
specimens of Elephant's Foot, imported from South air, and be careful not to overwater them. Treated in 
Africa, and associated with them is Ehipidodendron j this way the plants will be in flower by the middle of 
plicatile, no Aloe-like plant, also of great size. Such November, and will continue ia blossom through the 



Miscellaneous. 

\)r. (;. 
I''. Winslow, in i. inner/' a weekly 

journal publi he i al San J .■ 
account of bis excursion from " 

I, to the site of thi 
the very stamp of which be will 
1854), the spot iteell beie ■ 
" Washington Mum: 
bo depended upon (and it i 

Doctor'n style ia both flowery and byperboKcal), »<j 
learn tome new and interesting particulars reaj 

Dlic tree : — I, That the accounts brought home 
by our sober English traveller, .Mr. 
DOl i ' be full height to which thi 
one-fourth ; 2, that the locality seems to be circum- 
scribed to an area of a few acres ; and '■',, what c 
ub more, now that Messrs. Veitch and Sonj have enabled 
ub to possess living plants, that thi atmosphere 

at the place of growth are singularly humid ; and in 
this we think the Doctor ia likely to be correct. Omit- 
ting then, the mention of " the sublime thoughts, such 
as have rarely before impressed bis soul," — " of such a 
nature that he often involuntarily eurretj'iorei himself 
to the idea that he was approaching the visible and 
actual presence of the Great One who revealed himself 

i es on the heights of Sinai," &c. — we shall 
ourselves to the following extracts : — '•' The road (from 
Murphy's Camp) gradually ascending for several miles 
over a varied landscape, becomes afterwards more level, 
or rather it undulates and wind6 for a long stretch 
among hills and valleys thickly wooded, and fit for 
farms and deer parks. During the last three miles the 
ascent is steady and through a virgin wilderness of Pine*, 
Firs, Spruce, Arbor- Vi:te, and other cone-bearii. _• 
whose magnitude perceptibly increases with the altitude 
of the locality. The whole surface of the hill-tides '.s 
covered with herbage or plants, more r r less verdant, 
and in spots there is a freshness to the verdure which 
reminds one of spring, and which contrasts strongly 
with the arid and dusty plains and hills of the lower 
sections of country. The wild Raspberry, Strawberry, 
Pea, and Hazelnut mingle their humble or more pro- 
minent foliage with the diversified undergrowths of the 
forests ; and here and there new and attractive 
flowers struck my eye so pleasingly, that I was 
compelled at times to stop, gather, examine, and admire 
them. The charm of these regions to the botanist 
would he in the freshness and luxuriance with which 
Nature elaborates her vegetable forms. The vital prin- 
I ciple, stimulated by the condensing vapours of the cool 
fresh air of night, -and nourished by a • -bulum 

in the decomposing soil, acts with a stead- 
thousands of stately trees stud the hills in all dir- 
so lofty as to amaze the observer, and to compel him 
( when near them to strain his eyes to catch a view of 
their topmost off-shcots. But ike most amazing of a'J 
these vegetable productions are here : and Nature, by 
peculiar geognostic arrangements, seems to . 
them to startle and arrest the attention of mankind, 
and to strengthen scientific truth touching the special 
distribution of organic races. So far as known, ihe 
vegetable growth to which the name of ' Big Tree' has 
' been attached, grows in no other region of the Sierra 
Nevada, nor on any other mountain-range of 'die earth- 
It exists here only, and all the individuals of its kind, so 
far as I can learn, are localised to this vicinity. They 
are embraced within a range of 200 acres, and are en- 
closed in a basin of coarse silicious materia], surr 
by a sloping ridge of sienilic rock, which in some places 
projects above the soil. The basin is reeking with 
moisture, and in the lowest places the water is standing, 
and some of the largest trees dip their roots 
pools or water-runs. The trees of very large --—ensions 
number considerably more than one hundred. Mr. 
Blake measured one 94 feet in circumference at the 
root ; the side of which bad been partly burnt by con- 
tact with another tree, the head of which had fallen 
against it. The latter can be measured -. : feet from 
its head to its root (!) A large portion of thi £ 
monster is still to be seen and examined ; and 
measurement of Mr. Lapham, the proprietor of the 
place, it : s said to ' in diameter at 350 feer 

from its nptorn root (!) In falling it had prostrated 
another large tree in its course, and pressed out the 
earth beneath itself so as to be imbedded a number of 
feet into the ground. Irs diameter across its re 1 1 
feet. A man is nothing in comparison of dimensions, 
while walking on it or standing near its side. I 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 6, 



me was the greatest wonder of the forest. The tree 1 vatory. It is almost impossible, however, to give pre- 
which it prostrated in falling has been burnt hollow. | cise directions as to the temperature which should be 



and is to Urge, a gentleman who accompanied us from 
Murphy's informed us, that when he first visited the 
place two years ago, he rode through it on horseback 
for 200 feet without stopping but at one spot as he 
entered at the root. We all walked many scores of feet 
through it, but a large piece of its side has fallen in near 
the head. But there are many standing whose magni- 
tude absolutely oppresses the mind with awe. In one 
place three of these gigantic obf^cts grow side by side, 
as if planted with special reference to their present 
appearance. Another, so monstrous as to absolutely 
compel you to walk around it, and even linger, is divided 



at from 50 to 100 feet from the ground into three of these 
straight mammoth trunks, towering over 300 feet into the 
sky. There are others whose proportions are as deli- 
cate, symmetrical, clean and straight as small Spruces, 
that rise 350 feet from the ground. In one spot a huge 
knot of some ancient prostrate giant is risible above the 
soil, where it fell ages ago, and the earth has accumu- 
lated so as nearly to obliterate all traces of its former 
existence. The wood of this tree, I am told by Mr. 
Lapham, is remarkable for its slow decay. When first 
cut down its fibre is white, but it soon becomes reddish, 
and long exposure makes it as dark as mahogany ; it is 
soft, and resembles ill some respects Pine and Cedar. 
Its bark, however, is much unlike these trees ; nearest 
the ground it is prodigiously thick, fibrous, and when 
pressed on has a peculiar feeling of elasticity. In some 
places it Is 18 inches thick, and resembles a mass of 
Cocoa-nut husks, thickly matted and pressed together, 
only the fibrous material is exceedingly fine, and alto- 
gether unlike the husk of the Cocoa-nut. This bark is 
fissured irregularly with numerous indentations, which 
give it the appearance of great inequality and rough- 
ness. At 150 feet from the ground it is only about 
2 inches thick on the living tree, which is now being 
stripped of its bark for transportation from the country. 
An hotel is built near the ' Big Tree,' whose bark was 
stripped last year and exhibited in San Francisco ; and 
an appendage of the house is built over it, so as to 
constitute a hall for cotillion parties. At the root it 
measures °G feet in circumference, aud a portion of its 
prostrate trunk is used for a bowling alley. 
To overthrow it, holes were bored through with 
a large auger, aud after the trunk was mostly 
separated, attempts were made to wedge and upset it. 
But its immense size and weight prevented the success 
of this undertaking, and on the fourth day it fell by the 
force of a strong wind. In falling, it convulsed the 
earth, and by its weight forced the soil from beneath it, 
so that it lies in a great trench, and mud and stones 
were driven near a hundred feet high, where they have 
left their marks on neighbouring trees." The following 
paragraph bears very hard upon Dr. Lindley. [It is 
too rich to be omitted.] " The name that has been 
applied to this tree by Professor Lindley, an English 
botanist, is Wellingtonia gigantea. By him it is declared 
to be so much unlike other Coniferfe, as not only to be 
a new species, but to require description as a new genus. 
Other botanists of eminence think differently. To this, 
however, he has seen fit to apply the name of an English 
hero, a step indicating as much persoual arrogance or 
weakness as scientific indelicacy ; for it must have been 
a prominent idea in the mind of that person that Ame- 
rican naturalists would regard with surprise and reluc- 
tance the application of a British name, however 
meritoriously honoured, when a name so worthy of 
immortal honour and renown as that of Washington 
would strike the mind of the world as far more suitable 
to the most gigantic aud remarkable vegetable wonder 
indigenous to a country where his name is the most dis- 
tinguished ornament. As he and his generation declared 
themselves independent of all English rule and political 
dictation, so American naturalists must in this case 
express their respectful dissent from all British scien- 
tific ' stamp acts.' If the ' Big Tree ' be a Taxodium, 
let it be called now and for ever Taxodium Washing- 
tonium. If it should be properly ranked as a new genus, 
then let it be called to the end of time Washingtonia 
Californica. The generic name indicates unparalleled 
greatness and grandeur ; its specific name, the only 
locality in the world where it is found. No names can 
he more appropriate ; and if it be in accordance with 
the views of American botanists, I trust the scientific 
honour of our country may be vindicated from foreign 
indelicacy by boldly discarding the name now applied 
to it, and by affixing to it that of the immortal man 
whose memory we all love and honour, and teach our 
children to adore. Under any and all circumstances, 
however, whether of perpetuity or extinction, the name 
of Wellington should be discarded, and that of Washing- 
ton attached to it, and transmitted to the schools of 
future ages." — Hooker's Journal of Botany. 



maintained, for very much depends upon the kind of 
plants which the house may contain, and also upon 
the character of the house itself, that only general direc- 
tions can be given, and these must be accommodated 
to the particular circumstances of each case. Where 
Camellias, Epacrises, Heaths, and other greenhouse 
things form the principal floral display, 40 at night Tu 
by fire-heat will be quite sufficient, but where the 
hardier stove plants or forced things are used for the 
decoration, of this house, 45? will be the proper mean 
night temperature. 

FORCING DEPARTMENT. 
Pinery. — A night temperature of about 60° should 
he maintained in the fruiting pits, allowing it to rise to 
70° during the daj', or 75° with sunshine, and where the 
fruit is approaching maturity 5° higher may be main- 
tained if this can be done without injury to the general 
stock. Also aim at keeping up a steady bottom-heat of 
about 80°, which for the present will be high enough. 
— The Vines in houses about to be started should receive 



STATE OF THE WEATHER AT CHISWICK, NEAR LONDOiN 


Forthc week endinjr Jan. 4. 1S55, as obaetred at the Qorticulrural Gardens. 




a 


B\aOMItTBB. 


TbM PER AT II BR. 




Dec. 

av.d Jan. 


a g 
53 


01 the Air. |Of the Earth 




Max. 


Mln. 


Max. Min. 


Mean!' 1001 , ~ teet 
deep. deep. 


r 


Friday 39 


9 


30.443 


30.39 S 


41 


34 




41 


43 


s.w. 




Satur. 30 


10 


3H.444 


30/154 


47 


39 


43.0 






s.vv. 




Sunday SI 


11 


30.325 


30.101 


47 


35 


41.0 


41 


43 


N.W. 


,00 


Mod.. 1 




2*1.95 1 


20.919 


53 


46 


49.5 


43 


44 


W. 


,02 






30.OG9 


30.028 


51 


44 


47-5 


44 


Ath 


N.w. 


.01 




O 


30.170 


30.139 


52 


39 


45.5 


45 




N.W. 


.00 


Thurs. 4 


lb 


30.213 


30.164 


47 


33 


42.5 


45 


45 


S.W.J .00 


Average. 


30.374 


30.157 


4S.3 


39/1 


43.3 


42.7 


43.9 




... 



ec. SS— Closely overcast throughout. 
30— Overcast; cloudy; fine; 

- 31 — Overcast; cloudy; overcast; boisterous at night, 
'an. • 1— Cloudy and boisterous ; overcast; slight rain. 

- 2— Densely clouded ; slight rain; overcast and mild. 

- 3— Vine ; very tine throughout. 

- 4— Uniformly overcast ; cloudy and fine. 

Mean temperature of the week 6 J dcg. above the average. 

RECORD OF THE WEATHER AT CH1SWICK, 
During the luBt 29 years, for the ensuing week, ending Jan. 13,13i5. 



Calendar of Operations. 

{For tlie ensuing week.) 



PLANT DEPARTMENT. 
Conservatory, &c. — In mixed conservatories, that is 
houses containing the principal display of bloom, and a 
miscellaneous collection of greenhouse plants, the use of 
fire-heat should be avoided as much as possible, for 
although artificial warmth is useful to most plants in 
bloom, it is injurious to many hard-wooded things 
which flower late in spring, and should be sparingly 
used where these have to be wintered in the conser- 



a dressing with the ordinary composition a few days 
before closing the house, rubbing it well into the crevices 
of the bark ; also get the outside border covered if not 
already done ; this, however, should always be effected 
before this season, so as to retain a portion of the warmth 
infused by the summer's sun, and throw off heavy rains. 
Where very early Melons are required, seed of 
some established favourite should be got in at once. 
Cucumbers being very generally grown for early use, it 
is scarcely necessary to refer to these farther here 
than to say that, if not already done, seed should be 
sown at once. These and Melons require plenty of 
light and moisture, and every care should be used to 
keep them clear of insects, and this reuders it advise- 
able to have them in a light by themselves. A small 
quantity of Strawberry plants may now be placed in 
a pit or frame where a temperature of about 45° can be 
maintained, keeping them close to the glass, and giving 
abundance of air whenever the weather will permit. 
FLOWER GARDEN AND SHRUBBERIES. 
Where any of the beds or borders require a dressing 
of fresh soil this should be provided, in order to have it 
in readiness to wheel on when favourable weather for 
such work may occur. Fresh soil is, in most cases, 
preferable as a dressing for flower beds to manure, 
which is apt to cause too luxuriant a growth for a first- 
rate display of flowers. On soils that are naturally poor, 
however, and where neither fresh soil nor decayed 
leaves can be had, a moderate dressing of well rotted 
farm-yard manure will be useful ; but this should be 
well mixed with the soil to the full depth of the bed, 
and not carelessly turned in and left in lumps near the 
surface ; for in this case a gross habit of growth would 
be promoted early in the season, and as the principal 
part of the roots would be near the surface in the 
manure, the plants would soon feel the effects of dry 
weather, whereas if the manure were well incorporated 
with the soil, to the depth of about 18 inches, no ordi- 
nary amount of dry weather would injure the plants 
after they once got fairly established. Shrubberies may 
be thinned where this involves only the cutting out of 
overgrown plants or loping deciduous trees or the 
hardier kinds of evergreens ; but where evergreens 
generally require pruning, the work had better be de- 
ferred until March, except in favourable localities ; for 
although when the winter proves mild such work may 
safely be performed at any time, it is never safe to 
depend upon this. Avoid getting upon, or working the 
ground when it is in a sodden state, and if the hands 
cannot be profitably employed at out-door work, get a 
good stock of pegs, Dahlia stakes, tallies, brooms, &c, 
prepared and stored away in an orderly manner, so as 
to be ready for use when wanted. 

HARDY FRUIT AND KITCHEN GARDEN. 
If any transplanting of fruit trees has yet to be done 
this season, it should be seen to while the weather is 
favourable for such work; also see to getting ground 
intended to be planted with young trees prepared, and 
spare no pains or expense to have this properly done, 
remembering that future success will very largely 
depend upon how this is effected. Make sure of thorough 
drainage, aud where the subsoil is unkind this should be 
removed, replacing it with some good fresh loam. When 
a large breadth has to be planted in one season this ex- 
pensive kind of preparation cannot always be afforded, 
but it is better to do such work only in such quantities 
as will allow of every precaution being used to 
ensure success, and it is useless to hope for this 
on some soils without making expensive prepa- 
rations before planting. Get pruning and nailing 
forwarded as fast as circumstances will permit. Attend 
to keeping up a supply of Seakale, Rhubarb, and Aspa- 
ragus, according to the demand and convenience, by 
introducing quantities of the roots into heat at intervals 
of about a fortnight. Where there is room to spare in 
the Mushroom-house, the two former will be found to 
do exceedingly well there, and a supply will be obtained 
with very little trouble. A quantity of roots should be 
got up and laid in where they can be covered in case of 
severe frost, so as to avoid the chance of having to take 
them up when the ground is frozen hard. Also see to 
providing a supply of French Beans. These are fre- 
quently grown in the early Vineries or in plant houses, 
but their liability to the attacks of red spider renders 
them dangerous inmates of such structures, and where 
it can possibly be done they should be grown in a pit 
devoted to such purposes. a 





5I& 




si 

3h 


No. Of 
Years in 
which it 
Rained. 


Greatest 
Quantity 
of Rain. 


Prevailing Wind?. 


Jan. 


a 

3 

i 

2 

4 

4 


3 
3 
6 
6 
4 
5 
3 


M « 

4 3| 3 6| 6 
; 4 — in l 
4 3 3 7 4 

3 4 5 4 3 

3 1, 5 8; 2 
2| 3 S 1 9 l 2 
4: 2; 6 6 3 


s 
£ 


Sunday 7 
Mon. S 
Tues. 9 
Wed. in 
Thurs. 11 
Friday 12 
Satur. 13 


41.3 
39.5 
39.fi 
41.4 
41.1 
41.7 
42." 


29.2 
30.5 
3'.; 

'■■A 
M.G 
30.9 
33.3 


35.3 
35 
35.5 
35.9 
31.3 
36.3 
33.0 


11 
7 
10 
14 
16 
15 
16 


0.34 in. 

0.26 

0.20 

0.40 

0.33 

0.76 

0.29 


1 

1 

s 

1 
1 



The highest temperature during the above period occurred on the 7tb 



1345, and 12th, 1S52 
1311— therm. 6 deg. 



therm. 54 deg. ; and the lowest on the 7iu and. Sth, 



3 3 




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The amount of Kain in 1S51 is about 
average. - 



5 inches below the 



Notices to Correspondents. 

Box Edotxgs : PE. In answer to your inquiry as to whether, in 
relaying Box-edgings, the surplus Box Belongs to the landlord or 
tenant, we have to say that it is a legal question which can 
ouly be answered upon a full knowledge of the circumstances. . 

Imp atiexs HooKEiu : B. A plant of this Balsam is now in full 
bloom in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and a very beauti- 
ful thing it is. 

Insects : IF C, Etlgcware. The insects sent by you as injurious 
to Cabbages aud French Beans are of two distinct kinds, be- 
longing to distinct orders ; the small ones therefore are not the 
young of the larger. The former are a small species of spriDg- 
tailed insects (Bodura fimetaria) common in gardens, especially 
among semi-decayed vegetable matter; the larger one is a 
small species of Julus or snake millepede. This attacks the 
roots of living vegetables, and can only be got rid of by a care- 
ful cleansing of the soil. W. 

Names of FisniTs.iJ T B. 2, Winter Nelis, and 3 is Ne Plus 
Meuris; you have therefore not got Knight's Monarch. The 
Apple No. 1 is Stunner Pippin ; 2, Mannington's Pearmain. 
The other specimen of Winter Nelis is larger than usual. 
Beurre Diel which you state to have grown 18 ounces, Easter 
Beurre 14£, and Chaumontel 14 ounces, are above the usual 
size-of these varieties.*- R'Eolertson. 1, Al thorp Crassaue ; 3, 
Bezi de la Motte ; 4, Vicar of Winkfield ; 5, Duchesse d'Angou- 
leme; 6, Too far gone— probably Sucre Vert; 7, Forelle.— 
Aberdeenshire. 1, Eeinette du Canada; 2, Blenheim Pippm ; 
3, Beurre Diel, a very good specimen ; 4, Easter Beurre ; 5, 
probably Marie Louise from a late blossom. — E Pike. The Pear, 
is Glou Morceau ; the Apple is not known, appears to be only 
fit for Cider. || .;.',., L u 

Names of Plants : We have been so often obliged to reluctantly 
decline naming heaps of dried or other plants, that we venture 
to request our correspondents to recollect that we never have, 
or could have undertaken an unlimited duty of this kind. 
Young gardeners, to whom these remarks more especially apply, 
should bear in mind that, before applying to us for assistance, 
they should exhaust their other means of gaining information. 
We cannot save them the trouble of examining and thinking 
for themselves ; nor would it be desirable if we could. All we 
can do is to help them— and that most willingly. It is now- 
requested that, in future, not more than four plants may be 
sent us at one time.— F A P. Yes; see answers to correspon- 
dents in last week's Paper. £. 



1855.] 



Til E A (l K m; h J,TU |{ A L (, A X BTTB. 



U 



PERUVIAN GUANO, Holivinn Guano, SuperphOB- 
nhato of Umo, Nitrate of Bodft, Sugar Scum, and every 
dflflcripl.i'Hj of Artificial Manures, Llnmed CakoH, &c. 

Wvt. rxnuH f!ATiN«. 10. Min'k l.mm, \ 1 <\w\<.u. 

rpjlh LOMMJJN MAN UniO COMi'ANY beg to call 
X. tlui attention of A«rlcuIturlHtfl to their WHEAT and 
CLOVER MAMUHES for proBont una, The London Manure 
Company nlHo offer Genuine Peruvian Guano, Nitrate of Hmlu, 
Concontrateil L'riitc, Bnporphosphato of Limn. Fishery and other 
SaltH, and all Artificial Manurflfl of value. The London Maimm 

Company guarai i Peruvian Guano and every Manure tlioy 

nil|l ,,i v to be strictly ffonulne. Edwabd Pobhbr, Beo. 
Bridge Street, Blackfrlars. 



rpHJE I'oLi, OWING MANIJKKS aro manufactured 
J- nt. Mr. Lawks' Factory, Dontford Creek :— Turnip Manure. 

7.'. per ton; Superphosphate of Lime, 7/-; Hulphtirlc Acid and 
Coprolltefl, (il. 

Oflko, (SO, King William Btroot, City, London. 
N.B. Genuine Peruvian Guano, guaranteed to contain 10 per 
cent, of ammonia. Nitrate of bc«ia, Buiphato of Ammonia, and 
other Chemical Mi res. 

ARTIFICIAL MANURES, &«.— Miimilnc-tiircrHand 
others ongagod In malting ARTIFICIAL maniikkh nmy 

ol ihi in 0V617 necessary Instruction for tholr oc imleal and 

.■I,, .,,-,, 1 preparation, by applying to J, (*. Nrcsmr, F.G.S., &o., 
Principal of the Agricultural and Chemical College, [Conning ton, 

London. AnulpicH of HoIIh, Guiuioh, Sii]i<'i'l llll,,i l ,, ' |,|, '» n| 1,1 , 

Coprolltes, &o.. and Ahhuj-h of Gold, Sliver, and other Minerals, 
are executed with acouraoy and dispatch,. 
Gontlemen desirous of rooolvlng innt.rnrt.louH in Chemical 

Anal; sos and Assaying, will Hud ample facility and accoi oda- 

tlor at the College. 

pORN CRUSHERS AND CHAFF CUTTERS.— 

Vy a largo display of the heat Farm Implements shown in 
Operation. Price Lists sent tree on application, 
lilJKGESS and KEY, 
103, Nowgato Street, and 62, Little Uritaln, London. 

PUMPS AND HOSE l'IPJSS FOR GARDENS 
ami LIQUID MANURE.— Bunonsa & Kby'8 Pumps 
wore highly commonded by the Royal Agricultural Society of 
England at Lincoln. Price Lists sent free. 

103, Newgate Street, and 01!, Litlln llrltaln, London. 

CHURNS.— ANTHONY'S PATENT AMERICAN 
CB URN.— Since 1849 this Churn has obtained all the Prizes 
awarded by the' Royal Agricultural Society of England. At the 
trial before the Judges it nmdo In 10 minutes 4 lbs. 6 oz, of Butter 
from l quarts of Cream, being 8 oz. more than any of the other 
Chums from tlio omiiB quantity mid fjunlity of Cream. 
103, Nowgato Street, London. 



/CLAYTON, SHUTTLEWORTI1, and CO.'S 
\J PRIZE PORTABLE STEAM-ENGINES, and COM- 
BINED THRASHING, STRAW SHAKING, RIDDLING, 
and WINNOWING MACHINE may bo seen at their London 
Establishment, 6, Fitzroy Terrace, Now Road, where all infor- 
mation relative thereto can ho obtained. Theso machines are 
eonstnictod to horn Barley, and make a perfect separation of tlio 
ohofT from the pulse. They aro fitted with Elevators, which 
deposit the grain into bags, and beyond the feeder of Machine 
require no bands except to tako away the Corn, &c, as thrashed, 
the whole of Iho operations being performed by self-acting 
machinery, whereby the Com, Straw, Chaff, and Pulse are 
delivered In the places assigned for them. 

C. S. and Co. have paid special attention to this class of 
Machinery, and Fixed Barn Machinery, and from the position 
they have taken at the Royal and all the leading agricultural 
shows of England, flatter themselves that for efficiency, dura- 
bility, and simplicity, their Engines andiMachines aro not 
surpassed by any other maker in England^ All letters for- 
warded to the Works at Lincoln will havo immediate attention ; 
and Illustrated Catalogues forwarded to all parts of the kingdom 
postage free. 

HOSE P I P 1 N G.— Great Reduction in Pkice. 

PATENT FLAX TUBING (1 inch to 3 inches 
diameter) is woven without seam, to stand immense pressure, 
-and much more than leather, vulcanised rubber, or any other 
bose, and it is prepared so as to be anti-rot. The difficulty of 
producing this HOSE at a moderate rate has hitherto been its 
only drawback; but, owing to recent important patented inven- 
tions, the cost ot manufacturing it is now reduced at least SO per 
cent., which advantage is offered to the public. 

BURGESS and KEY, 103, Newgate Street, and 52, Little Bri- 
tain. who on application will forward w holes ale and retail prices. 
WEEDS ON W ALKS. 

MR. FLEMING'S WEEDING or SALTING 
MACHINE for GRAVEL WALKS, COURT YARDS, 
&c, manufactured and sold by Alexander Shanks & Son, Ar- 
broath, Forfarshire, from whom particulars with prices may he bad. 

"waterproof paths.— barn and cattle shed 

FLOORS. 

THOSE who would enjoy their Gardens during the 
winter months should construct their walks of PORTLAND 
CEMENT CONCRETE, which are formed thus:— Screen the 
gravel of which the path is at present made from the loam which 
is mixed with it .and to every partof clean gravel add oneof sharp 
river sand. To five parts of such equal mixture add one of Port- 
land Cement, and incorporate the whole well in the dry state before 
appli ing the water. It may then be laid on 2 inches thick? Any 
labourer can mix and spread it. No tool is required beyond the 
spade, and in 4S hours it becomes as hard as a rock. Vegetation 
cannot grow through or upon it, and it resists the action of the 
severest frost. It is necessary, as water does not soak through it, 
to give a fall from the middle of the path towards the sides. 

The same preparation makes first-rate paving for BARNS 
CATTLE-SHEDS, FARM-YARDS, and all other situations 
where a clean, hard bottom is a desideratum. Maybe laid in 
winter equally well as in summer. 

Manufacturers of the Cement, J. B. .White & Ebotheks, 
Milbauk Street, W estminster. 

PRIZE MED A L— 1851. 

AT A VERY ECONOMICAL RATE. 

O AMUEL CUNDY, Mason and Builder, Pimlico 

^ Marrlf. and Stone Works, Belgrave Wharf, Lower Belgrave 

Place, Pimlico, London. 

Marble Chimney-pieces manufactured by improved machinery. 

The public are invited to view the stock, unequalled for quality 

and price. A good Marble Chimney -piece for 405. Marble Work 

. in all its branches at a remarkably cheap rate for Halls, Dairies, 

Larders, &c. Circulars sent ou application. 

N.B. The "Royal Blue" Omnibuses pass the Works every 
ten minutes from the Bank. 

, QTEPHENSON and PEILL, 61, Gracechurch Street, 
*Y London, and 17, New Park Street, Southwark, Manufacturers 
of Copper Cylindrical and Improved Conical Iron BOILERS, 
and Conservatory and Hothouse Builders, either in Wood or 
iron, respectfully call the attention of the Nobility, Gentrv, and 
Nurserymen to their simple butetneacious method of warming 
Horticultural and other Buildings by Hot Water. 

From the extensive works they have executed, references of 
toe highest respectability can be given, and full particulars 

1 lurmshed on application. 



PARKCS' STEEL DIGGING FORKS i DRAINING TOOLS. 



9 

- 



../- 




tr* 



( lOLLEGK 

38, Low 

Prim 

I 
■ 

' , and Uw ArU I 

and MINI 

l ■ . ■ 
1 



npiiE 

1 rxroo 



MESSRS. BURGESS ani> KEY, as Mr, Pai 
Wholesale Agents f^r England, have always In 
largo assortment. ThoBO Forks and Tools are now in use by 
upwards of 1000 <>f the Nobility and Fanners, memhers of the 
Royal Agricultural Society, who pronounce then to bo the best 
over Invented, and to facilitate labour at IctfWt 20 per cent. The 
RoVa] Agricultural Society has Ihroo time's awarded tholi pi - 
Price Lists sont on application, and Illustrated Catalogue! 1 ■■ thi 
best Farm Implements, on receipt of olglil postage stamps. 
103, Nuwgatu Street, and 62, Little Britain, I < 

WARNER'S PATENT VIBRATING STAN- 
DARD PUMPS. 
PATENT CAST-IRON PUMPS, for Iho use of Fan 
tageSj Manure Tanks, and Wells of a depth not oxo 
DIomoter Length of Barrel] 
of Barrel under nose. £ n. d. 




a.Un. abort 1 ft. 7 In. 



long JJ , 
ditto 3 , 
ditto It 
ditto 3 , 



VI 

gutta percha, I 1 15 " 

or cast Iron 1-2 12 

Hanged Ipc, ! 1 

\ ft« required, j 3 GO 

short, with 15 feet of Lead Pipe 

attached, and Bolts and Nnis • 

ready for fixing 2 12 

2.} in. long ditto ditto ditto 2 15 



1 IVNDS 1MFR0\ I J' T COM! 

Kft'lhAfil- 

I 

. 

hui'N'l Improvement, 1 

1 ■ 
! 
■ 1 

1 
1 ■ .... 

mutual Improvement, sin 

- 
1 

Dl IA SUPER EI)ED IN THE GROWTH 

I t OP HEMP A ■ D I \. ,•-:■■ 

■1 : . ' ■ I I I'.y h!i 

i 
and fol Cftttl r,|ly. 

A Li/ I UBE will 1 delivered on I 
Mr. v.'n . 

treat (l 

■ ■ . . 
&c, &«\ r will beexhlbl 

i'h Willie tnnr/vnc+4 )n tbn 
'}'■„.- , Daily A 
day next. 

After payment of lecture expenses, *nrpin* »- 
Fund. Botany and Portable Garden, which will 
Sun, to be rfoe bod on Wednesday and 

• the place of h 
i Do good and communicate," 

Walworth, Surrey, Jan. fj. 



The short barrel Pump m very convenient 
for fixing In situations of limited height and 

spaco, for the supply of coppers and sinks in 
Wash-houses with noft water from under- 
ground tanks, or in Hot. Forcing, and Plant 
Houses; they may be fixed, when desired, 
under the stage. 
May be obtained of any Ironmonger or 
Plumber in Town or Country, at the above prices, or of the 
Patentees and Manufacturers, JOHN WARNER and SONS, 
S, Crescent, Jewin Street, London. 

Every description of Machinery for Raising Water, by means 
of Wheels, Kams, Deep Well Pumps, &c, ; also Eire and Garden 
Engines, &c. Ace. — Engravings sent on application. 



"JOHN MORREN, General Coutttmax A 

' ' Ock Stre< t, Abu i- ' 

of AgricuUural In plements, 31 an urea, Seedi, Ac, an-J 
f Corn, dec. 



&l\z ^tgn tttlttttal (Ba^ettc. 

SATURDAY, JANUARY <:. I 

MEETINGS yOX THE ENSUING WEEK. 

Tbur.-dat, J:.a. II— Agricultural Imp. Socielj of Irt'sii. 



WARNJiR'S IMPROVED LIQUID MANURE, 
OK GENEltAL POETAIJLE PUMP. 

Tlie valve is a ball of imperishable 
material, and cannot clo£ in action. 
The barrel is of galvanised iron, not 
likely to corrode, and can be raised or 
lowered at pleasure. The legs will fold 
together, and the whole may be carried 
on shoulder to any pond or tank required. 

Price, of 4i, in. Pump, with legs, V. 3s. 
The barrel is 27J, in. long, and the legs 
are 5 ft. high. 

1^ inch Gutta Percha Suction Pipe, 
Is, Gf/. per foot. 

IA inch Flexible Rubber and Canvas 
Suction Pipe, Zs. 6d. por foot. 

May be obtained of any Ironmonger 
or Plumber in town or country, at the 
above prices, or of the Patentees and 
Manufacturers, John "Warner & Suns, 
8, Crescent, Jewin Street, London. 

Every description of Machinery for 
Raising Water, by means of "Wheels, 
Kams, Deep Well Pumps, &c; also 
Fire and Garden Engines, &c. — Engravings sent on application. 




GALVANISED WIRE GAME NETTING.- 
7d. pur Yard, 2 Feet Wide. 




2-inch mesh, light, 24 inches wide 
2-inch „ strong „ 

2-inch „ extra strong „ 
ljj-inch „ light „ 

ls,-inch. „ strong „ 

l|-inch „ extra strong,, 



Galvan- Japanned 
ised. iron. 

... Id. pervd. 5<7. per yd. 

... 9 „" 6} „ 

... 12 „ 9 „ 

... S 6 „ 

... 10 „ S „ 

... 14 „ 11 ,, 



All the above can be made any width at proportionate prices. 
If the upper half is a coarse mesh, it will reduce the prices one- 
fourth. Galvanised Sparrow-proof Netting for Pheasantries, 3d. 
per square foot. Patterns forwarded post free. 

Manufactured by Barnard & Bishop, Market Place, Norwich, 
and delivered free of expense in London, Peterborough, Hull, or 
Newcastle. 



" j^RlGI DOMO."— Patronised by her Majesty the 
-i- Queen, Duke of Northumberland for Syon House, His 
Grace the Duke of Devonshire for Chiswick Gardens, Professor 
Lindley for the Horticultural Society, Sir Joseph Paxton for the 
Crystal Palace, Royal Zoological Society, and Mrs. Lawrence, ol 
Ealing Tark. 

"FKIGI DOMO," a Canvass made of prepared Hair and 
Wool, a perfect nou-couductor of Heat and Cold, keeping, where- 
ever it is applied, a fixed temperature. It is adapted for 
all horticultural and floricul rural purposes, for preserving Fruits 
and Flowers from the scorching rays of the sun, from wind, and 
from attacks of insects and morning frosts. To be had in any 
required length, upwards of 2 yards wide, at Is. 6;i. per yard run, 
of Elisha Thomas AncnrR, 7, Trinity Lane, Cannon Street, 
City, end the Koyal Mills, Wandsworth, Surrey. 



To the general reader of periodical literatnre 
there is not a more curious study presented during 
the year than the various introductory essays which 
are called forth by its commencement. Cast your 
eyes where you will, te it Magazine or Review, 
Newspaper weekly or daily; be the subject whst il 
may, science, literature, politics, or gossip, — from 
the ' leading article ' down to the advertisements, in 
one shape or another, with view prospective or re- 
trospective, in tone promise-full or regretful — every- 
where you knock your head against 'the New Year/ 
saluted" after many fashions and in many sir;. — 
sentimental or prosaic, moralising, or puffing. 
There are moments when one is half tempted to 
vote the good old custom more honoured in the 
breach than the observance, occasions again when 
the happy phrase or well-pointed reflection revokes 
at once the undutiful thought, reminding us that we 
can never be too often reminded of the precions- 
ness not less of Change and Season than ol 
itself ; but above all of that season which, standing 
at the margin of the new page of time, commends 
a moment for reflection even to the busiest way- 
farer of life. All experience and observation, all that 
lies without man. or within him, exemplify the need 
at certain intervals of a fresh start : the feelings of 
our minds, as well as the labours of our hands suggest 
it, and outward nature confirms it. 

But if any one more than another may be sensible 
of this, it should be the Farmer. Constant and 
never ending as is the round of his labours, yet 
the changes which Nature undergoes are to him 
the actual machinery by which he works, as Nature 
herself is his workshop. Yet it may be feared, and 
that, too, without departirg very far from natural 
history, that here paradox is triumphant, and the 
very opposite of what one should expect is the fact. 
The deep-felt inward resolve to turn over, in the 
best sense, the new leaf that life presents to 
apt to be least felt where the routine deper. ie-: 
upon change, has effaced the impression c : 
itself. Flatter ourselves as we may with the here-anc 7 - 
there sound or sign of progress, a faith one would 
rather exaggerate than diminish, it is yet imj 
to contemplate the amount of wealth employed, the 
number of individuals engaged, the breadth of the 
social state represented by agriculture in 
country, and not feel that its importance in each 
and all of these respects is, beyond all due propor- 
tion with other pursuits, in advance of its intel- 
lectual condition. Pampered, as some sup: 
but more truly speaking, drugged and stupefied ly 
false patronase based on false politics for nearly 
half a century's legislation, till it verilv believe i ".ii 



10 



THE AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE. 



tale that it was not in its own power to stand upon 
its own legs, it has awakened but recently to find 
what all things and persons long cramped and ener- 
vated by artificial aids and stimulants must find; 
that self-reliance long suspended has not only sacri- 
ficed strength, but lost time and stunted growth, 
leaving the individual behindhand, and with much 
ground to make up, in the race of social progress. 

Look at the question of Agricultural Statistics ; 
look at the question of farming tenures ; take the 
subject of farm-buildings, the feeding of stock, the 
adulteration of manures, the collection, and the 
application of town-sewage ; last not least, look at 
that Augean Stable of accumulated rubbish that 
blocks up and stifles the sale and purchase of land : 
will anybody acquainted with the state of opinion 
in the agricultural world upon these subjects, say 
that they are in a condition, we will not say of fail- 
progress, but of respectable debate ? All these are 
questions in different degrees vital to agriculture, 
questions that, perhaps with one exception, might 
have been discussed fifty years ago as well and use- 
fully as now. Look at them, as you would into a 
horse's mouth, and say how many years' discussion 
do they show ? Compare them now, after forty 
years of peace, with the cotemporaneous progress 
made in the other industrial arts. While the sea was 
girt by steamvessels, the land by railroads, and both 

by the electric telegraphs, what has been done for the ] Islands has declined four million quarters 
soil ! While even lawyers have been reforming and But . if !t n! > d ? . If . th at is to say, one thirti/- 
simplifying their procedure in other respects, what | seventh of the land, in England alone (to leave out 
iers of the soil obtained I Scotland and Ireland), once under Wheat, were now 



[Jan. 6, 

a young and rising, and the drain taken from an old and have specified in detail the girth and length"cTonlv 
stationary state, it may easily be foreseen bow important those animals whose carcase weights we have since 
ma short time the difference must become." Alum, been aWe to obtain b t the averages given under 
Hist, of Europe ; vol 11., p. ICo [181o — j2]. 

By which we are given to understand, 1st, 
that an overflowing and enterprising population is a 
sort of senile dysentery, a ' drain' incident to states 
that are grown old, aud so strangely tortured by the 
complicated maladies of age, as to be overflowing, 
declining, and stationary, all at once : 2ndlv, that 
all the corn "shipped from the harbours of Russia" 
is Russian corn ; it being but too well known that 



j each class are those of the whole of the animals 
shown in each, — so that these averages may serve as 

j a record of the actual measurements of all the fat 
stock exhibited at these two shows. They will serve 
as records with which to compare the shows of future 
years. And while single instances of extraordinary 

! weight are interesting as proofs of the early maturity 

\ to which, under the most favourable circ 



cumstances, 

"'■" cattle have attained, these general results will 

lealousv of the enormous increase (more han :_j; . -.u , ' , ■ , b ,%. *«""-» wiii 

J j I,- \ c n. e ir u ■■ indicate with greater certainty the progress which 

doubling, year upon year,) of the corn of Moldavia , j„ be ; n „ „„„„„., n„ „,„ j„ b lcoa " uluI 

and Wallachia shipped at the principal Russian 
port of Odessa, with a corresponding decline of 
Russian trade, was not the least among the collateral 



motives which led to a certain ' material guarantee' 



_ generally made. 

The table is interesting, too, as indicating the 

degree of certainty with which measurement 

furnishes the means of estimating weight. In an. 



to her soil and climate, (with raritv presenting 
the specimen of a perfect ear of Wheat,) — that 
" the production of cereal crops in the British 



have the owners, or the occupiers 
from them, or attempted for themselves towards the 
emancipation of their article from a thraldom which 
in proportion as makes it unfitted for the market, 
reduces by so much its market value. 

Nothing but the magnitude of the scale, or to 
use a phrase of more common coinage, ' the 
importance of the interest ' blinds or dulls the 
public eye to the anomalies that oppress the Com- 
merce of the Soil. Let any man of business expert 
in the transfer of any other description of 'stock' 
that the world contains — that man acquires employs 
or improves to the behoof or service of his 
brother man, by the application of labour capital, 
or both, — examine the incidents attendant on 
the sale, or the hiring, of a hundred acres of 
land ; let him study the title, and the costs, of the 
' purchaser' in the one case, or the tenure taken by 
the ' tenant ' in the oilier ; let him simply draw for 
himself the conclusion which would occur to one 
regarding the transactions from a purely mercantile 
point of view : let him then look at the distribu- 
tion of land in ownership in this country, on the 
one hand, and the average condition of land rented 
on the other : aud in aid of his conclusion let us 
suppose him, in addition to his mercantile experience 
possessed of the skill of the lawyer without his 
habituated tolerance of fiction, the practical knowledge 
of the farmer without his devotion to routine. We 
believe the conclusion he would be driven to would 
be that the subject of the economy of the soil lingers 
in a state of semi-feudal infancy ; that the marks 
remain upon it of some latent cause long operating 
to check the progress of material civilisation, in this 
regard, and to give an exceptional character to the 
dealings between man and man in all that relates to 
The Soil. 

Let us, however, look at this question by the 
light of a comparison recently instituted by a 
great historian of our day between the agri- 
cultural systems in Great Britain and in 
Russia. After alluding to the 
emigration of nearly 350,000 
British Islands, and asserting 
digious drains springing out of 
necessities of civilisation cannot go on for 
length of time without seriously weakening 



mouves wuicn icu tu a, certain material gnaiauiee i- ..i /*-, i <■ °. ° . i 

-the invasion and occupation of those produces by I °~J °t gU38 f - ( /^ iJ™ 1 ? 5tan . ce )l ha ™ g 
the troops of the Czar,-the infamous first act of the I Se \„\\ to , he asceita ' ned S}rth and weight of the 
disastrous war in which we are involved. 3rdly, I »™ m ^ belore J™', the weight is read off at but 
we are to believe, upon the instance of two or three I on -\ t p . la ^i and ihoa ^ the ™ m ?. measurements 
wretched harvests in succession, in England, and the i ™P ht ' n dlffe ^ ent «"™^« result ,n dliteren J t we, S ht ! 
wholesome cessation of a forced and unnatural , f h tfT?\ G f I! ?', an< l,? e an £ f M - d 
export from Ireland of a grain-crop unadapted de f f f ° f ¥«"" of , *e ftock, nothing whatever is 

left to the judgment of the valuer m using such an 
instrument as this — his instrument gives but one 
weight for all these various cases. 

In E wart's cattle gauge,* however, the indications 
of the instrument are various, according to the 
estimate which the valuer makes of the influence of 
these several circumstances. He reads it differently 
according to the breed and fatness of the animal 
before him ; and with a lot of animals of even 
quality and one breed, a very great degree of 
certainty is attainable. Excepting a few excep- 
tional cases — by which an asterisk is placed in the 
table — the actual weight of the animals measured is 
very near indeed to the estimated weight ; an 1 we 
have given in three columns the weights read off, as 
" fat," and " very fat," and " extra fat " respectively ;. 
and it will be seen that, on the whole, the cattle 
were a "very fat " lot — those at Smithftrid exceed- 
ing those at Birmingham in this respect. The 
general results given at the foot of the table prove, 
we think, that for estimating the value of a number 
of fat cattle, a little skill in measuring, and the 
very slight skill needed to determine the degree of 
fatness which the animals possess, will, with the use 
of this instrument, lead to as safe a judgment of their 
weight, and therefore of their value, as the longest 
and most matured market experience ; the only 
difference — though we admit its great importance — 
being that the valuer in this way is not likely to 
have so much confidence in his own judgment. The 
rule for measuring is to take the girth immediately 
behind the shoulder, where it is least ; and to take 
the length as the distance between two vertical 
lines, one of which lies on the general outline of the 
hind quarters, and the other cuts the shoulder blade 
just in front of its highest point. 

As . instances of extraordinarily early maturity 
among the cattle shown at Baker Street we may 
refer to Nos. 36 and 38 among the Hereford oxen, 
2 years and 11 months old, and weighing OH and 
100 stones respectively ; and \o 5C, 60, 62, and 64 
among the short-horn cattle, the same age as the 
Herefords, and varying in weight from 90 to 103 I 
stones each — the latter being the weight of the Duke 



annual stream of 
a year from the 
that " such pro- 
the passions and 
any 
the 



strength and lessening the population," (as if an 
overflowing and a declining population could be a 
permanently co-existing condition) ; he proceeds as 
follows : — 

" To this it must be added that the introduction of 
the free-trade system into Great Britain has already 
given a very great impulse to agricultural industry in 
Russia, where it is advancing as rapidly as it is declining 
in the British Islands. As this change has arisen from 
the necessary effect of the wealth, civilisation, and 
advanced years of the British Empire, so there is no 
chance of its undergoing any alteration, and it must 
come every day to evince a more powerful influence on 
the relative strength and fortunes of the two empires. 
Even before the free-trade system had been two years 
established in Great Britain, it bad, despite the rude 
system of agriculture there prevalent, nearly doubled 
the exportation of grain from the harbours of Russia, 
and tripled its. value, while it has caused the production 
of cereal crops in the British Islands to decline 4,000,000 
quarters. ^ The effect of such a coniinued and increasing 
augmentation on the one side, and decline on the other, 
cannot fail ere long to exercise a powerful influence on 
the fortunes and relntve strength of the two empires.; 
and B-hen it is recollected that the increase is given to 



under some other crop — what then ? If the writer 

could only have proceeded to show that one single 

acre was consigned to idleness, returned to normal 

rabbit-warren, gorse-bed, thicket, or morass, — that it 

was not in fact better employed — yes better — in 

virtue of this very importation of ' Russian' corn, 

the argument would have been followed out and 

had meaning. The answer to it, had it really any 

truth in fact, were this, that what everybody saw 

and remarked of every ill-managed farm he passed, 

what each owner felt and each tenant as well as 

agent knew upon each individual estate and farm, 

was equally true, of course, of the aggregate — viz., 

that the very thing wanted for the perfectionising of 

British agriculture was less grain-crop and more 

green-crop, — less corn and more meat, less hand-to- 
mouth farming and more stock : and the two or three 

years of cotemporaneous low price and low produce 

(traceable to the most obvious temporary causes), 

while doubtless a season of great agricultural depres- 
sion, had the 'jewel' of adversity 'in its head,' 

and went no small way to effect what ' agricultural 

societies,' and ' farmers' clubs,' and ' improving 

owners,' and ' active agents,' and ' example 

farms,' and all the other recognised organs of 

' agricultural improvement,' had laboured at with 

but modest results for many years, namely to get 

more beef and mutton out of the land trodden by 

the most beef-and-mutton-eating people in the 

world, and to employ British men, British horses, 

and British implements upon that branch of farming 

business which the nature of the climate especially 

favoured, and the habits of the people especially 

required. 

Burke was wont to say that the unhappy conflict 

between England and her once American Colonies 

was begotten by a metaphor — that of the 'parent 

state and the offspring.' Something of the same of Rutland's prize ox, purchased by Mr. Ferris, 

conviction occurs to one on contemplating the figure °' Bath. 

of Russian agriculture glori ^ed as that of " a young Among the sheep we note the following instances 

and rising state " by contrast with the " advanced : which have been furnished to us : — Lord Walsing- 

years of the British empire." Defend us all from ' ham's pen of 32-month South Down wethers, 
murder, manslaughter, and metaphor ! If Moldavia I bought by Mr. Bannister, of Threndneedle Street, 
and Wallachia are Russian provinces, and the corn ] weighed 483 lbs., besides 60 lbs. of loose fat. The 
grown there, Russian corn ; if serf-labour is better I pen shown by the Duke of Richmond, No. 195— 
than that of free men ; if farming that takes " six : three 20-month South Down wethers bred by hi 
cultivators to feed themselves and one other member . Grace — purchased by Mr. King, of Paddington Street 
of society " be in a fair way to overtake that of a weighed 390 lbs., which for animals so purely bred h 
country where '•' the labour of one man raises food astonishing. Indeed the South Down breed ar( 
for seven," [see Alison's "History of Europe," II., rapidly becoming in actual weight what relatively 
127.] — then indeed is "agriculture advancing in to bulk they have long been, i.e., the first of Englisj 
Russia as rapidly as it is declining in the British breeds of sheep, 

Islands : " and if, on the other hand, a branch of We may also refer to Mr. Druce's pen of 21- 
British industry only just out of leading-strings, month cross-bred Wethers, weighing 40 lbs, 
and suffered to walk without the fostering care of quarter, as another instance of very early ma 
Parliament and the preventive arms of the Custom- I turity. The 20-month South Down and Leiceste 
house, and still employed upon a ' raw material ' j cross-bred wethers shown by Mr. Overman. 
unemancipated from some of- the costliest relics J Rayham, Norfolk, weighed 484 lbs., besides 50 lbs, 
of ' feudal tenure,' be citable as an arm of British of " loose fat ; and for extraordinary weight Mi, 
enterprise and skill past the meridian of national , Clarke's 4 years and S months long-woolled e 
strength aud progress and verging on decline, then i may be instanced, weighing 5-1 lbs. a quarter 
indeed may the most unfavourable picture be true | . We add as an isolated fact that the only install 
that the prejudice even of party-feeling can , i n which we have been provided with the live 
draw for Great Britain by the side of Russia, in a well as carcase weight is in the case of the o: 
comparison of "the relative strength and future | No. 12S, at Baker Street, purchased by Mr. Taylo, 
fortunes " of the two empires. f Malton, which weighed 1104 lbs. alive, while ' 

' carcase weighed 771 lbs., or rather more than t 

In our next page will be found the measure- thirds of its living weight. 

ments and weights of most of the cattle shown at | i 

Baker Street and Birmingham last month. We' * Jladeoy Mr. Tree, of Charlotte Street, Blackfviars Road 



1855.] 



Til E A G EtICU LTITRA I. GAZETTE. 





MEASUEBMENT AND WEIGHTS' 


OP CATTLE 


at i;/ 


iK I.I.'. STEEET AND BIEMINGHAM, 








NAMES Off PUBCDAflBBB, 


BJIOWN AT BAKER B'J BEET. 


Win. hit. 


AND AT BIBMI (Oil 


B 


Ago. 


l,,'ii',|li 


Girth. 


I n~ V.' i.i. .hi. 


,-. i i . . 


■ 

3 


A JO. 




<;irlh. 


. 


■ 


u 


ft 


k 
: 


: 


Can i ' 


. 




> 




Car mm. 




1 

2 



8 


DEVON STEERS. 
Mr, Mombriiy, Mile End Now Rood, London 
Jeffrey, Foubort'H Ploco, Roge.nt.4l,. I' 

— Jeffrey, Foubort'H Place. . 

— T. Slater, Kensington i> 

— Jeffrey, Foubort's Placo... 


yi'H. mo. 
2 1 
2 10 
2 7 
2 11 
2 10J 


ft, In. 

-1 11 
4 H 
B 1 

-t 9 
r, 


ft. In. 
7 I 
11 II 
7 
7 H 
7 -1 


l< 

B7 

se 

711 
711 
117 


IllOIIU/l 

se 

68 

so 

78 

70 


ii 1 ', in. ii 
111 

80 
89 
70 

.1 


lit. Ibil. 
HI 
r,8 (i 

76 2 

. 1 i 

08 10 


J II,. 
Ii ii 

II 10 


74 

7-1 
70 


V ■: 5 17 

1 9 1 •• <;- i.i 
1 
by Mr, U»IUrd,8now Hill, Birmingham. 


'/; 4 


>t. IU. 
7 It 



AvcniRo of previous ClasH (9), at Bnkor Street, 2 yrs. II J mo., 4 ft. ,'i in., 7 ft. -1 in. ; at Birmingham, ('.',/, 2 ym. 10 rno., 4 ft. 10 in., 7 ft. 
DEVON OXEN. 
Mr. Pothorbrldgo, 17, Hastings Stroot, 

Burton Orotioont 

1 1, iiniiii', Onnnon Stroot, City... 
Petliorbridgo 

— w. Smith, 8B, Soutbornbay, i'.xotor 
W. Smith, Exeter |i 

— Jeffrey, Foubort's Placo T 

A vt.rngo of previous Class (10), at Baker Street, <l yrs. i mo., 5 ft. 1 in., 8 ft. 1 in.; nt Birmingham, (4), 3 yrs. 9 mo., 5 ft 3 in., 7 ft. 7 J in 

DEVON HEIFERS. 

|Mr. Hum & Son, Hope Clmpol-st, Clifton p| 3 8 I 5 1 I 7 <) 1 72 i 70 70 l SO 8 I 10 9 II 77 IP3 H l r, I | 7 <; i 72 | v; , 79 

Ehiblrk. K.mt MmilKoy. Surrey •• 2 10 -I 10 7 6 (17 70 711 118 8 (I 12 78 8 8 4 9 I 7 O 68 80 

|-Jeffroy,F lort'sPlaco ... J' I 8 9 1.410 | 7 3 I 68 I 68 I 7o | 08 | ... || 79 |P2 10 | 4 9 | 7 4 | 64 I 87 I 70 

Averago of previous Class (5), at Baiter Street, :i yrs. 7 mo., 4 ft., lOin.,',7 ft. 5 in.; at Birmingham, (3), 3 yr». I mo., 4 ft. 10 in., 7 ft. .'i in 
DEVON COWS. 



•8 


r. o 


7 r, 


60 


72 


70 


1 OJ 


r, ii 


H 2 


92 


911. 


100 


8 9 


•1 9 


7 8 


70 


73 


70 


1 4 


r. o 


H 2 


83 


1-7 


111 


1 II 


6 2 


8 5 


93 


90 


100 


4 O 


r, 2 


8 2 


80 


00 


111 



84 


H 


12. 





911 


2 






1 


-1 


10 


4 


91 





10 





' 





II 


1 


88 










08 
70 
71 


P 11 7 

1 '. 
.; , 


r, 4 
u r, 

5 


7 11 
7 7 


. 


. 

82 

78 


! 
i-l 
82 


'. . i 

i ' I 


by Mr. B 








71 


hy Mr. .'I!''' 


Blrmlii 







8 




: 


. 




It 


1 




10 


10 


12 






8 10 

7 2 



Mr. Ballard, of Snow hill, Iiir.viingaam- 
by Mr. Harrison, Edgbaiiton, Birmingham. 



Mr. Henry Gorrlngo, Lowed ... p 5 2 15 1 7 11 80 83 88 SI 10 8 8 78 

— White Shadweli .. 9 5 1 7 3 07 70 78 69 10 11 2 

Mr. ■)■ llnydi.n, Carnhaltoll 1' 6 4 9 7 69 61 64 00 11 10 79 

Smith Exeter — ... ... 7 4 5 2 7 10 78 83 87 83 « 10 

— Andurstmi, Now CroSH, Sumyy ... 11 5 7 8 -01 (19 72 71 8 11 11 

— Mr. Stookley, 20, Montpollur Street, 

Brompton ... .. 7 9 5 7 5 09 72 70 72 10 12 

■Averago of previous Class (7), at Baker Street, 7 yrs., 5 ft., 7 ft. 6 in. ; at Birmingham, (1), 7 yrs. 7 mo., 4 ft. 10 in., 7 ft. 6 in. 
HEREFORD STEERS. 

IMr.'Ihuvmwood, Windsor pi 2 11 I 5 3 I 8 8 90 94 98 I 91 fi I 14 4 II 13 |P2 11 | 5 8 | 8 3 | 90 I 84 1 98 I 81 8 I 11 

I— i.M.Smith, Westbury, Wilts l'| 2 11 | r> 1 | 8 2 | 85 | 89 | 93 [*100 6 | ... |l Same as 36, Baker Street 

Average of previous Class (5), at Baker Street, 2 yrs. 11 mo., 5 ft. 3 in., 8 ft, 2 in. ; at Birmingham, (1), 2 yrs. 10 mo., 8 ft. 2 in., 7 ft. 10 in. 
HEREFORD OXEN. 



10 
13 



3 1 5 9 J 5 10 | 9 | 117 I 123 | 130 | 129 
No. 3 was bought by Mr. Burge, Bristol. 

No. 24 by Mr. R. Kirke, Ckcsteficld. 



Mr. Smith, Exeter 4 11 5 7 8 10 109 114 119 111 11. 

— ( laiulwrlniii,'M5, High St., Exetor P 3 Hi 5 9 8 10 112 117 123 126 12 14 

— mith, Kent Road 8 3 5 3 8 2 88 92 96* 82 12 8 

— '.sepli Stevens, Oxford 3 9 5 8 2 92 90 100 101 2 

— D. Bull, 9, Great Chapel St., West- 
minster ... 3 7 5 4 8 1 88 91 96 92 8 

— Bannister, Throaduoedle Street ... 3 3 5 9 8 9 110 115 120 110 10 
Stevens, Oxford 4 6 6 3 8 1 86 90 94 86 4 

— Hook, Old Kent Road 3 5 8 80 83 83 88 1 

— C. Frampton, Wimborno, Dorset p 3 11 5 9 7 | 12G 132 138 127 S 

Average of previous Class (10), at Baker Street, 3 yrs. 10 mo., 5ft. 5 in., 8 ft. 5 in.; at Birmingham, (il), i yrs. 4 mo., 5 ft. 5 in., 8 ft. 7 in. 
HEREFORD HEIFERS. 

|Mr. Stockloy, Brompton P| 3 10 | 5 4 [ 7 10 | 82 | 85 | 90 | 81 2 | 10 4 || 24 | 4 8 | 5 9 | 8 3 | 98 | 103 | 107 | 102 

Average of previous Class (2), at Baker Street, 2 yrs. 1 1 mo., 5 ft. 3 in., 7 ft. 7 in.; at Birmingham, (-1), 4 yrs. 1 mo., .5 ft. 6 in., 8 ft. 2 in. 
HEREFORD COWS. 

|Mr. Martin, 95, Duke St., Manchester Sq.1 6 I 5 2 | 8 I 83 I 88 I 90 | 80 12 I 10 II 19 p| 13 8 | 5 8 | 7 8 | 83 | S8 | 93 | 80 

I — Stevens, Oxford p| 5 10 | 5 | 7 S | 73 | 77 | 80 | 79 [ ... || Bought by Mr. Bygrove, Banburv. 



| 16 6 



| li 



I | u 



Average of previous Class (3), at Baker Street, 6 yrs. 7 mo., 5 ft. 3 in., 8 ft. ; at Birmingham, (4), 9 yrs. 7 mo., 5 ft 4 in., 8 ft. 1 in. 
SHORT-nORN STEERS. 



Mr. W. Palmer, Cambridge,.. 

— J. Snape, IS, Great College Street, 
Westminster 

— Ferris, Buth P 

— Varney, ChaDter Street, Westminster 

— T. Pannell, 169, Aldersgate Street ... 



\ll 


5 3 


S 3 


90 


94 


9S 


2 S 


5 2 


S 2 


S6 


90 


95 


2 11 


5 


8 6 


90 


94 


99 


2 11 


5 2 


8 2 


86 


90 


95 


2 11 


5 1 


7 7 


73 


77 


SO* 



91 10 

95 10 

103 

92 
90 2 



10 7 

15 3 

11 6 
15 
11 11 



40 I 
42 P 



2 9 

3 1 



5 1 
5 G 



S 



80 
96 



BO 
90 



No. 40 was bought by Mr. Tylor, Birmingham. 
No. 42 by Mr. Ogden, Wirkswortb, Derby. 



Average of previous Class (8), at Baker Street, 2 yrs. 10 mo., 5 ft. 2 in., 8 ft.; at Birmingham, (4), 3 yrs., 5 ft. 3 in., 7 ft. 10 in. 
SHORT-HORN OXEN. 



Mr. Palmer, Cambridge 

— Stone, Watford, Herts 

— Ford, 5, Fenton Street, Russell Sq. 

— Watting, Marchmoutb Street ... 

— Botrell, 41, Rochester Row, West- 
minster 

— Crag, Mount Street 

— Smith & Son, Salisbury 

— Woodley, Aldgate, High Street 

— Mason, Queen Street, Chelsea 



3 10 


5 5 


S 10 


106 


110 


116 


3 10 


5 5 


9 7 


126 


130 


136 


4 4 


5 2 


9 5 


115 


119 


125 


3 10 


5 2 


S 9 


99 


103 


109 


3 8 


5 5 


S 9 


104 


10S 


114 


4 9 


6 10 


S 1 


95 


100 


105 


4 S 


5 6 


S 10 


107 


112 


118 


4 2 


6 6 


8 9 


105 


110 


115 


4 


5 3 


9 


106 


111 


117 



113 10 

'117 

125 10 

105 S 

104 10 

106 4 
110 
103 
110 4 



12 
13 
11 
13 

11 
16 
11 
12 

14 



30 I 3 8 I 5 10 I S 7 I 107 1 112 I 117 I 113 4 1 15 6 

32 3 9 5 S I 8 S I 105 HI 117 I 103 17 

35 | 3 S I 8 7 | 8 5 | 99 | 104 | 109 I 102 12 | 1 

No. 30 bought by Mr. S. Hopkins, Leighton, Beds. 

No. 32 and 63 by Mr. Raynor, Mansfield ; 35 by Messrs. Lucas & Morton, 

Rugby. 
No. 67 by Mr. Enniss, 56, Great Hampton Street, Birmingham. 



Average of previous Class (14), at Baker Street, 4 yrs. 1 mo., 5 ft. 5 in., 3 ft. 10 in.; at Birmingham, (9), 3 yrs. 1 1 mo., 5 ft. 7 in., 8 ft. 6 in. 
SHORT-HORN HEIFERS. 



IMr.G.R. Banks, St. Neots, Herts pi 3 10 I 5 7 I S 7 | 103 I 103 1113 I »99 

— Lipscombe, High Wycombe, Bucks ... 3 10 5 G 8 88 92 96 91 

I — R. Lawrence, Twickenham I 3 9 I 5 2 | 7 S [ 76 I 81 | S7 I SO 12 



13 
16 
11 



G3 
67 



3 11 
3 9 



5 S 
5 4 



S 

7 9 



90 
SO 



95 

ii 



100 
S3 



95 
SO 



Average of previous Class (6), at Baker Street, 3 yrs. 9 mo., 5 ft. 4 in., 8 ft. 2 in. ; at Birmingham, (10), 4 yrs. 1 mo., 5 ft. 5 in., 8 ft. 1 in. 
SHORT-HORN COWS. 
Mr. Woodley, Aldgate, High Street ... 5 6 5 4 7 11 83 SS 91 I 84 S 11 S 48 

— Worsell. Folkstone, Kent 5 9 5 2 SO 82 S6 90 91 16 4 51 

ks, 14, liampstead Road 4 7 5 S S S 107 111 116 110 4 15 

— C. Castle, Hounslow ... S S 5~5 S 4 94 97 102 *S3 12 



5 I 5 5 | S S I 102 I 107 ■ I 112* I 92 

6 I 5 | 7 S | 74 I 77 | SO | 74 
No. 4S by Mr. Thompson. Bakewell. 
No. 51 by Mr. Albutt, Aston Road, Birmingham. 



11 

11 



Average of previous Class (1 1), at Baker Street, 6 yrs. 2 mo., 5 ft. 4 in., S ft. 3 in.; at Birmingham, (10), 6 yrs. 1 mo., 5 ft 5 in., 8 ft. 3 in. 
SCOTCH STEERS. 



IMr. Mann, Crovdon PI 4 5 I 5 I S 7 1103 I 10S I 112 1115 I 14 

I — Symonds, Woodford, Essex ... p| 3 S | 5 1 | 7 6 I 6S | 72 | 75 | 76 4 | 12 S 

No. 105, at Birmingham, by Mr. Slater, Kensington. 

No. 10S, by Mr. Harrison, "Caroline Street, Birmingham. 

Average of previous Class (3), at Baker Street, 4 yrs. 7 mo., 5 ft. 7 in., 8 ft. ; at Birmingham, (9), 4 yrs. 9 mo., 5 ft. 4 in., 7 ft. 9 in, 
SCOTCH COWS. 

] 4 | 5 1 | 7 S | 71 [ 75 | 7S | 7S 12 



I Mr. II. Edwards, Tonbridge Wells 



11 



105 


4 6 


5 4 


7 6 


72 


75 


75 


10S 


4 10 


5 9 


S 10 


107 


112 


117 


109 


3 S 


5 4 


7 9 


SO 


S4 


S3 


113 


5 G 


5 6 


S 


84 


S3 


92 



79 


4 


12 





15 


4 


14 


6 


80 





9 


4 


83 





13 


: 



WELSH STEERS. 
Mr. T. Johnson, Bermondsey 
Ditto ditto. ... 



6 ||109 [by Mr. Edwards. Smsllbook Street. Birmingham. 
No. 113 by Mr. Iviunersier, Newcastle-under-Lyne. 



I '- 



4 
3 10 



5 1 
5 5 



7 4 
7 6 



65 
73 



68 



71 
79 



72 12 

72 4 



Average of this Class (3), at Baker Street, 3 yrs. 10 mo., 5 ft. 3 in., 
7 ft. 3 in. 



116 | 3 2 | 5 6 | 7 6 / 74 | 77 
by Mr. Hall, Paradise Street, Birmingham. 



WELSH COWS. 

Average of this Class (2), at Baker Street, 4 yrs., 5 ft. to 7 ft. ; 
At Birmingham (3), 3 yrs. 7 mo., 5 ft. 1 in., 7 ft 

OXEN OF ANY OTHER BREED. 
Mr. Greenwood, Monument Lane. Brighton 

— Maries, Wellston Square, Warwick ... 

— T. Profitt, High Street, Walsall 

— Do. Do. Do. 

— Crockford, Balsall Heath, Birmingham 

Average of previous Class (2), at Baker Street, 4 yrs. 5 mo., 5 ft. 5 in., S ft. 1 in.; at Birmingham. (8), 4 yrs. 4 mo., 5 ft 6 in., S fr. 2 in. 
COWS OF ANY OTHER BREED. J o —■ » W» J 



St ( 76 2 1 SO 



SS 


3 7 


5 10 


S S 


110 


115 


120 


S9 


4 S 


5 S 


S 6 


102 


107 


112 


99 


3 9 


O i 


S 7 


93 


97 


100 


91 


4 7 


5 6 


S 1 


90 


94 


SS 


92 


4 7 


5 3 


7 G 


74 


7S 


SI 



Mr. It. Speed, 
I Chelsea ., 



r 6, Queen's Road, West,! 



65 | 



79 



S3 I S7 

4 7 | 7 7 | 63 | GG | .69 | '79 2 | 12 4 || 100 | 3 7 I 5 S I 7 10 | S7 | 91 | 94 
Average of previous Class (2), at Baker Street, 3 yrs. 4 mo., 5 ft. 1 in., 8 ft.; at Birmingham, (2), 5 yrs., 5 ft. 3 in., 7 ft. 9 in. 








13 


g 


Ill 





14 


: 




10 


12 


: 


90 


3 


12 


12 


S5 


2 


is 


i 


SI 





13 





;:: 


6 


14 


D 



[ Imperial weights are used. 



(Continued on next page.) 



THE AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE. 



[Jan. G, 



MEASUREMENT AND WEIGHTS* OF CATTLE AT BAKER STREET AND BIRMINGHAM, 1854— continued. 



H 








*S 








o 






Xaues of Purchasers. 


6 i 








z 5 
















o 














CEOSS-HRED OXEN. 


113 


Mr 


W 


Lambert, 3, Stockbridge Terrace, 






Pimlico 


11G 


— 


Mr 


EdwarJs, Tollbridge Wells P 



SHOWN AT BAKER STREET. 



Age. Lengtb. 



CROSS-UUED HEIFERS. 
119 [Mr. T. B. Garner, West llroiupton 
121 — T. Spencer, Southampton 
12 j I — J. Worse!, Folkstoue, Kent ... 



vrs. mo. 
2 5 



3 8 
3 S 



ft. in. 

4 11 



Girth'. 


Estimated Weight. 


s, 






fr. in. 
7 6 

S 9 


stones 
09 

110 


stones 

72 

115 


stones 
7G 

120 



Actual Weight. 



Carcase. 



C 4 
s 6 



59 
102 

77 



61 
107 
SO 



63 
112 

S4 



St. lhs. 
US 8 



55 10 
103 S 
71 4 



Loose Fat. 



st. lbs. 
8 .0 



AND AT BIRMINGHAM. 



Age. Length. 



Estimated Weight. 



Actual Weight. 



Carcase. Loose' F» 



yrs. mo. ft. in. ft. in. stones stones stones st. lbs. st. lbs 
Average of this Class (4), at Baker Street, 3 yrs. 4 mo., 5 ft. 6 it 
B ft. 5 in. 



SI PI 
82 p| 



6 9 
6 8 



LONG-HORNED COWS. 
5 3 I 7 6 I 74 | 78 I SI 
5 5 7 7 78 SI S3 



7S I 8 8 
77 2 11 12 



Average of previous Class (6), 3 vrs. 2 mo., 5 ft. 3 in., 7 ft. 8 in. 



EXTRA STOCK. 

125 Mr. T. M. Stedwell, Twickenham 

227 W. S. Jones, Featherstone Street, 

City Road 

12S — Taylor, Malton 

329 — Austee, Barnet 

132 — Bannister, Threadneedle Street ... 

133 — Wells, Southgate Road, Belvoir Town' 



Total Weight 



11 


59 


61 


G3 | 


8 7 


99 


103 


MS 


8 1 


8S 


92 


97 


S 1 


88 


92 


97 


8 11 


110 


114 


120 


1 7 7 


72 


75 


7S 



12 
15 
-15 
15 
10 



No. 98 by Mr. Slater, Kensington. 

— 100 by Mr. A. Todd. Coleshill, Birmingham. 

— SI by Mr. Roberts, Keuilwortli. 

— S2 by Mr. Bond, Stafford Street, Birmingham. 



Average of previous Class (11), 4 yrs. 7 mo., 5 ft. 3 in., 7 ft. 11 in. 
... | ... 1 6149 | 6341 | 67,17 |6425 | ... I| ... | ... | ' 



1 2S78 | 3019 | 3134 I 2962 11 



" Imperial weights are used. 



Home Correspondence. 

Spade Husbandry. — I trust you will be good enough to 
give a place to the following remarks on spade husbandry, 
which I am surprised to find so strangely neglected in 
England in the face of our much and justly boasted 
agricultural progress. I believe the advantages of this 
mode of cultivation are fully admitted, the only objec- 
tion being what is erroneously termed the expense. In 
this, as in all other cases, ignorance and prejudice are 
the greatest obstacles to advancement, for the spade or 
fork is held to be costly only because men vjill not try 
it. The Farmer's Almanac avers the expense of spade 
and plough to be much more nearly balanced than is 
generally imagined. Scientific men may astonish the 
world by producing implements, but there is no real 
digging machine but the able-bodied, expert, and in- 
dustrious labourer. If you were to keep public atten- 
tion fixed on this movement, we should soon have 
enterprising agriculturists in many districts, fairly 
testing the merits of the fork. Patience, perseverance, 
and impartiality are all the requisites. The increased 
comforts of our admirable agricultural population, the 
diminution of poor-rates, the vast superiority of the 
average yield of the land, the permanent improvement 
of the soil, and the economising of human food, will be 
found amongst the most powerful reasons in its favour. 
I wish myself in an humble way to give proof of 
my sincerity by practising what I preach ; and 
I am seeking a small " garden farm," for I hold that 
agricultural returns depend more on the amount of 
capital judiciously invested, than on the actual extent of 
your farm ; so I am of opinion that 50 acres worked to 
the highest degree will do much more than 150 acres in 
a slovenly way without capital, skill, or energy. I may 
add, in conclusion, that stock, the source of all profit, 
must be kept -to the largest number the land can carry, 
for animal manure, liquid and solid, must follow the 
fork. /. Hamilton. 

Deep and Shallow Draining. — A few weeks since, you 
stated that probably the generality of agriculturists, as 
well as Mr. Walton, were in favour of shallow draining. 
I am no theorist ; I have drained rather extensively in 
several counties for the last 40 years, sometimes 30 
inches, 3 feet, 4 feet, and not unfrequently 6 and 10 feet, 
according to localities and circumstances. In some 
places 30 inches, or 3 feet, prove more effectual than 
4 feet ; but the subsoil being, as Mr. Walton says, fine 
and good, I prefer the depth of 4 feet — partly because 
at 3 feet, in a dry season, both green and cereal crops 
will send their roots for moisture into the drains. The 
most durable and efficient drains, and in effect the most 
extraordinary, are those from 6 to 10 feet, driven up to 
the head of the spring, and often draining a great extent 
of valley land. It is the height of gullibility to believe 
that any distant practitioner can, without inspection, 
dictate the proper space apart and depth of drain for 
every locality. One fact of very remarkable im- 
portance relative to 4 feet draining has not been noticed, 
as far as I have learned, by any essayist in favour of 
that depth. It is now well known that under ordinary 
circumstances and weather, during a bright day, the 
rays of heat will penetrate the earth to the depth of 
4 feet, and that during a following bright night the 
heat will be returned from the same depth ; but if 
obstruction by a non-conducting body prevent the daily 
radiation, whether it be at "20 inches or 3 feet, the hoat 
will be returned proportionately before the night be 
passed, and the surface, being consequently colder 
before day, will be covered with hoar frost long after 
it may have disappeared on the adjoining land. Every 
observing farmer in his early walks may have remarked 
this. In a soil such as Mr. Walton approves I have 
proved the capillary attraction of the water upwards in 
a drain to be from 6 to 9 inches, according to the nature 
of the subsoil. Suppose this constant moisture above a 
drain of 20 inches, with or without the sea below, and 



contrast it with a dry space of 4 feet daily penetrated 
by the sun's genial rays, and take your choice. Thomas 
Landor, Burton. 

Green Vitriol. — I have been using green vitriol on 
my liquid manure tanks, and also on my long manure 
made principally in my cow sheds, believing that it was 
a cheap and valuable agent to fix the ammonia, and 
also speedily to decompose aud make ready for use the 
long and green dung heap. Your able papers on 
Coveney's manure lead me to the conclusion that 
green vitriol is almost worthless as an agent ; it certainly 
makes the dung-heap ready for use earlier than it other- 
wise would be — an object to me ; but I suppose there is 
no means I could employ to render the phosphoric acid 
in it soluble. Shall I use up my remaining stock on the 
dung-heap or in the liquid manure tank, or what do 
you recommend me to do with it ? Can you also re- 
commend me a cheap and efficient deodoriser for the 
tanks, the stench from which is almost insufferable, 
and must be injurious to the man who pumps their 
coutents into the liquid tumbler cart, one of Stratton's. 
O. P., Bristol, Jan. 2. [You had better sell what green 
vitriol you have remaining, and use charcoal dust or 
sulphuric acid to fix the ammonia of your tanks] 

Thin Seeding. — Messrs. Hardy, of Maldon, state 
the result of their garden experiments as follows : — 









a 






ej 


3 


Time of Sowing and 
Transplanting. 


OP, 


[3*3 
O j- 


a 


.3 

c 

a 


O o 


5 
p 

o 


p 

a 
o r3 
























* 




























g 


a 


a 


=3 


=3 




sq. 
ins. 








pints. 




bsh. 


Sown 1st September 1 

for transplanting j- 


1298 


so 


80 


6400 


X 


finest. 


50 


144 


20 


60 


120U 


U 


finer. 


84 


iu Autumn \ 


72 


10 


50 


600 


9 


fine. 


70 


Sown in Autumn V 


7 


1 


50 


50 


G4 . 


fair. 


50 


from October to i- 
December ) 


3$ 


A 


25 


25 


12S 


thin. 


25 


2 


£ 


5 


5 


192 


lean. 


15 


Grasses. — " Consta 


nt " will find the following mix 


ture 


good for permanent 


Grass, upon strong damp soil, y 


nz. : 




lbs. 




lbs. 


Alopecurus pratensis 


... 3 


Poa nemoralis sempervi 




Festnca duriuscula ... 


... 3 


rens 


3 


Dactvlis glomerata ... 


... 6 


Poa trivialis 


3 


Festuca pratensis 


... 3 


Medicagolnpiilina 


. U 


Loliuin italicum 


... 6 


Trilbliuni pratense 


■ H 


,, perenne... 


... 12 


„ perenne 


. 4* 


Plileiitn pratense 


... 3 




,. 


re 


pens 




• ti£ 



I have sown the above mixture along with Wheat, 
Oats, and Barley, and likewise by itself. The seed will 
always succeed the best by itself, but not to a degree 
to compensate for the loss of a thin crop of Barley or Oats, 
which is always worth harvesting. The ground should 
be well prepared before the seed is sown ; worked 
i down into a fine state, to allow the roller to pass over, 
I without the soil attaching to it. The seeds should be 
sown about the last week in April. If the seeds are 
sown by themselves, you will have a good crop of 
Grass for autumn use, to cut for green food or to eat 
down with cattle. In cutting the first year, it will be 
best only to take one crop from, it, and eat the second 
crop down with stock upon dry days ; by so doing it 
gives the finer kind of Grasses a better chance of esta- 
blishing themselves, than by allowing the Clover to grow 
for a second crop. J. Daniels, Woodside House. 

A good road is a great saving in horse-flesh, carts, and 
harness. If agriculturists would make a calculation of 
the difference of draught on a turnpike, or through a 
muddy lane or field, it would astonish them. In many 
instances one horse in three would not compensate for 
the increased friction and strain on a bad road. Taking 
these matters into consideration, it becomes a question 
whether the expense of keeping the ways about a farm 
iu hard working order would not be repaid in a twelve- 



month by saving the damage and wear and tear, both U 
animals, waggons, aud vehicles of every description. Th( 
exertion required to drag a load through deep ruts ii 
most distressing to a team, and particularly injurious U 
young horses, who are often lamed incurably by tin 
unnatural motion consequent upon the unequal draught 
The jerk to extricate the wheels from the slough o 
despair is enough to rupture every sinew and sprin| 
every joint ; — premature old age, or rather cripple' 
youth, follows rough usage and over-work both in mi; 
and beast. Farmers must acknowledge 1854 to hav 
been a remunerative year, with a bountifuiharvest, mor 
than an average, taking one crop with another ; ii 
thankfulness for such a blessing, farmers should ope 
their purse strings, give liberal wages, and employ labou 
in improvements, though it may not produce direc 
profit — indirectly it will, if expended in repairing road; 
dressing hedges, opening ditches, collecting and stifh 
burning rubbish, and other odd jobs — fit occupation 
when frost, snow, or the wet state of the Ian 
make it injurious or impossible to till it. At the.' 
times how many poor industrious men are turne 
adrift because ploughing and harrowing cannot 1 
followed, instead of which their valuable services shou 
be turned to account in different ways, giving them i 
interest in what belong to their masters. There a: 
unusual drains now thinning the population of the abl 
bodied, war, pestilence, and emigration. It would 1 
wise to prevent the last of the three as much as possibl 
by finding plenty of work for the labouring classes at bom 
It is natural for men to wish to improve their conditio 
and they well know the facilities which exist for so doil 
out of England, and are, therefore, only too glad 
leave the land of their birth, where it is so difficult 
provide the necessaries of life for their families, j 
the same time, many who emigrate would rejoice 
remain at home if the slightest encouragement w 
given them ; a prospect of employment all the ye. 
round, with fair wages, would induce many an hone 
fellow to struggle on, rather than settle in a ne 
country. Often is the following remark made — " Tl 
land wants plenty of hands and would pay for tl 
labour ; it is, therefore, hard upon us to be starvii 
when we ought to be earniug a livelihood, and puttii 
money into our own pockets as well as our masters 
This is true enough. The want of either energy, monc 
or charity, operates to continue the mistake of allow! 
the best men to go away, rather than use their sine 
in improving property, because the return is not imm 
diately visible, but indirect. There will be no use 
shutting the stable door when the horse is stoler 
Falcon. 

Payne's, Defiance Revilt Wheat Although I ha 

grown on one field a fine crop of this Wheat, ourraille 
declined buying it, except at a reduction of 10s. p 
quarter, as compared with other red Wheat, and I he 
the same complaint from others. The weight was got 
about 62 lbs per bushel. Can you or your correspon 
ents enlighten me as' to whether this objection is w 
founded? I think the Rev. S. Smith, of Lois-Weedc 
grows this kind of Wheat. /. /. Mechi, Dec. 23th. [J 
the cone Wheats, and excepting perhaps the Ap 
Wheat, all the bearded Wheats are of a coarser sc 
than the common whites and reds.] 

Subterranean Application of Liquid Manure. 
Amongst the curiosities of agriculture may be 
tioned a new system of growing agricultural produd 
applying liquid or sewage manure to the subsoil unc 
the roots, about 16 to 13 inches deep: The plan ha* 
am told, been patented by Mr. Wilkins, at whose in 
tation myself and some other gentlemen investigat 
the operation, and estimated the results. On one sidi 
number of plots or beds of soil were planted on t 
patent principle with Mangold Wurzel, Beet Ro 
Hemp, Potatoes, Cabbage, Lucerne, Italian Rye-gro 
■and Celery, each plot having opposite to it a similar I 



: 



8155.] 

willi similar noil not on tlio putont principle. The 
plants in both wore miwii the name day from (he same 
Harcel of Bead, supplied l).y Messrs. Sutton, of Reading. 
X ought here to mention that the ground so occupied in 
clone to the railway station, Reading, and occupies about 
one-8ixtb of an acre!. The contrast in every crop, on 
every bed, wan very striking, the produce of the patent 
bedH showing an increase in quantity of from 400 to 000 
per cent. The plan is simply this : a floor is paved »iiii 
brick or concrete at a depth of 16 inches from the 
surface, with it rim or brick on eilge 'I .J ins. deep, like 
tray ; half round pipes are placed on the floor in » lino 
under the intended row of plants. These pipes ore 
at tlio end connected with a vertical pipe reaching 
to tlio surface, down which the liquid-manure is 
poured, anil thus conducted to tbo half round pipes 
below. Of course the earth is filled in to the level of 
tbo surrounding soil, and the seeds sown over the lino of 
tbo subterranean pipes. Liquid-manure had been applied 
weekly through the pipes on the patent beds, but 
none on the others, except on one where the manure each 
time hail been applied on tbo surface to Mangold 
Wurzel, which were very inferior to tbopo on tbo 
patented bed. Several questions arise on this experi- 
ment, first, whether the return will repay tlio cost, and, 
if so, whether the sewage of towns could not bo largely 
and usefully applied as a manure. There was a 
remarkable appearance of quality anil luxuriance about 
all the crops so treated, an abseuco of fangs, a delicacy 
of root compared with the ordinary process, and 
evidence of very rapid growth. One Potato planted in 
June bad bines 6 feet long and numerous Potatoes, one 
of which weighed 2 lbs., although tbo parent one was 
small and of a small stock. The corresponding ouc on 
tbo opposite bqjl was 'very inferior in product. The 
former bad sent down a strong root to tbo neighbour- 
hood of tbo subterranean pipes, and bad there 
multiplied its fibres most abundantly. The Carrot 
bad gone directly down to the liquid as straight as an 
arrow, whilst its competitor in the opposite bed 
was short nnd fnnged. The most extraordinary result 
was its effect on Turnip seed sown in September on 
tile surface. The seeds all vegetated, and the plants 
were vigorous on the patent side ; on the other a total 
failure, except one or two stunted and crippled plants. 
The same principle is applied to flowers in pots 
and vases, and an ingenious arrangement is proposed, 
by which all tbo plants in a mansion may be simul- 
taneously supplied with liquid from a single pipe, thus 
converting the sewage of the bouse to an elegant result. 
The flowers which I saw growing on this principle were 
luxuriant. The whole question is worthy of a serious 
investigation. I remember that my neighbour, Sir 
John Tyrrell, in Essex, grew some luxuriant Celery by 
applying manure in a somewhat similar manner. Plants 
can do everything but speak — they will bunt for what 
suits them. By introducing a single llibi'e into a drain 
of running water, they will multiplj^t ten thousand 
fold to absorb all the moisture for their circula- 
tion ; we do not give vegetation credit enough for 
sagacity, although its vitality and pulsation are as 
obvious (through a microscope) as our own. I have 
known an Apple tree in my garden convert leather 
into Apples, and could adduce surprising anecdotes of 
vegetative intelligence. I think Mr. Raynbird testified 
to some interesting results of Mr. Wilkins' process at 
Woking last year. If the cost of paving, &c, were even 
1 00/. per acre, it becomes a question whether the rapid 
growth and increase might not afford an ample interest 
and profit. I should add that means are provided 
during winter to remove superfluous water. From a 
close examination of this system I deduce the conclu- 
sion that " fanginess " in roots is produced or avoided 
by the quality of^soil and position and condition of 
manure. The soil in which this operation was effected 
was sandy. In clays it might or might not answer as 
well. /. /. Mccld, Tiptree, Dec. 29. 



Til E A r, R [CU LTD R A L r. \ Z ETTE. 



13 



aliout '!'/. ; Hi'- rfttfl of ■■■■":'■■■■ bclnfj fai ■ > > 

170, nor wock, but no charge Is mndo foi MioIiqi i 

Vvtm Mr VOVB, I .,:.,';.,, t.,,, Iloll IoHkIoiiI m«Cl 

70 acres Wlioitt and Oats, and 20 sen Mow 

about r> ncrafi por day. I "ii ,, 'l two iHffurisnt pair ol lioi ■ ■'■ lien 

I In! tnocbtno ivu'i working* wn\\ I changed Ilium i ■ ' ;. threi 

hiii. wlir. I, Uiei'ii v/it'-. many itoppngi I ■ in di ;em< >•' >.t Ilia 

mftolilnory, ilh -.'.:. i very "'"'" ""■ en G tin i ronton! 

iIhv. I found Mint a pair of liomcii could <<>' 3ncri 

without being m ich dl tri ltd. i utnpl I ■ m< > 

and a Htcoror. t did not lift the corn alwi Ihot ilno, Tli« 

wonthoi' wan no lluo tills mi in that Hot It Ho In the nwaIIk! mi h 

wan rnndy for loading, and the llflcru were 

Hold mi tlin machine t calculate the c pom <■ ol i lulling ivltli roy 

machine tlilM Demon at S». pnr ncre, irus,, Interest on 

machine and toar and wonr, I ropali on do.,2 poi 

attondlng do., and feeding hot i pel v r« lifting and 

binding, i . por aoro. This Reason tlio corn won In hucIi I 

<iiii' ftarlylngrawcok In theswatha that It did notrcau 

i, ,i.,,! o I hint 1 1 int the carta afti i the binders had lea II lioinc, 
Llad it required Mtooklng It would bavo cost about i .peracro 
additional. I have not allowed an thing fortln lioi i i cepi 
the '"'in thoy Hi' 1 ; had tboy not been working In M"' mai 
would I"' Idlo and out at '- ran i. 

Mr. Wilson, Edington Mains, used two of these 
machines — ono of them Bell's original machine, with 
the clipping purls ; the other Bell's as made by Cross- 
kill, lie found the bitter much belti r than the formi r, 
and less liable to derangement. Indeed, the result ol 
bis experience with Bell's clipping machine is that, it 
requires an experienced workman to have at least a 
year's practice with it before be eiui work it. properly, 
and even then it will not do its work well. lie was in 

use able to reap an entire field with this machine, 

With the two machines, as nearly as he could estimate, 
be reaped 150 acres. The two machines reaped 32 
acres, fully, of Oats, in two consecutive days, and that 
notwithstanding great interruptions. The machine-cut 
corn be found to get into condition for the stacks sooner 
than the band cut, because it got less knocked about. 
Ho used two pair of horses, and seldom worked them 
more than three hours at a time. The horses were able 
to go on day after day with the work be spoke of. He 
was unable to give an exact account of the cost of work. 
He was harassed with feveral unfortunate stoppages, 
most of them were pure accidents, for which the machine 
was not responsible ; but some of them, he thought, 
were easy of remedy by the maker. He had no 
hesitation in saying that his harvest labour this year had 
been very much lightened by the machine. — Mr. ]). 
M. Home read the report of a discussion at the 
Haddington Club, and the speakers there give the 
expense at about 5s. per acre. Mr. Hope, Fentonbarns, 
wdio cut nearly 80 acres with Crosskill's machine, says 
that the expense was about 5s. Go!, per acre ; whereas 
for cutting with the band it would have cost him 11«. 
per acre, and the machine made much better work. 
Mr. Anderson, Blackdykes, cut 50 acres. Mr. 
Hunter, of Thurston, cut 2(>0 acres at an estimated 
expense of Us. 6d., a charge being made for two pair of 
horses per day. Mr. John Hope, of Elpbingston, 
during last harvest cut 79 acres with the sickle, 85 with 
the scythe, and 35 with the reaper. The three scythes 
cut 18 acres in four days at 9s. Sd. per aore. Bell's 
reaper cut 15 acres in two days at a cost of 41. Is., or 
5s. 5d. per acre. Twelve acres of Oats cut with the 
sickle cost 101. 2s., or 16s. 10(Z. per acre. They might 
hope that when their farm servants get more accustomed 
to the machine it will do more work than it now does ; 
and that when their farms are improved — made more 
level, and the stones removed — it will cut still more. 
Abridged from the Berwick Warder. 



Farmers' Clubs. 

East of Berwickshire. — Reaping Machines. — At 
the late half-yearly meeting of this Society the secretary 
read the queries respecting the working of reaping 
machines, which had been addressed to those farmers in 
the district who had worked the machines during the 
last harvest : we will give a few of the replies. 

From Copt. Logan Home, BroomJwuse. — Bell's improved by 
Crosskill cut on an average about 7 acres of Oats per diem, the 
crop standing upright. Four horses were used each day, viz., 
tvvo in the forenoon and two in the afternoon, and were kept in 
harness about five hours each time. One man was employed 
Steering the machine and one driving the horses, and nine 
persons were employed in taking up the corn, binding and stock- 
ing. I calculate the expense to be about 6s. an acre, viz., Is. 
an acre for cutting and 5s. an acre for taking up, binding, and 
Stocking. In this calculation I charge nothing for the horses. 

From Mr. Dagleish, West Blaneme.— M'Cormaok's reaper cut 
37 acres in 40.^ hours, 20 acres of which was a very strong crop 
of Wheat grown upon a steep hank, and 10 acres Black Oats, 
also a very heavy crop and partially laid. Bell's reaper cut 
62 acres in 91 hours -Oats, Barley, and Wheat ; none of them so 
heavy ns what was cut with M'Cormack's. The horses were 
generally changed every four hours, although they have gone a 
whole day in M'Cormack's, hut I found four hours quite enough 
for Bell's. Two men went with each reaper. M'Cormack's 
requires eight people taking up and four to bind and stook 10 to 
IS acresaday; they easily managed 12 acres of Wheat. With 
Bell's eight takers up and four hinders and stookers will do 7 to S 
acres a day. I may add in conclusion that both myself and the 
whole of my people are decidedly in favour of M'Cormack's 
reaper, it not beiug liable to go out of repair, while it is so easv 
work for the horses. 

Sir. Turnbull, Kellocmains. — Bell's Crosskill's cut where 
no stoppages occurred was about an imperial acre per hour, 
requiring the horse to walk about the rate of three miles an hour. 
Four horses' will 'work the machine 12 hours a day— 3 hours per 
yoking. The expense of cutting and binding per acre will be 



Oxford : Subterranean Application of Liquid Jfanurc. 
— At the late monthly meeting of this Club Mr. Wilkins 
stated that he had taken a spot of ground near the Great 
Western Railway Station, which be called his experi- 
mental garden. He bad selected a piece of ground 
100 feet square, which he had prepared on his patent 
principle, and by the side of it he had 100 feet.square of 
the same kind of soil, which was treated on the old 
system. Both pieces were sown and planted alike, and 
be bad advertised the day wdien the roots on both would 
be taken up, and invited the public to come and see the 
results, and judge for themselves. Those results were 
— that on the prepared piece the Mangold Wurzel 
grown was at the rate of 69 tons,' 2 qrs., and 22 lbs. to 
the acre ; the Indian corn grown on it ripened and 
came to perfection, but not on the unprepared piece ; 
the Potatoes were taken up in 11 weeks, and when 
weighed in the presence of several gentlemen were found 
to be more than double the weight of those grown on 
the unprepared piece ; the Winter Broccoli was taken 
up and eaten before winter came ; and one of the 
Cabbages weighed 1 6 lbs., although its stem remained 
in the ground, and had now upon it 15 young Cabbages. 
In the prepared bed he had -planted a Potato which be 
bad picked up at Wokingham ; it was about the size of 
a Walnut when he put it in, and it was taken up in the 
presence of Mr. Mechi and others, when the haulm was 
found to be 5 feet long ; the produce was 17 Potatoes, 
weighing Si lbs., one. of them weighing above 2 lbs. 
[This latter Mr. Wilkins produced, and handed round 
tbo room.] They were 13 weeks growing, and were 
planted in the early part of June. Mr. Wilkins then 
exhibited some Lucerne, which, he said, was the third 
cut, and contrasted it with the first cut of some grown 
on the old system. There was a very marked differ- 
ence in favour of the Lucerne grown on the new prin- 
ciple, and the same might be said of the Italian Eye- 
grass, the fifth cut of some ou the new- system being 
contrasted with some of the old. The Mangold Wurzel 
exhibited also showed the superiority of the new 
system, where the roots varied from 12 to 18 lbs., while 
on the unprepared piece they did not exceed 6 lbs. The 



nrct tin o • biblled some remarkably Hi 
•.I llcmp end Flax grown utWokiogham.adjoiuii •« i 
land belonging lo Mr. Waller, ol the Times, where 
nothing would grow. He showed some ol ibefti 
..i Hemp, which was 7 feet long, tod the second was 
8 feet | in- stated that hi of Hi mp 

and Flax in the year on the land at •• 

' ■ ; oo ■ I ho bad c 'i hi . • 

in 12 weeks. The li 

cipleol i". ) ''in was to apply the liquid mat 

■ roots of ile- plant Insti •■> I oi sbovi , 1 1 
ol tie- roi t the mo . mf, and the i 

by whb 

• tbibited i. ii ■ proec ■■. s »itb a 

watorprool bottom and sides, l inches deep. At ore 
corner waaa pip" for conveying the liquid 
the bottom, which was distributed by means oi a hall- 
drain pipe laid along the bottom ; .i 
wan a pip- V, enable any one to Me if tier- was the 
■ " " try quantity of liquid manure, 4 inches; and in 

the opposite corner wan a plug, by lifting up '.< 

the liquid manure could be reduced, or paaa off alto- 
getbei into the oil below. The depth o( earth necca- 
sary v.., eld be from 12 to 18 inches. At present be »m 
constructing these waterproof beds of til<-, ibe coat of 
which would ),■ per acre, bu 

that a much cheaper mode might be adopb I by i 

the waterproof ho' - d, In which 

case it would not exceed r-. Even at 100f. 

per acre, and if it w.re done by the landlord, who 
have 10/. per cent, for hia outlay, he was prepai 
prove that, after paying that 1 dl. per cent., the tenant 
should clear '.'Ml. per annum on every acre, bowel 
the land might be[!!] 



Notices of 3300&S. 

II Intu on Agricultural adapted Coin Midland C 
Hamilton, Adarnn and Co. 
This ia a little tract written by a lady who succeed, 
as many of her sex have done, in uniting an acquaint- 
ance with the field work of the farm with a kno 
of household duties, and a Bympathy with all that U 
kind and elegant in «oc : al life — all which in proved in 
thecontents of these few pages, in the dedication by which 
they are prefaced, and the poetry by which they are 
garnished. The thing is necessarily as slight as it can 
be, and we do not quite agree in fome of its advice. You 
cannot pull a Thistle " too soon," (p. 15,) whatever old 
sayings may exist to the contrary. And we do not need 
to go. so far as page 15 for what appear to us mistaken. 
The opening page, speaking of levelling land after dron- 
ing, describes a very imperfect mode of conducting the 
operation. The tract nevertheless contains, in very smail 
compass, a good deal of useful information. 

Flax and Hemp, and their Culture, and Manipulation. 

By E. S. Dfrbraer, author of M Pigeons and Hal 

E. Routlecge 6c Co. 
A shilling volume containing in full detail al 
mation that is needed for the cultivation of these crops. 
It is strictly manipulation that is described. The 
machinery for removing the seed, for rippling, and for 
breaking and scutching the Flax is altogether ignored. 
And a good deal of extract matter from the writings of 
Mr. Warnes and others leads us to suppose tb . 
writer may not himself be practically acquainted with 
the management and handling of the crop as cxS. 
and prepared for market, at least iu this country. 



Calendar of Operations, 
j a s r a r. v. 

"West Supsex. Jan. 2. — VTe have got to the time 

year ivhen everything looks the most cheer 
is now such as would be suitable for March or April. I: 
and mild, and there has been but little frost, which so:: 
peared. As a matter of course the mildness of the season has 
shown its effect upon the "Wheat, which now loots very forward,, 
the earliest sown rather too much so; it begins to assoa 
a grassy appearance, but we shall, no doubt, have a little :"r st 1 
check it yet. "With anything like a fne season we m3y look fcr 
a good crop, for it was never put in in b^:::r :;:.-:: the land 
was just in the state in which it works best — neither too we : 
dry. The price still rules high, and we do not think t". 
likely to fall, for there has been a large quantity threshed 
it was harvested it has been fit for the market, and prices being 
tempting all have sent it in. There is ra:her r^ore than an ave- 
rage sown, and there will yet be a good deal put in after 1 
the land being in such good order for it. Barley nasi 
well both as to quantity and qnnlity, bat has not maintained its 
price so well ; at one time it got up to 40s. cr ove" 
has given way a little. Oats tnm out well and are hea~ : i 
usual; the price from 2Ss. to SOs. Peas have this year : 
better than they generally gst credit for: we nei 
quality better, if so good: bnt Beans have been all bnt a I 
Cattle are now confined to the yards or tied up in si 
fatting, hut this is not very or Swedes which we 

thought right in quality if not in hnlk.c: 
much fitting property in them. We rather think that t 
harm if given in full allowance as Wegener:. 
much 'f\~ "We find the cattle do better en hal: . 
extra cake instead of the other half. And this arr- 
owing to the smallcess of the crop, suits ^s better - 
Cake is dear, tut as that is the cas 

we must not take notice of it, _ for it cerr^irxly win 
not do to shorten our allowance. Turnips, on whie 
depend mostly, have turned out very bac. thongh they looked at 
one time well — the dry season beat them — and there u 
patches of them r.:rtei entirely off; we fear those ] 
moreorlt— ad will be anything hat he =."..' 

no doubt partly :': S 3 — 

bnt Mangold," rrogressirg mere naturally, we mayexpe:: 
more sound. TTe have now begun to mil them Trith - 
the fatting beasrs. The ewes have commerced to 
appear very healthy : there is no lameness amorg : -z^ 
the case last year, which may of course be aK:::r.---- - : 
wetness of the one season and dryness of the other. We 
let them have Turnips until they lamb, out they have the 



14 



THE AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE. 



[Jan. 6, 



run on their pasture and what hay they choose to eat, 
care being taken not to let them out of their fold in 
the morning before the frost is off, if there is any, as we 
have seen great mischief done by causing slipping lambs from 
this cause. The weather having been so open we have not heard 
of that scarcity of hay that we expected: but still the price is 
high— from 90s. to 100s. for good meadow hay. and good Clover 
10s. to 15s. higher. The young Clovers that looked so very bad 
after the corn was cut have now pretty generally made their 
appearance, and we may expect that they will turn out as usual. 
All artificial spring food, such as Rye and Tares, look well, so that 
the want of roots will not be so much felt. All work is now well 
advanced; there is little to do in the fields; the chief labour is 
threshing, driving dung, and chalk for the heavier land^ ; and 
repairing roads. G. S. 



Miscellaneous. 

Poultry Keeping. — On my way to Birmingham on 
Tuesday last, I fell in with some amateurs who were 
going to the Poultry Show for the first time. In the 
course of conversation the oft-repented question was put 
to me, "What fowls should I keep?" As I had had 
experience of what are considered the most useful sorts, 
I answered as follows : — 

1. Game Fowls.— Elegant and compact in appearance, hardy 
in constitution, excellent caterers for themselves, good layers of 
delicious eggs, excellent mothers and rearers of children, chick- 
ens unsurpassed in flavour when dressed. The sole drawback to 
this prince of breeds is their disposition to fight; but I cannot 
say that this amounts to much, as during the time I kept them 
I lost but four or five chickens from this cause. 

2. Spanish.— Noble birds, abundant layers of very large eggs, 
may be kept iu confined spaces more readily than other breeds, 
no mothers, but the chickens hardy, only wanting extra attention 
at about a month to six weeks old when feathering, good table- 
bird — should be well kept. 

3. Dorking. — Genuine old English fowl, somewhat delicate in 
constitution, and seems to thrive most on warm and dry soils, 
eggs large and well-flavoured but not abundant, fair mothers, 
chickens not so easy to rear as other breeds, splendid table-fowl 
where a large plump bird is preferred, wants liberal keep and 
warm housing. 

4. Gold aud Silver Pencilled Hamburgs.— Extremely elegant 
in appearance, forage well for their living, but require more 
feeding than the Game Fowl, lay abundantly, but small eggs, 
never incubate, or but very rarely; chickens somewhat difficult 
to rear, unless in very favoured spots ; nice birds for eating, but 
small : must have a' good range to keep them in health. 

5. Spangled Hamburgs. — Very handsome, abundant layers, 
chickens tolerably hardy, and a very good bird for the table, 
their incubating qualities are seldom manifested, require a 
good rnu. 

6. Polish. — Good layers, very elegant in form, rare incubators, 
chickens very delicate at first, warm housing indispensable. 

7. Cochin. — Varied plumage, hardy, excellent eggs, and more 
abundant than any other breed, good mothers, chickens strong, 
and grow rapidly under good feeding, good for table at four 
months old but not after, require very liberal feeding, feathers 
valuable. 

This was my answer to the question above stated. 
If you thiuk it can be of any use to those about to com- 
mence a yard, pray print it. Thomas Proster 7 in the 
Poultry Chronicle. 



Notices to Correspondents. 

Acre: TP. The following are its several dimensions:— 





Square yds 


Statute acre .. 


... 4840 • 


Leicestershire.. 


. ... 2308} 


Herefordshire .. 


. ... 3226j 


"Wiltshire 


. ... 3630 


Devonshire 


. ... 4000 



North "Wales (custo- 
mary) 3240 

Ditto ditto (erw) 4320 
Cornish 5760 



Square yds. 
, 6250 
. 6760 
. 7S40 
. 9000 
. 10,240 



Cuningham ... 

Westmoreland... 

Irish 

W.Derby 

Cheshire 

Scotch standard acre 6104-12S1 

Dumbarton 60S4-+ ■ 

Inverness 6150-4 

Tbe common statement is, that a Scotch acre is £ of an im- 
perial acre. 
Chickens' Dung: Sub. If you have several tons you had better 
make a enmpost of it with earth, and use it either in the garden 
or as a top dressing on the meadow,, at the rate of a ton or so 
per acre. Do not mix lime with it. 
Food fop. Lames: li cum N. will feel obliged to any of our 
correspondents for information whether the large field Cabbage 
is good food for lambs in August, September, aud October. 
Lambs in the autumn are very liable to the scour from improper 
food ; they require good keep, but not of too stimulating a 
nature — hence the inquiry. 
Goese : A Constant Header. [See Blackie's Cyclopedia of Agri- 
culture.] "The best sort to cultivate is Ulexstrictus, so called, 
which is, however, thought to be merely a variety of the 
common whin. It is more herbaceous than tbe U. Europams, 
' though of smaller and slower growth — but it cannot be grown 
from seed. If it be selected, cuttings must be struck or layers 
obtained, and these must be transplanted into the field on 
which it is to be grown. The more common plan, however, is 
to sow the seed of U. Europams. About 10 lbs. of seed may be 
sown per acre, in shallow rows, of any light soil, in the month 
of March; the rows may be 10 inches apart, and the best plan 
is to sow it just as Wheat is sown iu some districts :— The 
men opening a shallow drill with a broad light hoe, sowing the 
seed along it, and then covering it with tbe earth taken in 
opening the next drill. It can thus be sown for about 6s. an 
acre ; and if 8 or 10 lbs. of seed, at Is. a lb., be used, the first 
cost of the crop is not very great. Some people, however, 
recommend a larger quantity, and sow it broadcast ; this is not 
a good plan, for the only difficulty which the crop has to with- 
stand arises from the obstruction of its early growth by means 
of weeds, and these can, of course, be much more easily extir- 
pated under a drill husbandry of the crop. In the second 
autumn after sowing, having been cleaned at intervals during 
both the summers, the crop will have attained a growth render- 
ing it worth cutting; but it is well to cut only every alternate 
row this time, leaving every other to attain a two and a half 
years' growth against the following autumn; and, by pur- 
suing this method, the half of the field is each year harvested 
when two years old, having had the advantage of ample room 
for development, during the second year of its growth, by the 
removal of the alternate rows. It is cut with a short and heavy 
hook, within a few inches of the ground, and tied up in bundles. 
This is paid for at the rate of about 6d. per score of bundles, 
each weighing about 20 lbs. 2000 faggots may be the average 
produce of 1 acre. This, on being brought home in daily or 
weekly portions, is cut up somewhat by hand, the stems and 
very woody portions being thrown away, and the remainder 
crushed for use. A mallet and block is the simplest apparatus 
for the purpose. The Gorse being laid on the block, is first cut 
to bits with the one end of the mallet, armed with crossed 
knife edges, and then smashed with the other end, before being 
given to cows or horses. But many more efficient and less 
laborious methods exist, in which this manual operation is 
replaced by a mechanical contrivance. 
Xand Drainage Company: Correspondent. See advertisement. 
Sainfoin : TP. We have grown it on sancy soils, but not with 
great success. It prefers a limestone or chalky subsoil. 



SUPERB LATE WHITE BROCCOLI-" EMPEROR." 

EP. DIXON having purchased the entire stock 
• of the above Broccoli of Messrs. Elletsons, Market Gar- 
deners, Thorngunibald, near Hull, begs to announce that he is 
prepared to send it out in sealed packets at 2s. Gd. each. This 
Broccoli has been raised by the Messrs. Elletsons, the raisers of 
the Mammoth, sent out some time ago, who state that the 
EMPEROR, it sown at the same time, will come into use before 
it. Is of very dwarf growth, perfectly hardy, with heads from 
15 lbs. to 20 lbs. weight; keeps its colour, and stands firm three 
weeks after it is ready to cut. A noble flower, and commands the 
best price of any other in the Hull market, where it is well 
known, and will be a great acquisition to the market gardeners 
around London, as well as those who wish for a first-rate 
Broccoli. 

PURE MAMMOTH BROCCOLI.— Numerous applications 
having been made to Messrs. Elletsons last season for Seed of the 
Pure Mammoth Broccoli, they determined to allow aflat to stand 
for Seed, carefully selected from the original stock, producing 
heads from IS lbs. to 25 lbs. each. E. P. D. having purchased the 
stock of this celebrated Broccoli, is prepared to send it out in 
packets at 2s. Gd. each. 

Each may be had of Messrs. Noble, Cooper, & Bolton, 152, 
Fleet Street; and Messrs. Hurst & M'Mullen, 6, Leadenhall 
Street, London. Also of the Advertiser, 57, Queen Street, Hull. 

NEW PEA. 

WJ. EPPS, Seed Merchant and Grower, 
* Maidstone, has much pleasure in offering the following 
Pea, feeling assured it will give the highest satisfaction. 

LORD RAGLAN, OR IMPROVED MAMMOTH. 

This Pea was selected from Hair's dwarf Mammoth two years 

since, and is unquestionably the best and finest in cultivation, 

and will prove to be the standard Pea of the day. It is a dwarf 

green wrinkled marrow of very large size, and an immense 

cropper. Habit dwarf, brandling 3 to 4 feet high, producing 

immense clusters of large bright green pods from the base of the 

haulm to the top, and similar in shape to the Scimitar, but of 

greater size, well filled with seven to ten Peas, which are larger 

than the British Queen, and equal, if not superior in its flavour. 

Price, 5s. per Quart. Wholesale Prices to be had on application. 

Agent: Messrs. Hurst and M'Mullen, Seed Merchants, 

leadenhall Street, London. 

NEW CUCUMBER. 

BURNETT'S PERFECTION.— At the express wish 
of many cultivators, W. B. is induced to offer the above 
Cucumber to the public. The following Prizes were awarded to 
it during the past season :— First Prize at the great Horticultural 
and Agricultural Exhibition held at Ripon; First and Second at 
York ; also at Scarborough and Driffield there was not a Cucumber 
shown that could compete with tbe nbove. u 'as been pro- 
nounced by several gardeners to be the most perfect Cucumber 
ever raised. Some of the fruit exhibited as above were cut 10 or 
12 days previous to the day of exhibition. 

W. B. also recommends Tully's GOLDEN QUEEN MELON, 
as the highest flavoured Melon known. A Medal was awarded 
to it at Chiswick. W. B. having grown no other variety for the 
last three years, can supply it true. The Cucumber, in packets, 
four see^s, 2s. Gd., or two seeds, Is. 6dL; the Melon, 12 seeds, Is., 
in penny postage stamps. 

William Burnett, Monk Gate, York. 



SPECIMEN IRISH YEWS. 

THOMAS JACKSON and SON, having a large 
Stock of fine specimens of this very ornamental tree, beg to 
offer them at the undernamed low prices. 

8 to 9 feet high, and Sfeet in circumference... 63s. Od. each. 

8 „ and 4 to 5 feet „ ... 21 „ 

7toS „ and 4 feet „ ... 15 „ 

6 to 7 „ and 3 to 4 feet „ ...10 6 „ 

6 „ and 3 feet „ ... 7 6 „ 

Handsome smaller specimens at proportionately lower prices: 

Kingston, Surrey. , __ 



BECK'S NEW AND BEAUTIFUL SEEDLING 

PELARGONIUMS. 

T DOBSON and SON'S CATALOGUE OF 

v • PELARGONIUMS, containing full descriptions of the 

following unequalled varieties, may be had on application : — 



3 Conqueror 

*Lydia ... 

*Laxira ... 

Fidelia... 



. 42s. Qd. 

, 21 
31 6 
31 6 



Silenus 31s. Gd. 

Dido 21 

Gem of tbe West ... 31 6 
Commander in Chief ... 21 



Those marked* wei'e figured in the "Florist" for September 
last. Coloured plates may be had in exchange for 14 postage 
stamps. 

Fine show varieties, all the best out, from 12s. per dozen. 
Fancies, from 12s. per dozen. 

J. D. & Son beg to state that they are enabled to send out 
extra strong plants ol the above, as they are under their own im- 
mediate management, and particular attention is paid to this 
class of plants. 

J. Dodson's Practical Observations on the Cultivation of the 
Pelargonium may be had in exchange for S postage stamps. 
Woodlands Nursery, Isleworth. 



CODFREY'S BLACK SPINE. 

Splendid and Prolific Frame Cucumber. 

WOOD and INGRAM beg to offer seeds of the 
above beautiful variety. Colour, magnificent dark green, 
with a very fine bloom; average length, IS to 21 inches, and 
produces in great abundance through an entire season. Packets, 
containing 12 seeds, 2s. Gd. ; 6 ditto, Is. Gd, 

W. & I. will be happy to refer any persons wishing further 
information respecting the variety to three or four Noblemen and 
Gentlemens' Gardeners who have grown it, and prefer it to any 
other. 

London Agents : Messrs. Hurst & M'Mullen, 6, Leadenhall 
Street. 

W. & I. have also the following esteemed varieties to offer, in 
packets, Is. each, containing 12 seeds 



Sion House 
Barnes's Fearnought 
Walker's Prolific 
Coustantine's Incomparable. 



Sagg's Royal Exhibition 
Conqueror of the West 
Improved Sion House 
Manchester Hero. 



Huntingdon Nurseries, January 6. 



Ki*AKKKK be^s to oiler the iollowiug CHOICE 
• SEEDS, all of which are warranted new and true to name : 
GODFREY'S (BLACK SPINE) CUCUMBER, the finest 
variety in cultivation, packets containing 12 seeds Is. Gd. .. 

Also the following esteemed varieties ot CUCUMBERS and 
MELONS, in packets containing 12 seeds, at Is. each : — 



CUCUMBERS. 

Henderson's Black Spine. 

Improved Patrick. 

Walker's Long Rambler. 

Manchester Prize. 

Hunter's Prolific. 

Superlative Improved. 

Cutbill's Black Spine. 

Ohio Squasha Custard Gourd, Gd. 

Antirrhinum, from named flowers, Gd. 

Calceolaria, from fine varieties, Is. Gd and 2s. Gd. „ 

Hollyhock, from fine named varieties, Is. Gd. and 2s.6d. „ 

Lilium giganteum, the most distinct aud noble species of the 

genua, packets containing 20 seeds, 2s. Gd. 
*»• A remittance or reference to accompany all orders from 

unknown correspondents. 

Paradise Nursery, Hornsey Road, Islington. 



MELONS. 
Victory of Bath. 
Beech wood. 
Brombam Hall. 
Canteloupe. 
Duke of Bedford. 
Golden Perfection (extra fine). 
Scarlet Flesh (Anderson's). 

per packet. 



SUPERB HOLLYHOCKS, ROCKETS, SEEDS, ETC. 
TAJ ILLIAM CHATER'S descriptive list of his superb 
* " HOLLYHOCKS, containing hints on their culture and ob- 
servations on exhibiting, &c, may be had on application by 
enclosing a postage stamp. Packets of seed, consisting of 20 
varieties, selected from the best show flowers, 6s. ; 12 varieties, 
2s Gd. ; and from good double sorts, Is. 

Very superior Quilled German Asters, 12 distinct varieties, 
separate, 2s., mixed Is. per packet. Also Choice French Asters, 
'12 varieties, separate, 3s., mixed, Is. 6d. Fine Quilled African 
Marigolds, lemon and orange, Gd. per packet. 

New Double Crimson ROCKET, excellent bedding plant for 
spring flowering, 6s. per dozen, or 21. per 100. Double French 
White, 4s. per dozen, or 30s. per 100. 

Saffron Walden Nursery, January 6. 



GARAWAY, MAYES, and CO., having a large 
Stock of-LILlUM GIGANTEUM Seed, can supply full 
picked seed at 10s. Gd. per 100. 

G. M. and Co. can supply DIOSCOREA BATATAS at the 
advertised prices. Early application is requested, as the stock 
is limited. 

Catalogues of Kitchen Garden, Flowers, and Agricultural Seeds, 
may be had on application. Prices if desired. For prices of 
Cucumber and Melon Seeds see Advertisement of Dec. 30, 1854. 
. Durdham Down Nurseries, Bristol, Jan. 6. 



T> PARKER begs to offer the following: — 
-LV. CINERARIAS (Seedlings), from nil tbe finest varieties, 
carefully selected, including the new varieties sent out last autumn. 
Strong established plants, in 4-inch pots, at 4s. per dozen. A 
choice collection of named Cinerarias in strong established 
plants, purchaser's selection, at 9s. per dozen. 

ROSES, consisting of the best varieties of Hybrid Perpetuals, 
Teas, Bourbons, &c, well established in pots. Purchaser's selec- 
tion, at 12s. per dozen. List of names forwarded upon application. 

A remittance or reference to accompany all orders from 
unknown correspondents. 

Paradise Nursery, Hornsey Road, Islington. 



PYRAMIDAL PEAR TREES ON QUINCE STOCKS. 

J and J. FKASER have to offer a very fine collection 
• of the best varieties of PEARS grafted on the Quince; 
descriptive Catalogues of which may be had on application. 
In offering these Pears, grafted on the Quince stock, we would 
wish particularly to call attention to their many excellent 
qualities. They are very compact in growth, and most prolific in 
bearing, fruiting profusely while the trees are small ; thus form- 
ing a great acquisition for a small garden. Planted by the side 
of walks, in addition to their utility, they add much to the neat- 
ness and beauty of a kitchen garden. Indeed too much can 
scarcely be said in favour of these miniature Pear trees ; as a 
proof of their merit the demand for them is yearly increasing. 
Strong Trees, showing Fruit Buds, 2s. Gd. to 3s. Gd. each. 
Lea Bridge Road, Essex, January 6. 



/ BARTER'S PROLIFIC RASPBERRY.— In con- 

V_V sequence of J. Carter seeing his Raspberry quoted in a 
Nurseryman's Catalogue, who J. C. has reasons for knowing 
does not possess the true variety, and wishing to prevent impo- 
sition, begs to announce that the undermentioned are the only 
Nurserymen who have been supplied by J. C., or his agents, 
Messrs. Hurst? & M'Mullen. Should other Nurserymen favour 
with their orders their names will be added to the list; the stock 
is very limited. Price may be had on application to Messrs. 
Veitch & Son, Exeter; Rendle& Co., Plymouth; Wood&Son, 
Maresfield; Low & Co., Clapton; Rivers, Sawbridgeworth ; 
Palmer, Annan; Turner, Slough; Appleby, York; Dowling, 
Southampton; A. Smith, Sydnope; Fisher & Holmes, Sheffield; 
George Glenny, Fulhani; Urquhaet & Son, Dundee; T. Bon- 
YARn, Maidstone ;' Hurst & M'Mullen. London ; or 

JOHN CARTER, Jun., Nurseryman, Keighley. 



w 



ILLIAM BARRATT, Landscape Gardener, 
Wakefield. 
*** Plans and Estimates furnished. 



BLOSSOM of FRUIT TREES. — WORSTED 
NET to effectually protect the blossom of wall fruit trees 
from frost and blight, and the ripe fruit afterwards from wasps 
and flies, Id. per square yard, in various widths. All kinds of 
garden, fishing, and sheep nets, made by machinery, and at very 
low prices.— R. Richardson, 21, Tonbridge Place, New Road, 
King's Cross, London. __' 

EASONABLE PRESENTS.— The most appropriate 
offerings for this season of festivity are those which tend to 
the promotion of health and personal attraction: none can be 
more acceptable than ROWLANDS' MACASSAR OIL, for 
imparting a transcendent lustre to the hair, and sustaining it 
in decorative charm. ROWLANDS' KALYDOR imparts a 
radiant bloom to the cheek, and a delicacy and softness to the 
hands, arms, and neck; and ROWLANDS' ODONTO, or PEARL 
DENTIFRICE, bestows on the teeth a pearl-like whiteness, and 
renders the breath sweet and pure. The patronage of royalty 
throughout Europe, their general use by rank and fashion, and 
the universally-known efficacy of these articles give them a cele- 
brity unparalleled.— Sold by A. Rowland & Sons, 20, Hatton 
Garden, London, and by Chemists and Perfumers.— Beware of 
spurious imitations. 



Ty ANTED to Rent, from Lady Day, a SMALL 
» V FARM near London, from 40 to 80 Acres, chiefly Pasture, 
with a good House upon it and the requisite Outbuildings; and 
not more than 16 miles from town. — Apoly, by letter, to the 
Editor of the Agricultural Gazette, 5, Upper Wellington Street, 
Strand, London. 



SPADE HUSBANDRY. 
WANTED, from 30 to 60 acres of good sound LAND, 

* * . for cultivation as a Garden Farm, with ample convenience 
for House-feeding Stock; also a VILLA or comfortable Farm- 
house. References as to position, eligibility," &c. — Address ' 
Mr. H v Post-office, Farnham, Surrey. 

WHITE PERUVIAN MUSK DUCKS. — A few 
surplus Birds on hand of last year's broods, from the 
Advertiser's imported stock, of this very beautiful and valuable 
kind. Price 10s. each'; very large exhibitiou birds, 1 guineaeach. 
The Peruvian Ducks lay very large eggs during nine mouths 
of the year— are excellent for the table— grow to a large size, 
aud both for ornament and profit are a desirable variety.— For 
particulars address C. W. P., Post-office. Crediton, Devon. . 



COCHIN CHINA FOWLS. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS begs to notify that he has 1 
received instructions from Thomas Sturgeon, Esq., oil I 
Grays, to announce for Sale by Auction, at his Great Room, 38/ I 
King Street, Covent Garden, on TUESDAY, 23d January, at | 
12 o'clock precisely, a selection of COCHIN CHINA FOWLS 
consisting entirely of first-class birds. •#* This is the only old] 
and known strain of Buffs now in the hands of the original 
breeder. Mr. Sturgeon has bred them with rare care and judg- 
ment for many years, no second-rate bird has been bred from, 
and they are unrivalled in their combination of form, size, and 
colour. Up to 1S52 they were the winners of all the best prizes 
at Birmingham, Cheltenham, Winchester, &c, and were never 
beaten until within the last few week*; they have since been 
shown and taken the Silver Vase and 1st Prize at Manchester. — 
Catalogues by enclosing a stamped directed envelope to Mr/ 
J. C. &TEYENB, 38, King Street, Covent Garden. 



IS55.] 



EEE kd RICD \/Y MM I, GAZE 



15 



Per foot, Por 100 foot, 



i'./. 
2d, 
2| (I. 

lid- 



la 



to 12 
16 

IH 

1 
1 2 



G< REEN AND HOT-HOUSES made by machmeryi 
r ut.l LEWIS'S iioiniciii.TiiiiAi. Wonra, Stamford mil, 
MlMloBOX, ^i'" 1 - "' "" PW*« " f "'" U"'t<t d lilngaom. Tlieno 
buildings ore warranted of the bo«t mntotlnli), and pul together 

in a eunerlor manner. Being manufactured byHtoam nowi r, tl 

nro considered tlio cheapest i best made In England, rue 

Tniiln and Morchantu supplied at wholesale prlcou. tint ol 
Prices bj enclosing two postage stamp s. 

CLASS FOR CONSERVATORIES, CREENHOUSES, 
PIT FRAMES, ETC. 

HETLEY and CO. nro supplying 16-oz. Sheet Glass 
of British Manufacture, paokod In boxos.coi nlng 100 

sqimro fcut iiiii-Ii, nt tlio following REDUCED PlUCESforoasli, 
A ['eduction made on 1000 feet. 
Sizes.— Inchon. [noliOB. 

Under (I by <l at 
From n by \ „ 7 „ f> „ 

7 „ 5 „ 8 „ « „ 

8 „ I! „ 10 „ 8 „ 
10 „ 8 „ 12 „ 1) „ 

Larger sizes, not exceeding 40 Inchon Idng. 
10 nz. from Sd, i" '■'■'''■ per Bquaro foot, aecordlng to slzo. 

21 O/.. ,, Hkd.tOwl. „ „ || 

28oz. „ 8}i?.to7Jd. „ i> • ii " 

PATENT ROUttH PIj V.TE, THICK CROWN (il.ASS, ami 

PATENT PLATE II I, ASS for Horticultural pin ] IB, ft! 

reduced prices, by the 100 Bquaro foot. 
CI, ASS TILES AND SLATES inado to any slzo or pattorn, 

either In nl t or Rough Plato OIIiihb. 

Propagating OlasBoa, Bcohlve GlaHseB, Cucumbor Tubos.GIasj 

Milk Pane, (Hilms water Pipes, and variouH other, articles not 

hitherto manufactured In Glass, 
PATENT PLATE GLASS,— The present oxtromoly moderate 

prlcoofthls Buporlor article should cause It to supersede all 

other Inferior window glass in a gentleman's residence. No 

alteration connected with the siinli Ih required. 
GLASS SHADES, as ornamontal to, and for the preservation of 

every description of g Is BiiBcoptlble of Injury by expos 

Prices, since the removal of the excise duty, reduced half. 

List of I'rlces and Estimates forwarded on application to 
.i.vmih iiicn.i.v & Co., 88, S oho Square, London. 

STOUT SHEET GLASS, suitable for Skylights and 
Horticultural purposes) In ruses of 300 feet, at 2d. per foot j 
squares In boxes, from s In. by C In., to 6 in. by 4 in., Id. per foot, 
taking 10 boxes, ono of ouch size; Crown GlasB, in crates, 
18 tables, 80s, por crate; Patent Plate, extra sizes; Hartley's 
Rough I'hite, Enamelled and Perforated, supplied wholesale and 
rotall by JOSEPH Ponxsosr, Lead and Glass Merchant, 164, Edgc- 
waro Road, London. 

H _ ARTLEY'S PATENT ROUGH PLATE 
GLASS, 1-Sih thick, or 2 lbs. to the foot; 3-16ths, orSlbs.; 
and l-4th, or 4 lbs. to the foot, for Ridge nnd Furrow Roofs, 
Greenhouses, Railway Stations, Engine Sheds, Mills, Market 
IlallB, and Public Buildings generally. 

Packed iu Boxes of 60 feet each. 

C by 4 and GJ by 4* Ids. Rd. per box. 

1 „ 5 „ 7* „ 64 12 „ 

8 „ 6 „ 8J „ R\ 13 6- „ 

9 ,, 7 „ 9} „ 71 nnd 10 by 8 ... 16 „ 

For larger sizes a full List of Prices will be sent on application. 
Boxes are charged 2s. each extra, full price allowed if returned 
free of expense.— For further information apply to 

IAMEI1 PHIILIPS &. Co., 
116, Bishopsqate Street Without. 

"Rough Plate has never been, and never can be, prejudicial to 
the colouring of Grapes ; though we can easily believe that it has 
been charged with such a fault by perjsens who have not skill 
enough to manage Grapes under glnss."fiv?(iroV?iers' Chronicle. 

" There can be no question now that Rough Plate Glass is the 
most beautiful as well as the most useful kind of glass that can be 
employed in horticulture. It is free from all the faults of trans- 
parent glass, and has many advantages peculiar to itself, without 
a singh disadvantage as a set off'' — Gardeners' Chronicle. 



HORTICULTURE 
IN ALL 



CRANCHE8. 



JOHN "WEEKS & Co., King's Road, Chclfsea, 






I 



hothou: 



ii u 1 1. oc r< i. 




. 



r |MIK NOBILITY andGENTRY about to erect Hot- 

1 tlculturnl BulIdlngM, or i Ho I i ■■ i \ j ■ . tfJlj jj/M 

nt our Ii'ii tf cultural IvJuMinh- 
ment and llotfiouse W -I I i, 
King's Road, ' -Iiol ion, an i U n 

■ i l fj i .H lol v "I i I"') bo i.Groi i 

lion o Co iflor* atord , PI I ■ i 

oroclfltl, iui'I in lull operation 

combining all modern Improi i 

iiMintH, nil that ii Imly or gentleman can ■ loci tin crlptlonof 

IIoiiho i»"! imlii |«I i'ii for every required purpo i . 

The HOT-WATER APPARATUS, which pwics through all 

III.: Ili.llif.'H IHI-I J'ltH, 

affording botl) top ^ " 

nnd bottom boat, in 
in con ''nit opera- 
tion and particularly 
worthy of attention, * =: — * 
Many of the Houbob and Pita are of wide and lofty dlmi 
and togotbor eqnal In length 1000 feet. They are nil i 
boated by one boiler, which, during the severe winter months 
does not cost In labour and fuel 
more than 8*. Hd, pur day, and 
the apparatus Ih ho arranged 
that each House or Pit tuny bo 
boated separately and to the 
required temperature. The 
splendid collection* of Stove 
and Greenhouse Plants are also In tlio highest Ktate of culti- 
vation, and for Halo at very low prices. Also a One collection 
of strong Grape Vim;* in pots, from eyes, all the turn' 

Plans, Models, and Estimates of Horticultural Buildings; alur 
Catalogues of Plants, Vines, Seeds. &c., forwarded on appllcai ion 

m Jnnv Wkkkb k Co., Klng'B RnHri , Chc lhi-.i. I Ion 

"BARTON'S PATENT SAFETY STABLE FITTIfiGS, 
AND ENAMELLED MANGERS. 





THE only Patented invention of this description 
constructed so as to prevent considerable waste of Hay and 
Corn, together with all the newest improvements, 

NEWLY IMPROVED ECONOMIC STAPLE FITTINGS, 
FORT.Y SHILLINGS PER SET, to fill up the whole width of 
Stalls, and can be had enamelled or galvanised. Every descrip- 
tion of Mangers, Racks, and Stable Furniture in stock ; Iron 
Hurdles, Gates, Fencing, &c. 

Manufacturer of Kite's Patent Noiseless Cast-iron Smoke- 
Curing Chimney Caps (200 on Buckingham Palace), price 35*. 
each. Price Lists and Illustrated Catalogues forwarded on re- 
ceipt of two postage stamps. 
JAMES BARTON, Iron Founder, Ac., 370, Osford Street, 
a few doors east ot the Pantheon. 



GLASS. 



""HOMAS MILLINGTON, Importer of Foreign Sheet Glass, requests attention to the present Prices ol 
Glass nnd Stock sizes, which are cheaper and better than those of English manufacture : — 
PACKED IN ONE HUNDRED FEET BOXES, THIRDS QUALITY, BOXES INCLUDED. 



Inches. Per 100 ft. 


Inches. Per 100 ft. 


Inchei 


Per 100 ft 


Inches. Per 100 ft. 


Inches. Per 100 ft. 


Inches. Per 100 ft 


6 by 4 l j„ 


12 by 10 v 




14 by 


11^ 




I64 by 124^ 


IS by 13 N 


18 by 14^ 


124 „ 104 




144 „ 


114 




17 „ 12 




1S4 „ 134 




IS* „ 14* 




1 » 6 "I 


13 „ )0 




15 „ 


11 




174 „ 124 




19 „ 13 




19 „ 14 




s 4 :?[«•■■* 


134 „ 101 




154 „ 


114 




18 „ 12 




194 » 1S4 




19* „ 14j 




14 „ 10 




16 „ 


11 




184 „ 124 




20 „ 13 




20 „ 14 




8i „ 6jJ ' 


144 „ 10J 




164 „ 


114 




19 „ 12 




204 „ 13J 




204 „ 144 




9 „ 7 -1 


15 „ 10 


\ 20s. 


17 „ 


11 


) 20s. 


1»4 » 124 


{ 20s. 


21 „ 13 


20s. 


21 „ 14 \ 20s. 


94 „ 71 


154 „ 104 


/ 


174 „ 


llj 




20 „ 12 / 


214 „ 134/ 


214 „ 14* 




10 „ 8 


16 „ 10 




14 „ 


12 




204 „ 124 




22 „ 13 




22 „ 14 




J»i »f\m.sd. 


16J „ 104 




144 „ 


124 




16 „ 13 




16 „ 14 




224 „ 14* 




17 „ 10 




15 „ 


12 




164 ,1 134 




16* „ 14* 




23 „ 14 




114 „ 94 


174 „ 101 




154 „ 


124 




17 „ 13 




17 „ 14 




234 „ 14* 




12 „ 9 


13 „ 11 




16 „ 


12 




174 „ 1S4 




174 „ 14* 




24 „ 14 




124 „ 94 J 


13* „ 114. 






' 






) 



IMPROVED PATENT ROUGH PLATE, PLAIN. FLUTED, AND IN QUARRY PATTERNS. 

British Plate, Patent Plate, Sheet. Crown, and Coloured Window Glass. Pure "White Shades for Ornaments. 

Pumps, Water Closets, and Plumbers' Brass Work. Genuine White Lead, Paint, Colours, Tarnishes, Brushes, &c. 

Tariffs of the above on application to 

T. MILLINGT0F, 87, Bishopsgate Street Without, London. 



[ .1 I ! I ■ ,■ , (JO 

now tm tit. 

[/I IINIS11 VOI it tICM 
IITIC1 

m«nt,J I. 

POKD'S i.i'iti t •. I • 

■ 

I IllIU 

I IJKIJ V, nil l. I.l 4:1 l ! 

: 
1 

without wl.l- i 

' - ! 

I'M !■ 



SHIR'J 

IE YAj1«d 

■.-7.. 



' 



NEW WINTER SOAP. 

\ | ' TCALFB, BINGL1 OATMEAL 

'» ■ and CAHI'IIOB MOAI', In iftbli 

.«|, will 1^ ' 

the liandn from 

I'I WhollMMllj . 

i • 

I ' : ' r ■■ 

murk iui'I ii"- Damp, m -I >- 

AI.KAI.IM; 'I 

Til" nix,' ' 

fix. 

WINTER GEEEN.— TWi exqirinita Perfume it 
dlitlllul from Winter Gt»' .nth* 

\ nllcy r,( .- knrdsluiMl, In Iceland.— Il 
dai ii. Wholesale Perramer, 

'I'lli: ( iiMI'nl: i ATEE-< j 

A i',r. R— I'lan-H ii, • : ■ »al#T- 

] 

■ :i^' vaiv,-, entfi tly ; reel ■ • 

Hennetlcally-sealea Inodorool ( :,. a ' 

and y/.| »1k" Improve* Port r-ototefc, irlto rmmp, 

cistern, and self-actini; valve. A proftpectus, » 

forwarded by ei ■• sumps. — A* I 

.'-ndon. 

HOT-AIR, GAS, '.J.^TA, JOYCE'S STOVES.— 
BTQVEB for ti.»- eoonomlcml »nd s*fc hwitlny *>i lulU, 
simps, warehouse*, paKrWge^, I 

n dVniamicd, WILLIAM r-.. BUETOIS iLvit.-* *ti 
to his unrivalled asfiorrment, a4spu 

conceivable rt-qulremeTit. at pi - «. Ilis 

i regtsier and other stoves i* the largest in ezutenee. 

THI-: PERFECT SUBSTITUTE for SILVER.— 

1 The real NICKEL SILVER, introduced 20 years ago by 

: 6. BoBToy, when Plated by tbe patent proceaaof Mttxn. 

Elkington & Co., is beyond all eompariaoii the very best article 

next to sterling silver that can be emrloved as Buch.ei - 

fully or ornamentally, as by no possible t*»t can it l* dU'JngoJsbed 

from real silver. id or 

Fiddle Ernnswici King's 
Pattern. Pattern. Pattern. 

Tea Spoons, per dozen 18*. ... 26«. ... 32j. 

Dessert Forks ,, 30r. ... 40*. ... 46f. 

Des>ert Spoons „ 30*. ... 42*. ... 48«. 

Table Forks „ 40#. ... 6Sj. ... 64*. 

Table Spoons „ 40*. ... 68a. ... 66#. 

Tea and CorTee Sets, "Waiters, Candlesticks, &c ?.t pr-'-HMtionate 
prices. All kinds of replating done by tbe patent process. 
CHEMICALLY PUKE NICKEL, NOT PLATED. 

Fiddle. Thread. Kings 
Table Spoons and Forks. fall size, perdoz. 32j. ... 285. ... 30*. 

Dessert ditto aud ditto 10*. ... 21*. ... 25*. 

Tea ditto 5*. ... 11*. ... 12'. 

pUTLERY WARRANTED.— The most varied 
v^ assortment of TABLE CUTLERY in tbe world, all 
warranted, is on Sale at "William S. Bcbtox's, m prices 
that are rem\merative only became of the Urtrenesj. at the sales ; 
3A-inch ivory-handled table knives, with high &bonlders, 11*. 
per dozen; desserts to match, 10*. ; if to balance, la. pa 
extra : carvers, 4s. per pair : larger sizes, from 14*. Cd. *.«■ '. 
dozen: extra fine, ivory, 32*.: if with 

white bone table knives, 7s. Gd. pet dor_ i> ■ 

enrvers. 2^. Zd. per pair; black horn table knives. 7.«. 4rf- per 
dozen; desserts, 6?.: carvers. 2s. Gd,; black wood-handled table 
knives and forks, 6s. per dozen Is, frt-m )*. £*eh. The 

largest stock in existence of plated dessert kniv. 
cases and otherwise, and of the new plated tsh carverr. Also a 
large assortment of Razors, Penknives, Scissors, &c~, of the 
best quality. 

"William S. Brums has TEN LARGE SHOW ] 
devoted to the show *i GENERAL FURNISHING IRON- 
MONGERY (including Cutlery, Nickel ted and 
Japanned Wares, Iron and Brass Bedsteads and B^ 
arranged and classified that purchasers may easfly and at once 
make their selections. 

Catalogues, with engravings, sent 'per post) free. The money 
returned for every article not approved of. 

No. S9, Oxford Street (corner of Newman Street} ; Nos. j 2 
and 3, Newnmu Street; and 4 eL- 5, Peny*s Place. 



COTTAM'S NEW PATENT F0S STABLE REQUISITES. 



> ■ 




COTTAM and HALLEN, the original projectors 
of the above arrangement of MANGER. RACK, and 
WATER-TROUGH, as one Fixture, which obtained the Great 
Exhibition Prize Medal, and universally approved of. have added 
all the latest improvements to their invention (st cured by patent), 
which includes an entirely new method of attaching the halter, 
hall, and rein, giving to the horse jjreater freedom, and being 
noiseless in their operation, add much to its comfort whilst feed- 
ing and convenience when at rest. 

COTTAM'S ENAMELLED MAITGERS 

are constructed in the best possible manner, both as to form and 
utilitv. are cleanly in appearance, durable and impervious to 
infection: manufactured PLAIN", GALVANISED, or ENA- 
MELLED. 



Improved 

JTarncss- 



Stable Guttering, with moveable safety covers. Sanitary Traps, Stable Pumps, Doulle Comer Sfangers. 
room Appendages, and every article in Stable Furniture. Chaff Cutters and Uat Bruisers, kept on show. 

A STALL fitted up, complete, exhibited at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, Stand No. 10, Asricultural Department ; and at 



niPEOVED PHIlIPS. ^ 

; Of the best "VToekmakship jlsd Waehavtz7. 

The VALVES and SUCKERS of these Pmnps 

I are constructed upon an entirely new and 
SIMPLE principle: ihey are not likely to 
get cut of order; should they do so, can easily 

i be repaired, as the Pump is so contrived that 
the valves can readily be* got at. 

| An Improved CAST IRON TF.. 

recommended by the Sanitary Commissioners, 
, and suitable for Sugar Bakers, SIm - 
1 Hooses, ite. &c. Ii :s s * the 

Trip-plate will pass any r - - 

: will let through, an re is not 

pages; and well adapted to Stables and 
■ Stable- :; : L. pod 

Manure. 







COTTAM & HALLEN'S WORKS, 2, Winsley Street, Oxford Street, London. 

t \S'AHM.L>*G and VENTILATING. — Descriptive Catalojues and Estimates on application. 



16 



THE GARDENER'S CHRONICLE AND AGRICULTURAL GAZETLE. 



[Jan. 6. 



SEED EST 



GREAT WESTEHTT, GEEAT NORTHERN, SOTJTH-T? ESTERS, AHD SOUTH-EASTERN RAILWAY 

3HMENT, READING, BERKS, 

FOE SUPPLYING 

SUTTON'S HOME-GROWN SEEDS TO ALL PARTS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, 

CARRIAGE FREE (as see below). 



SUTTON'S SELECT SEED LIST FOR 1855. 

This List being very concise, including only the most approved kinds, will be found very convenient to Amateurs and others ordering seeds. 



PEAS (fob Earliest Crops). 
per quart. — 5. d. 
Sutton's Early Champion, 
one of ti:e forn-ardest 
sorts known, good fla- 
voured and prolific. This 
Pea is worth a ranch 
higher price, but having 
grown a large crop we 
are enabled to offer it 

very moderate 1 

Early Emperor 1 

Prince Albert 9 

Songster's No. 1 1 6 

"Waite's Daniel O'Rourke, 
considered by some to be 
the fonrardest Pea yet 
out. It should be tried 
agaiust our Early Cham- 
pion 2 

Tairhead's Early Con- 
queror 1 

Early "vtfarwick 9 

Paul's Early Dwarf, proli- 
fic, forming a complete 
mass of blossoms & pods - 
Bishop's New Long-podded, 

should be sown thinly... 1 
Hamilton's November Pro- 
lific, excellent for all 

seasons 1 6 

Beck's Early Gem, new, 
prolific, early, only 1^ ft. 1 6 

PEAS (for Medium Crops). 

Blue Prussian, useful old 
sort S 

Prizetaker, new, fine long 
green pods, which hang 
so closely as to cover 
the haulm from top to 
bottom. Numerous 
prizes were awarded to 
the " Prizetaker" last 
summer 2 6 

Fairbeard's Champion of 
England 1 

Fairbeard's Nonpareil, 
very sweet, juicy, nine or 
ten Peas in every pod; 
pods numerous 2 

Scimetar 9 

Hairs' Defiance, like 
Knight's tall, but earlier, 
and not so tall 1 G 

Beck's Eclipse, like the 
Scimetar, but much 
earlier 1 6 

PEAS (for Latest Crops). 

Ne Plus Ultra, green 
wrinkled, quite distinct 
in flavour and appear- 
ance 1 6 

British Queen, similar to 
Knight's tall, but much 
larger 1 G 

"Waite's King of Marrows, 
fine green pods 2 

"Woodford's Green Marrow 10 

Thurston's Reliance.large, 
prolific, fine flavoured... 1 

Knight's Tall and Dwarf 1 4 

* BEANS. 

Early Longpod 8 

Johnson's Wonderful ... 9 

Royal Dwarf Cluster ...0 9 

Broad "Windsor 9 

Early 31onarch, new, large 1 

FRENCH BEANS. 

per pint. 
Earlr Six "Weeks, or Mo- 
hawk 1 6 

Newington "Wonder ... 1 6 
Long-podded Negro 1 3 



FRENCH BEANS. 

per pint. — 5. 
York aud Lancaster Run- 
ners, more productive 
than Scarlet Runners, 
and highly ornamental 1 
Scarlet Runners 1 



BEET. per oz. 

Sutton's Dark Red, the 
darkest of all the red 
Beets, and boils very 
tender 9 

"Whyte's Black 6 

BORECOLE. 

Tall Green Curled S 

Jerusalem, fine purple ... 1 

BROCCOLI. 

First Division, for cutting 

in Jan. and Feb. p.pckt. 
Sutton's Superb Early 
"White, one of the earliest 

and best - G 

"Winter Imperial (Snow's) 1 
Second Division, for cutting 

in March and April. 
Mitchinson's Early White 6 

Early Malta 6 

Dilcock's Bride (new) ... G 
Third Division, for cutting 

in May and June. 
Elletson's Gigantic ...1 
"Wilcove while, large ... 6 
The Reading Giant, the 

largest Broccoli known 1 
"Waru's Superb Late white, 
the latest of all, intro- 
duced by Mr. "Ward, the 
raiser of the Omer Pacha 
Strawberry ... ..10 

Fourth Division, for cutting 

in Sept. and Oct. 
Walcheren, dwarf white,,. 1 
Improved Purple Cape ... G 

White Cape 1 

Grange's White G 

Dancer's Pink Cape ...0 G 
Brussels Sprouts, fresh im- 
ported, true ... per ounce 1 

CAULIFLOWER. 

per packet. 



CELERY. 

prr packet. — s. d> 

Sutton's Solid White ... 6 

,. Superb Pink ... G 
Cole's Dwarf Red, very 

hardy 6 

„ Crystal White ... 6 



CARROT. 
Early Short Horn, fine 
Selected Altringham 
Long Surrey * ... 
James' Orange, early 

CUCUMBER, per 
Lord Kcnyon's ... 
Cu thill's Black Spine 
Hunter's Prolific ... 
Conqueror of the West 

CRESS. 

Plain, per pint, Is 

Curled „ Is. 6d. 



per oz- 
... G 
... 6 
... 4 
... 4 

packet. 
... 1 .0 
... 6 
... 1 G 
... 1 

per oz, 
... 2 
...6 3 



MUSTARD. 
White, per pint, 0.9. dd. , 
Brown ,. Is. Qd. , 



. 2 
.03 



Early London White 
Asiatic, fine large.;. 

Late German 

Walcheren, true kind 
Mitchell's hardy, new 
Waite's Alma, new ... 



ENDIVE. 

Green curled, extra 9 

Batavian, smooth broad- 
leaved green 9 

Double yellow curled ...1 4 

LEEK. 

Large Flag, London 9 

LETTUCE. per packet. 
Sutton's Superb White 
Cos, large, crisp, and 
sweet, requires no tying 1 
Sutton's Green Cos, re- 
quires no tying 1 

Berkshire Brown Cos, re- 
quires no tying 1 

Drumhead 6 

Black-seeded Bath Cos ... G 
Mixed, finest sorts for suc- 
cession throughout the 
summer 6 

MELON. 

Many sorts 1 

Vegetable Marrow, several 
fine sorts 6 



PARSNIP. 

per ounce. — s. d. 

Large Guernsey 4 

Improved Jersey Marrow 6 

Hollow Crown 4 

PARSLEY 

Mitchell's Matchless ... G 

Myatt's Garnishing 6 

Dwarf French 6 

RADISH. 

Beck's Superb Short Top 4 

Turnip. Red and White... 3 

Scarlet Olive-shaped ... 4 



SCORZONERA 
SALSAFY 
SEAKALE 
CORN SALAD 



... 9 

... 9 

... 6 

... 9 



SPINACH. 
Round and Prickly 3 

TURNIP. 

Orange Jelly 3 

Polly's Nonsuch 4 

Six weeks' Stone 3 

Green top't Six weeks ... 3 

White Dutch 3 

Snowball 3 

HERB SEEDS, ETC, 
In packets at Gd. or 3d. each. 
Basil, sweet, i Chicory. 
Capsicum of Tomato. 

Majoram, sweet 



sorts. 
Fennel. 
Chervil. 
Cardoons. 
Red Orache 



Thyme. 
Savory, winter 
do., summer. 
1 Tobacco. 



CABBACE. per oz. 

Early Nonpareil 6 

London Market 8 

Sutton's Imperial, the finest 
and earliest for spring... 9 
From the Rev. Lundy Foot, 
Long Bredy Iiectory, June 24, 
1854. 
"Your Sutton's Imperial Cab- 
bage proved the greatest com- 
fort to all the poor people who 
planted it here last year." 

Couve Tronchuda 1 

King of the Cabbages ...0 9 
Sutton's Dwarf Combe, the 
best for snmmer, autumn, 
and winter use 9 

SAVOY CABBACE. p.oz. 

Dwarf Green, curled, extra 
fine, dark green, best for 
the main crop G 

Early Ulni, new sort, very 
early, small, may be 
planted much closer than 
other kinds 1 9 



ONION. 


per oz. 


Reading, fine, lai^e, 


and 




mild ilavour ..-. .. 


... 


fi 


White Spanish 


... 


6 


Brown „ 


... 


4 


Strasburgh 


... 


4 


New "White Globe .. 


... 


R 


Deptford 


... 


4 


New Giant 


... 1 






SEEDS of suitable kinds for 
Exportation to Australia, India, 
and other Foreign parts, pro- 
perly packed, price 21., 11. 10s., 
and 1L for choice and useful 
collections. 



FLOWER SEEDS. 

Our Stock of Flower Seeds consists of several thousands of 
species and varieties, including all the newest sorts, too numerous 
to insert here. (For'' Sutton's Collections," see below.) 

CHOICE PLANTS. 
For spring 1S55, all of which can be safely packed for travel- 
ling, and Vill be Ant any reasonable distance Caisriage Free. 
Separate Lists of Geraniums, Cinerarias, Carnations, Picotees, 
Verbenas, Fuchsias, Hollyhocks, Chrysanthemums, Pansies, 
Dahlias, Petunias, &c, &c, will be forwarded if desired. 



H0ME-GR0WU AGEICULTURAL SEEDS. 

Prices of Agricultural Seeds may advance as the a-ops 
are short, but the annexed will be the prices during the 
'present month. 



MANCOLD WURZEL. 

(FEOir SELECTED BOOTS.) S. d. 

Yellow Globe per pound 1 



Red Globe 

Long Red 

LoDg Yellow , 

Sutton's Elvetham Lon 

Red, very large 

New Large Green-topped 

White 



..2 6 



.. 2 
„*3 



SAYNOR'S KNIVES. 

TOBACCO PAPER, for 

Fumigating. 

CUBA BAST, for tying. 

POTATOES.* per peck* 

Fluke Kidney 2 6 

Early Walnut-leaf Kidney 3 

True Ash-leaf .,2 6 

New Red Ash-leaf „ 4 

Soden's Early Oxford ... 3 6 

Fortyfold, excellent ... 2 6 

Fiftyfold Kidney ... 3 

York Regents 2 

And many others. 



1 9 



per 100 
... 2 6 
... 3 



ASPARAGUS PLANTS. 

The True Reading Giant, one year 

„ „ two years, strong 

„ „ three years, do 

SEAKALE PLANTS. 

Strong one year old plants 

„ two year old „ 

.„ • „ „ per dozen... 

„ „ ., extra strong selected, do. 

RHUBARB ROOTS. per doz. 

Mitchell's Royal Albert 10 6 

Myatt's Linnwus ■ 10 6 

„ Victoria 9 

Early Tobolsk, each 1 

Randall's Prolific, each 2 6 

Saugster's Prince of Wales, each 2 6 

Good mixed sorts, per doz. 5 

Post Office orders should be made payable to John Sutton 
and Sons, and the cost of the order may be deducted from the 
account. 



tf. 



TURNIPS. 

Sutton's GreenTopped Hy- 
brid, similar to the above 
in nutritive properties, 
and will thrive well on 
poor soil and coldclimate 1 ( 

Sutton's Early Six Weeks 1 -£ 

Green Ban-el 1 2 

Dale's Hvbrid 1 5 

Yellow Tankard 2 C 

Yellow Aberdeen 1 5 

Yellow Bullock 1 S 

White Globe 1 ( 

Green Globe 1 5 

Red Round 1 ( 

Green Round 1 ( 

Tankard (Red, Green, and 
White) 1 ( 

Sutton's Lincolnshire 
New Rep Globe^j very 
superior Turnip presented 
to us b?/ P. Funey, Esq.) 1 i 

Orange Jelly 1 ; 

CLOVERS, GRASSES, ETC 
' (Prices fluctuating.) 

Red (or Broad) Clover. 

White (or Dutch) „ 

Trefoil (or Hop Clover). 

Alsike Hybrid Clover. 

Lucerne (fresh imported). 

French Furze. 

Poas, Fescues, &c. 

True Italian Rye-grass. 

Dickenson's Improved do, 

Sutton's Improved do. 

Perennial Rye-grass. 

Common Rye-grass. 

Buckwheat. 

Giant Sainfoin. 

Liuseed or Flax. 

Drumhead Cabbage. 

Kohl Rabi (of sorts). 

Dwarf Rape. 

White Mustard. 

Bishop's Last and Best Pea. 



CARROTS. 
Large White Belgian 
Red Altringham 

Yellow Belgian 

Short Orange 

PARSNIP. 
Large Guernsey 

TURNIPS. 
(seed saved carefully from 

selected bulbs.) 
Hardy White Swede ... 1 

Fettercairne Swede 2 

Skirving'sLiverpoolSwede 2 
Purple Topped Yellow 

Swede (Sutton's fine) ... 2 
Rivera's Stubble Swede ... 2 
Laing's Improved Purple 

Topped Swede 2 

Ashcroft Swede(verylarge) 

being an improved va- 
riety of the Liverpool 

Swede 2 

Green Topped Yellow 

Swede 1 

Sutton's Purple Topped 

Yellow Hybrid Turnip. 

(This is the best substi- 
tute for Swedes. It 

attains to a large size, 

even when sown late, and 

keeps well till spring),.. 1 

And many other agricultural Seeds. 

NATURAL GRASS SEEDS FOR PERMANENT PASTURES. 

Separate ob Mixed Expressly to Suit the Soil. 

Messrs. Sutton & Sons having for many years paid especial 
attention to the examination of Natural Pastures, and the collect- 
ing of the Grasses which thrive in the various soils of Great 
Britain and Ireland, for the purpose of introducing an improved 
system of laying down laud to Permanent Pasture, are thereby 
enabled to supply the sorts and quantities of Seeds, varied to 
suit the soil for which they are intended. The cost will vary 
from 24s. to 30s. per acre, according to the sorts and quantities 
the soil requires. 

FINE V-AWN CRASS SEEDS, 
For Making New or Improving Old Lawns. 
Price Is. per pound, 2s. Gd. per gallon, or 20s. per bushel. For 
forming new Lawns 2J bushels, or 50 lbs., is the quantity 
required per acre. 

FINE CRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS FOR IMPROVING 

OLD PASTURES. 

Quantity required per Acre, S lbs. to 12 lbs., price dd. per lb. 



SUTTON'S COLLECTIONS OF KITCHEN GARDEN SEEDS are composed principally of tlie foregoing choice kinds, those in fact which have been proved to be most 
worthy of cultivation. Those who are not acquainted with the best sorts of Garden Seeds, and the proportions of each suitable for a Garden, are confidently recommended to 
oj-dcr one of the undermentioned COMPLETE COLLECTIONS FOR ONE YEAR'S SUPPLY, with instructions on cultivation. 

SUTTON'S COLLECTIONS OF KITCHEN GARDEN SEEDS, 



£3 
2 
1 5 
15 



No.l.— A COMPLETE COLLECTION OF GARDEN SEEDS, FOR ONE YEAR'S SUPPLY OF A LARGE GARDEN (with Instructions) 

No.2.— A COMPLETE COLLECTION. QUANTITIES REDUCED (SIMILAR SORTS) ... 

No. 3.— A COMPLETE COLLECTION, EQUALLY CHOICE SORTS 

No. 4.— A VERY CHOICE ASSORTMENT FOR A SMALL GARDEN — 

If some kinds of Seeds are already possessed, purchasers are requested to name them, that increased quantities of others may be sent in lieu of them,— A List of ike sorts 
and giiantities in these Collections may be had in return for one penny stamp. 

SUTTON'S COLLECTIONS OF FLOWER SEEDS. 



1 Tender,'' as preferred. 



£1 1 

10 6 

7 6 

5 



These may be had in collections of " Unrdy sorts only," or assorted in "Hardy," "Half-hardy," and ' 

Uo. 5.— THE MOST SHOWY 100 SORTS KNOWN, with Instrdctioks ox Cultivation (Post Free) 

3s'o. 6— THE MOST SHOWY 50 ditto ditto - 

No. 7 — THE MOST SHOWY 3C ditto ditto 

No. S— THE MOST SHOWY 24 ditto ditto 

Should the purchaser hare any preference for certain kinds, they should be named in giving the order, that we may include them, or should any sorts be already possessed, they should be named 

■that -we may omit them. Also, Natural Grasses for Lawns and Meadows, fine Mangold Wurzel, Turuip. and other Agricultural Seeds. 

All packages of the value of 10s. and upwards are delivered free to any Station on the Great Western, and Berks, and Hants Railways, or of not less than 20s value, the parcel will be sent free 
to anv Station on the following Railways :-South- Western. South-Eastern, Great Western. Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhampton, Eastern Counties. Oxford and Birmingham, Bristol and Exeter, 
and South Wales; and packages of 40s. value and upwards are delivered free not only by the above named Railways, hut also to Edinburgh, Glasgow, Liverpool, and all Stations of the North 
"Western, Great Northern, and Midland Railways. 

JOHH.SUITOH & SONS, Seed Growers, Heading, Berks, Fellows of the Horticultural Society of London; Members of the Eoyal 
Agricultural Society of England, and the Bath and "West of England Agricultural Society. 



Primed by William 1Sradiu'ry, oi" Ko. 13, Upper IVobuni Place, in the Parish of_St. Faneras, and Frederick Mollbtt 
the County of Middlesex, Printers, at their Office in Lombard Street, in the Precinct at Wtmefviais, in the City ul London 
Garden, in the said County,whereali Advertisements and Communi cations tire to be AnnnK'-siin to tub 1£»iti?b.— Satdbday, January b, lao&, 



Evans, of No. 27, Victoria Street, in the Pariah of St. Margaret and St. John, Westminster, both in 
an ; and published by them at the Office, No. 5, Charles Street, in tfc=2 Parisli o£ St. Paul's, Cavern 





ONERS' CHRONICLE 



AM, 



AGRICULTURAL 




A% 



A Stamped Newspaper of Rural Economy and General News.-The Horticultural Part Edited by Professor Lindloy. 



No. 2.— 1855.] 



SATURDAY, JANtARY 1!5. 



[Pan 



A^HeultUTO, llrltlhl), IiiiVtirKilfi 

(Mi 

Axi-lcultum! MiittHtlro 

AiMliiTHtui nnbllU 

AUllllIll", llHt of 

Wfctt.Krni'tliiK.... 

liii mil iih manure 

BoollB imtlcotl 23 a- 

Culcutliir, hnrticiillunil , 

■— nerlculturnl 

OnninlionH, tree 

Cnttlij iimrkct, new SnnllilleM . 

CoclOKyiic plftntnglncn 

Conlicrnj, collect ma mul c\ltl- 
vatova i ■. 

Coverings", woollen nottiuje .... 

Criimn, prcscrvctl ycntMiililen tor 

Digging; prlccof, double 

Dlnscarea BAtntnn! , 

l'pvnicrs' cli\l)H, Mr. Meclit on., 
FeniH, morphology hi 

Flax culture 

Food, Mr. Lnwrtt on 

ftrfnea (.Mr.) nui'SCiy 

Oiioaelirrry cni Or)>lllw 

i tin: en, keep of mrm 

Ijoltuid'H recovery, Locke on .. 

i .nii-nji rr'.* -in i iini—. 

Iiiuiiem) Society 



index; 

LdlH-WBOtlon culture 

_ _ _ modlflcd 
(Inns nf 

Manure, blood '<" 

M.'O'l, l. Mi* of 

Mcelil (Mr.) on farmcra' clulm 
Morphology in Ifcrna 

Nell I OK, woollen 

Pathology, vegetable 

I'enri', to rfllRti from need 

— Ileum- Sii[jerlln 

1'uhito Vion 

PrimroHCM, Chinese 

Protecting ma'.crlnl 

Knin In Dorset 

lUiododondroiia, grafting. i20 u- 

ElyQ'grati, ■" «w 

ffeodB, to puck 

Sheep, crow lired 

Spldor, red, rurc for 

SlntiMk'p, iigrlcultnrnl 

Tank*, material for 

VenctohlOB, preserved, for tlic 

Crimea 

Vegetable pathology 

WallB, protection for 

W liter, how to get good In cluy 

districts 

Wheat on Loifl-Wecdou plan .. 
Va:n, Chinese 



2(1 a 


Sit M 


2S a 


si b 


2i b 


2t a 


■:S « 


SI a 


SO a 


2,1 r 


2fi b 


20 » 


2! h 


21 c 


2:i c 


22 u 


II) b 


2. c 


21 c 


S7 b 


27 n 


23 4 


24 e 


27 c 


28 a 


24 a 


22 c 



'.* ' n 

27 ■• 
2A a 
23 r 
■J, r 
•J I r 
2-i r 
SO r 
VI a 
92 b 
111 b 
23 & 
21 <j 
S3 a 



COUNTY of GLOUCESTER and CHELTENHAM 
ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. —NOTICE. 

— The May Show of tlio -above Society will take place on 
WEDNESDAY, May 2nd, instead of May 9th, as previously 
advertised. Henry J. Cochrane, Secretary. 
11 , Colonnade, Cheltenham.— Jan: 13. 

GAKDENERS' BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION- 
SEVENTH APPLICATION. 
HENRY SCHNEIDER, of Ford, Colerne, Chippenham, 
through his Advertisement, again appeals to the sympathy 
and kind support of the. Subscribers of this Institution, being 
now 90 years of age, and in very destitute circumstances. 
His testimonials remain unimpaired, and he is encouraged to 
make another application to his kind friends who have hitherto 
favoured him with their votes, and other subscribers who will 
charitably lend him their aid at the forthcoming election in 
January next. 

The following gentlemen will be gratified in receiving proxies 
in his favour:— Mr. Gregory, Cirencester, Gloucestershire'; Mr. 
Bin-bank, Grittleton, Chippenham, Wi^ts ; Mr. Spencer, Bowood, 
Calne, Wilts; Messrs. Garraway, M&Aes, & Co., Bristol; Mr. 
Trotter, Badminton, Chippenham, Wilt;*; Messrs. Arthur Hen- 
derson & Co., Pine Apple Place, and John Arthur Henderson, 
l'":'i|., (M, ILiiniJfi n Ti'irurc, 1 .mul on . 

EVERGREENS. 

WANTED, a few Thousand of strong, healthy, bushy 
LAURELS, from 3 to 4 feet. State lowest cash price deli- 
vered free. at the Harrow Station, on the North-Western Rail- 
way, to Mr. Richard Field, Surveyor, 34, Coleman Street, City, 
London. 



"TX/ ANTED, 10,000 or 15,000 transplanted ENGLISH 
» ▼ OAKS, well grown stiff plants, well rooted. Also three 
or four dozen good 2-years dwarf-trained ' MOOR PARK. 
APRICOTS.— Apply, stating price, &c, to F..& A. Dickson & 
Sons, Upton Nurseries, near Chester. . 



WANTED TO PURCHASE, 2000 or 3000 
SEEDLING CRAB STOCKS.— Particulars as to age, 
price, &b;, to bo addressed to Warren's Gardens, Isleworth, 

Middlesex. 

LIQUID AMBER. 
IT' ANTED To PURCHASE, 300 of the above.— Send 
* * cash price to Mr. J eyes, Nurseryman, Northampton. 

nPO BE SOLD, very reasonable, 10,000 or more 
J- GOOSEBERRY and CURRANT TREES, strong plants; 
also a great variety of ORNAMENTAL FOREST TREES, from 
8 to 12 feet high; LAURELS, Busby LAURESTINES, &c— 
A pply to Mr. C. Clark, 379, Windmill Street. Gravesend, Kent. 

''rO BE SOLD, CHERRIES FOR FORCING; 

-* choice from 100 Half Standard and Dwarf May Duke 
Cherries, from 7 to 12 years old, and ranging from 5 to 10 feet in 
height; showing abuudance of fruit, and acknowledged to be as 
handsome a lot of trees as were ever offered for sale. Price 
moderate. To be seen at Mr. Mitton's, Lamp ton, one mile from 
either the Isleworth or.Hounslow stations of the South Western 

R ailway . 

MANGOLD WURZEL SEED. 

TO BE SOLD, LONG RED and YELLOW 
GLOBE, growth of 1S54, from superior stock.— Apply to 

R. S. Hews, Kelvedon, Essex. 

TO TH E TRADE. 

J ROY, Jun., Seedsman, Aberdeen, has got to hand 
« a consignment of 35 bales of very superior CUBA BAST. 
The hales weigh about lA cwt. each. Price fo rwarded on application . 

SEED" "WHEAT. — Samples and Prices of RED 
HYBRID, NURSERY, and other kinds of Wheat frcm the 
Chalk, sent on application to Mr. H. Raynbird, Basingstoke. 
The Red Hybrid and Nursery are well suited for late sowing 
after T urnips. 

FRUIT TREES, FOREST TREE'S, EVERGREEN 
SHRUBS, &c. Catalogues of the above may he had on 
application to William Barratt, Wakefield. 

tgif A quantity of fine Transplanted White Thorns. 
SEEDLING FOREST TREES AND SHRUBS. 

DAVID REID and SON, Nurserymen and 
Florists, Leith Walk, Edinburgh, beg to direct the atten- 
tion of the trade to their Stock of Seedlings as above. 
Catalogues free on application. 



J. 



CHOICE CALCEOLARIAS. 
COLE begs to offer a few dozen of his un- 
bloomed Seedling HERBACEOUS CALCEOLARIAS 
from lils choice stock; they were the admiration of all who saw 
them last summer. They are not potted off, though strong 
enough for large 60-sized pots. The Seed was saved from selected 
stock, carefully impregnated. J. C. offers them at 4s. per dozen, 
or 25s. per hundred. A remittance solicited from unknown cor- 
respondents.— Keyaeld Nursery, St. Alhan's, Herts. 



It UT TON'S S II OUT SEED LIST.— 
O-Qn TUB i.akt PaOE of i.avi- wki.h'h " ( jino.-iai'. '' 
will In: seen a concise List of the leading kinds of 
Heals, which it is hoped will he found convenient '" 
Gentlemen writing out. their Seed orders. 
Early commands will have the preference of scarce sorts. 
Sutton & Sons, Seed Qrowero, K< 
HOLCUS SACCHARATUS, OR CHINESE SUCAR CANE. 

SUTTON anii SONS can supply this Seed genuine 
us imported in ^scaled packets at Is. or 2s. (id. each. 
Post Free. 

For description and uboh, see Gardeners 1 Chronicle, Dec. 30th, 
18ijt, p. 835.— Sutton & Sons, Seed Growers, Heading. 
TCPT H E S ETD~f~rTA D E. 
ILLIAM E. RENDLU, Seed Merchants, 
Plymouth, hare to offer some very Choice Stocks of 
SEEDS to the Trade. Wholesale Calalorjv.es can he had 
on application to 

EWiu.iam E. Kkndlk & Co., Union Road, Plymouth. 



la/HITE BELGIAN CARROT, MANGOLD 
Vv WURZEL, &c— Several Tons to le disposed of 
at the lowest market prices. — Apply to 
WILLIAM E. RENDLE & CO., Seed Mehciiakts, Plymouth. 

T^J EW SEEDS JUST HARVESTED can now be 

Lri oblaincd of the most genuine description, from, 
William E. Rendle & Co., Seed Merchants, Plymouth. 





FUCH / . 



»<ITH WHITI 



I. ).■ 



COROLLA*. 

Li ( i i.m ;:;., i-i.'.i i. j i. ' 'i i ■ 
that il 
entirely novel ./..: — 

FLORENCE NICHT SCALE, 
r.ir.. while corolla, wild brilliant ■ 
an extremely tori 1; 

CALANTKIFLOr-A-P ' .:■ 

The I 
Pare double wblto corolU, r> 
drop, v, 
of the kind ever yel i 

'I l, ' to the Tr»'.' I 

Exeter Nurfery, Exoter> I 

EARLY DANIEL O'ROURKE 91 

J';. \\ AI'I E begs to inform the Taiac ii 
• reedy 
c:m be h 
Bj ..'- ndon. 

FIEAD' ■ . i 
the ' ■ : V.n'wn, Ifl, i - 
or quarter, on applicat i ' 



' 



E 



fAHLY WIMIK FIELD i'J.A.-M,W EARLY 



D IOSCO HEA BATATAS— THE NEW CHINESE 
POTATO. — This new esculent was fully described by 
Profesyor Lindley in the Chronicle of December 23, 1854. 

The £%ibscribcrs are now importing a choice lot of 
Roots, and can supply them on the following terms : — ■ 

Four Tubers £0 10 0] Fifty Tubers £5 5 

Ten „ 1 2 6 ] Hundred „ 10 

First Orders will have the best Roots. -Apply to 
WILLIAM E. RENDLE & CO., Seed Merchants, Plymouth. 



RACEHOfl :. early In Jnly 

and Is a good cropper price 12 



NEW CAULIFLOWER. 

T\7A1TE'S "ALMA," far raperior to Waleberefr, 

»* very large and fiim heads. Price to I 
smaller quantitfi -■ ' ■ 

quantities than one ounce.— Hf^I ; 

Holborn, London. ' 



DIOSCOREA (JAPONICA) BATATAS. 

SUTTON and SONS respectfully intimate that they 
have sold out of their lirst importation of Dioscorea 
Tubers. They are daily expecting the arrival of a further 
supply, but a considerable portion of these being already bespoke, 
orders can now only be received conditionally. 

Sutton & Sons, Seed Growers, Reading." 



SEED POTATOES. 

THE IMPORTANCE of CULTIVATING THOSE 
SORTS of POTATOES which, from their vigorous babit of 
growth and early maturity, are least subject to disease, has induced 
us for several years (ever since the first general development of 
the disease), to m:. i many ~.perimen;s as to the sorts most desir- 
able, and the enhivation meet suitable. Our New Seed List 
contains the names and prices of the principal kinds. — Address, 
Jons Suttox ■& Soys, Seed Growers, Readin g , Berks. 

CHARLES SHARPE and CO.'S Wholesale Cata- 
logue of Seeds i s now ready, and may be ha d on application. 
DIOSCOREA TJAPONICA) BATATAS, New Chinese 
Potato. — A choice lot of imported roots of the above. Price to 
the trade on application. 

Nursery and Seed Establishment, Sleaford. 



CHARLES SHARPE and CO. beg to draw the 
attention of the nobility, gentry, and clergy to their superior 
collection of Seed Potatoes, which they can recommend as de- 
cidedly the best in cultivation. Price per bushel, of 4 stones 
Early Ash-leaved Kidney 

„ do. do. Jackson's 

„ Round Frame 

„ Martin's Globe ... 

„ King's 

„ Hen's Nest.., 



9s; 



9s. 



Early Emperor 

Cockney Vs. 

Oxford 9s. 

White Rough ... Ss. 

Foxe's Seedling ... 9s. 

American Native ... 85. 
For Late Planting : — 

Yorkshire Regent, 7s. I "Prince Regent, 75. | Fluke Kidney, Ss. 

DIOSCOREA (JAfOMCA) BATATAS, New Chinese 
Potato. — This was described in the Gardeners' Chronicle of 
December 23, which see for mode of cultivation, &c. Price, per 
root, 2s. 6d. ; per dozen, 24s. 

Nursery and Seed Establishment, Sleaford. 



" T^ XTRAORDINARY POTATOES— A variety of 
-■— i Potatoes, singled out from some grown three or four years 
ago, has this year produced on the land of tte Thingoe 
Union house about 31 sacks, of which only 3 pecks are bad or 
small, and 60 Potatoes measure a bushel, weighing 60 lbs. Two 
have been brought to us, weighing together 3 lbs. 2 oz.: it is an 
excellent mealy Potato, and an abundant bearer." — Bury Post, 
October 11, 1S54. 

The above Mammoth variety have been christened the 
" Lord Raglan," and there are a few sacks of the medium size 
to dispose of, price 27. 2s. per sack; also Jackson's Improved Early 
Ashleaf. price 9s. per bushel; the Short-top Ashleaf, 7s. 6d. ; 
British Queen, 7s. 6rf. : and Nonpareil Kidneys, 6s. 6d. Free to 
London, and no charge for sacks ; all orders must be accompanied 
w!th n TPTiiittanrp. — Josfph "Wilsox, Seedsman, Ipswich. 



l> iiUJiiiNT ruiAiOLtj, ot ilie finest size and 
-C* flavour, direct from the grower to the consumer's door, free 
within three miles of King's Cross, at 14s. Grf. the imperial sack. 
of 224 lbs., for cash, from C. Flittox, factor. 21, York, Road, 
King's Cross. 



rpHE FLUKE KIDNEY POTATO.— This excellent 
JL variety is now planted here as the principal crop, being 
more free from disease and more prolific than any other in culti- 
vation. It was raised in Middleton, and may be had genuine in 
any quantity at 5s. per bushel of 56 lbs.— Apply to John Holland, 
Brftdshaw Gardens, Middleton. near Manchester. 



' I 'HE FLUKE POTATO. — A new second early 
-I- variety, surpassing every other in its capability of resisting 
the Potatodisease, and without exception the finest and most 
prolific Potato in cultivation. Price per cwt., 15s., bags iuclnded. 
To be had genuine of THORNHILL & DICKSON, Lawrence 
Hill Nurseries ; and No. 1, "Wine Street, Bristol. 



COLE'S CRYSTAL WHITE, X COLE'S CWARF 
RED CELERY. 

T THORNELEY,COLE,&Co., Nchsehtiieis - 
'J • men, and Floriste, Wilfafngton, Dear Masebestei 

announce that they are now prepared torn] two well- 

known varieties, raised by Mr. W.Cole flate ot DartJord}. 

CRYSTAL VH1TE. (oz. packeta,frte bypotr. 

SUPERB DWARF RED,£oz.pl" ^tanifs. 

Price p<;r lb. to the Trade r.n a p plication. 

RHUBARB ROOTS for FOEC1NG or PLANTING-. 
—Strong one-year nlanur: WATT'S YK_: 

and LlKNiEUS, MITCHELL I ALBERT, a*, 

doz.; HOWARD'S PRINCE ALBEB.T, 12*. per . 

a larger varietv tlian the Victoria, and is extensively <r, 
about Manchester. Price to : 
1C00, on application to MESSES. J. MYATT t n - 
Manor Farm, Dei tf rd. Jan. 13. 



CHOICE FLOWER St >S FOR PRESENT 
SOWING. - ptrp**ier. 

PA NSY, saved from H arietiea, bv u 

POLYANTIIUS,do. 60 diUo ... 24.&L 

YERBENA. do. 50 ditto 

HOLLYHOCKS, do. 60 of the most sopert V 
CALCEOLARIA, do.24 ditto, - £i. 6tL 

DAISY. do. 50 of the new Belgian do. co. ... tt. fld. 

ANTlRRHINUM,do.20 best named varieties 

ANEMONE, from the most showy and brilliant kinds _ Tj.Oi. 

30 packets of Choice Flower Seed s efof bt. 

The above, per post, free— Postage Stamps received is payment.- 
YOUELL and CO^ Royal Nursery. Great Ya^ month. 
VEGETABLE AKD FLOWER SEEDS. 

PETER LAWSON and SON Leg leave to intimate- 
to their English customers and the public that I ej .- 
prepared tn snpplv from their London establishment assortments 
of GARDEN and* FLOWER SEEDS of superior quail- 
prising all the esteemed standard sorts ar.:: 
duced. They will be happy to send Catalc gnes on application. 

P. L. & Son have aI?o t-> intimate that tbev will shortly 
their LIST of AGRICULTURAL SEEDS, all of which have 
been carefully saved from the mest select si 

Liberal arrangements will be made fiar the r: 
seeds to all quarters. 

PETER LAWSON and S 

Queen's Seedsmen, Wood Foresters, fie, forS 
the Hipbland and Agricultural Society. 27. Great Ge:rge Street, 
Westminster. London. 



PRICED NURSERY CATALOGUES. 

A PAUL and SON will be happy to forward the 

-£* • following priced Nursery CATALOGUES in return for 

one postage stamp each: — A. Roses: B. Oenakestal Tests 

AND CONIFEES: C, FECIT TEEES : D. BEBBACEOrS PLA^T;: F, 

Gbeenhouse Plants. Arc- : G. Seel=: H, Bollteoces: I, 
Btlbs. — Nurseries. Cheshnnt. Berts. 

A RTHUR HENDERSON and CO. beg leave \<j 

J-*V inform their patrons and friends that their Stock '"VEGE- 
TABLE and FLOWER SEEDS containing many choice and 
new kinds) is now ready for sending :~". 

Their Seeds may be fully relied en as being :n every respect 
of first-rate quality, and true to their sorts. Ca:a]<:gres e av te 
had fin application —Pine Arpl£ F^sce. E-'re~r.:-5 E f ac. L-:r.d'~. 



GERMAN FLOWER ;EtDS. 

MOSCEKOWITZ and SIEGL1KG, Erfnrt, leg to 
inform the trade that their rew Wholesale Catalog- 
Choice German and other FIcwer Seeds, is now nf-ady. and may 
be had on application to their Agent. Mr. B. BrsxiL, 70, Fen- 

c hnrch Street. London. 

TTr DRUMMOND and SONS' NEW DESCRIP- 
\\ • T1YE CATALOGUE. c:rtf.i-'rr =r"e-:t varieties on]-, 
of VEGETABLE and FLOWER SEEDS is now ready, and may 
be had post free on receipt of one postage stamp. This Catalcgne 
will, at a glance, furnish the Gardener with all the necessary 
material for drawing out his Seed List correctly and without 
trouble. In reference to it the Gardeners^ Chrcn^cU remarks : — 

*' It is simple, short, and one of the best we have seen. They 
are pursuing the sensible course we have so often insisted upon, 
for the sake of both buyer and seller: T ' and this opinion has been 
cordially responded to by aH onr old and many new customers. 
W.DErJGiOND & Sons' Seed and Implement Warehs-nse. Sridirg. 



18 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 13, 



TWO NEW CUCUMBERS. 



SIR COLIN CAMPBELL AND 
GENERAL CANROBERT. 

''HE ABOVE are two of the Finest and most Superb New Hybrid Cucumbers ever yet sent out for Exhibition, 
"Winter Cultivation, and every other purpose for which a Cucumher is required. 




SIR COLIN CAMPBELL CUCUMBER. 

The above Cut is an exact representation of one of the fruit ; it, and is very prolific, often throwing out four or five fruit from 
grown this summer, which measured exactly ten of its diameter | every joint, and the vines are short jointed. The fruit is solid, 
long, being 25 inches, with not more than half an inch handle. [ and eats very crisp, and for market it keeps its bloom well for 
It is a splendid Black Spine, of a dark green colour, and free | many days, not turning colour at the stem or point as most 
from ribs or shrivels; grows very quick, sets free, and carries its varieties do. Fruit was cut from the above in January last, and the 
bloom well. As a Cucumber for Exhibition nothing can surpass | same plants continued to produce fine fruit until the end of October. 

GENERAL CANROBERT CUCUMBER. 

This is also a most superb variety for winter cultivation, for swell off two or three fruit at a time on a plant, during the depth 

which it is best adapted, being a hybrid from Lord Kenyon's of winter, and carry them out well, which it does with less heat 

Favourite and Phenomena. It has a great advantage over than any other: this haB been proved when several varieties 

Kenyon's in length, growing to about 18 inches in the same have been grown together, this having the coldest part of the 

time in which Kenyon's will grow 12 inches; it is equally as house. The object of the raiser of the above superb varieties 

hardy and productive. Of a dark green appearance, Black Spine, has been to obtain perfection and hardiness, in which he has 

and a free setter; fruits freely during the whole of the winter, succeeded, by continually hybridising different varieties, 
and always grows a very even size from stem to point. It will 

Sold in Packets of Five Seeds, 35. Gd. each, or 1 Packet of Sir Colin Campbell and General Canrobert for 6s. 

The following fine varieties of Cucumbers and Melons, which have been thoroughly proved and have given the 
greatest satisfaction to all Purchasers, can be supplied. 



Captivation 

Phenomena 

Lord Kenyon's 

Essex Hero 

Victory of Bath 

Gordon's White Spine.. 
Sunderland Wick 



CUCUMBERS 

... 25. Gd. 
... 2 6 



Hunter's Prolific ... Is. Od. 

Mills' Jewess 1 

Cheltenham Surprise ... 1 

Manchester Prize ... 1 

Sion House True ... 1 

Cuthill's Black Spine ... 1 

Conqueror of the West... 1 



MELONS. 



The Queen 
Bromham Hall... 
Incompai-able ... 
Golden Ball 

Bowood 

Victory of Bath... 
Camerton Court 



Is. Od. 



Beechwood 

Windsor Prize 1 

Emperor 1 

Fleming'sHybd. Persian 1 
Blackall's Green Flesh 1 
Bailey's „ 1 

Snow's Hybrid 1 



Is. Qd. 





A Packet of either of the Melons will be given to all Purchasers of the two new Cucumbers advertised above. 
A Remittance must accompany every Order by Cash or Penny Postage Stamps, and the whole, or any part (as the case may be), 
will be immediately forwarded. 

EDWARD TILEY, NURSERYMAN, SEEDSMAN, and FLORIST, 

14, Abbey Church Yard, Bath, Somersetshire. 

The New Chinese Potato, Sioscorea (J aponica) Batatas. 
MR JOHN HENDERSON, 

Formerly of the Firm of John A. Henderson & Co., Pine Apple Place, London, 

HAS the pleasure of informing the Public that he has just completed the Purchase from M. Paillet, of Paris, 
of his entire Saleable STOCK of the above introduction from China, the nutritive properties of which are said so far to surpass 
the ordinary Potato that it is likely, not only to act as an auxiliary, hut entirely to supersede that valuable but uncertain esculent. 
The most satisfactory results -have followed from personal experiments, and proved that when cooked in the ordinary manner, 
from the large amount of farinaceous properties it contains, it can never become waxy, as is too generally the case with the 
Potato. Its flavour resembles in delicacy an early Ash-leaved Kidkkt; but, independent of the above excellent qualities, there 
is every probability of its taking a still more important position in the economy of this country, for, when dried and reduced to 
powder, it is equal to the best Arrow-root; or mixed in the proportion of one-third with two-thirds of wheaten flour, it makes 
an extremely light and wholesome BREAD, as well as very superior PASTRY. 

M. Paillet, to whom the Imperial Society of Agriculture and 
Commerce of France has awarded the sum of 3000 francs as 
encouragement for having brought it into cultivation, also notices 
that " this tuber attains at least 1 to 2 lbs. weight. In its growth 
it is less delicate than the Potato, which unfortunately has of late 
years much degenerated. It does not require particular care, and 
its abundant produce amply repays cultivation. Its taste is 
pleasant, and being a root which contains a large amount of 
farina, will be a great addition to the FOOD of the PEOPLE 
as soou as it becomes generally known. It is so hardy that it 
has passed the winters of 1853-4 in the open ground, without 
having in the least suffered from frost. It is also found that the 
stems and leaves, which are very numerous, form an excel- 
lent FOOD for CATTLE." 



Messrs. Vilmorin & Co., speaking of it, observe: -"Of all the 
esculent roots proposed as substitutes for the diseased Potato, 
the DIOSCOREA JAPONICA is certainly the only important 
one. It is easily propagated. The tubers are large and long, 
the flesh very mealy and devoid of any peculiar or disagreeable 
flavour. The DIOSCOREA JAPONICA is, in our opinion, a 
precious acquisition." 

M. Pele, Horticulturist, Paris, in his Supplementary Catalogue 
of this autumn says : — t* A new alimentary root, introduced into 
France by M. Montignv, French Consul in China. Various 
experiments have shown that this tuber will be much more 
advantageous to cultivate than the Potato, both in regard to its 
quality as well as produce." 



Tubers, with description of the Chinese Mode of Culture, to be obtained of Me. JOHN HENDERSON, Kingsker swell, South 
Devon, at the following prices, for cash only : — 

4 Tubers £0 10 | 10 do £1 2 6 | 60 do £5 5 | 100 do £10 

Post-office orders are requested to be made payable at Newton Abbot, South Devon. The usual discount allowed to the trade 
when not less than 50 are taken.— P. S. All orders unaccompanied by a remittance will be considered as not received. 



To Farmers, Potato Growers, and Others. 



JACKSON'S PATENT PREPARATION 

FOR 

PRESERVING POTATOES, WHEAT, AND OTHER SEEDS 



From DISEASE, the RAVAGES of the SLUG, GRTJB, and WIEEWORM, in addition to which the CROPS are brought 
forward in HEALTH axd VIGOUR, and the yield is greatly increased, in proof of which the following extracts are given 
from numerous letters received by Mr. Jackson. 



EXTRACTS 

a One of the fields of this farm, the property of Mrs. Stanbury, 
was planted with Regents Potatoes in April last, some of which 
were prepared by you. The result now is, that the whole of the 
crop from the unprepared sets is thoroughly diseased, and hardly 
■worth the trouble of taking up ; while those raised by the side of 
them from the prepared sets, are not only in a beautiful state of 
preservation from the disease, but the produce is much greater, — 
the Potatoes are more numerous than the others; indeed, if there 
were no such thing as the disease to be feared, it would be worth 
the trouble and expense of preparing the sets by your process, 
even for the sake of the improved crops. I shall certainty, for 
the future, prepare all my Potatoes for seed by your process ; and 
I intend to adopt it for preserving my "Wheat from the Smut. 

"G. B. Baxter. 

" Belmont Farm, Eltham, Kent, August 28, 1854." 
,{ Admiral Sir J. A. Gordon, K.C.B., Marlee House, Blairgowrie. 

"Sir, — I have received your note of the 16th. The Potatoes 
that came here from England, prepared by Mr. Jackson, 
were planted in a piece of new ground, and according to the 
directions sent by him along with Lhem as to distance between 
the plants, &c. They came up well, with strong healthy stems; 
I have now taken the whole crop up, and there is not the 



slightest appearance of any disease amongst them. They are of 
large equal size and very prolific. There were long black unpre- 
pared Kidneys planted in the same patch, and a great deal of 
them are not fit for use, at least a third part are diseased. I 
hope Mr. Jackson's process may be widely known, as it is a 
great boon. — I am, &c, John Shanks, 

"Forester, Kildrummy Castle. 
" Kildrummy Castle, Aberdeenshire, November 17, 1854." 



" I am very much pleased with the result of the experiments. I 
have made with your Prepared Potatoes; for I planted them, 
wiihout any manure, in ground where for several years I have 
hardly had a sound Potato, and I now find the crop perfectly free 
from disease, and in a very fine condition; while those of the 
same sort, unprepared, which were planted at the same time, and 
next to them, are diseased and eaten by worms. 

" Tlie Potatoes from the Prepared Seed were so remarkably 
good that I was induced to weigh them, and I found, to my great 
astonishment, that they were as 200 to 150 of the others, or about 
25 per cent, in favour of your preparation. 

"T. Austen, Nurseryman and Seedsman 

" Blackheath, Kent, 24th August, 1S54." 



NEW SORTS OF PEAS. 
Carriage Free, except Parcels under 10a. value. 

SUTTON and SONS have much confidence in reconi* 
mending the undermentioned PEAS, as being not 

only new and distinct from others, hut also as possessing 

superior p>roperties. 

Prices per peck or bushel may be had on application. 

PRIZETAKER. — New, fine long green pods, which hang s. dt 
so closely as almost to cover tbe haulm from top to hot-, 
torn. Numerous prizes were awarded to the Prizetaker 
last summer. This is the first season we have offered it 
for sale. Height 5 feet 

BECK'S EARLY GEM.— New, prolific, and fine flavour; 
particularly adapted for narrow borders and for small 
gardens. Height K- foot ... 

BECK'S ECLIPSE.— Similar to Scimetar, but earlier and 
more dwarf. Height 2 feet 

SUTTON'S EARLY CHAMPION.— One of the for- 
wardest sorts known, good flavoured, and prolific. This 
Pea is worth a much higher price, but having grown a 
large crop, we are enabled to offer it very moderate ; 3 feet 

WAITE'S DANIEL O'ROURKE.— A very pnpular va- 
riety, considered by some to be tbe forwardestPeayet out. 
It should be tried against our Early Champion; 3 ft. high 

FAIRHEAD'S EARLY CONQUEROR.— Height 3 feet 

PAUL'S EARLY DWARF.— One of the most prolific 
early Peas, forming a complete mass of blossoms and 
pods. Height 2 feet 

FAIRBEARD'S NONPAREIL.— New wrinkled marrow- 
fat, very sweet, juicy, and prolific; 9 or 10 will be found 
in every pod, and the pods extremely numerous ; 4 ft. high 2 0) 

"WAITE'S KING OF MARROWS.— As large as British 

Queen, with fine green pods, very long and full; 6 ft. high 2 

HAIR'S DEFIANCE.— Like Knight's tall, but earlier 
and not so tall; 5 feet high 1 Q 

HAMILTON'S NOVEMBER PROLIFIC. — Excellent 

for all seasons; 3 feet high 1 6 

NE PLUS ULTRA.— Oneoftbefinestgreen wrinkled; 6 ft. 1 6 
Sutton & Sons have a large stock of good old kinds at low 

prices, as see their Priced List, just published, price Gd., or gratis 

to purchasers. 

Sutton & Sons, Seed Growers, Reading. 



Sold by Messrs. Charl wood & Cuidiins, Seedsmen, Covent Garden; and John Ker>an, Seedsman, 4, Great Russell Street, 
Covent Garden; all Seedsmen and Chemists; and at the Patentee's, 18, Cannon Street, London Bridge, in Packets of One, Two, 
Three or Four Pounds, or in Bulk for the use of Farmers and Potato Growers. 



2 6 

1 G 

1 G 

I 



2 



RPAEKER begs to offer the following CHOICE 
• SEEDS, all of which are warranted new and true to name : 
GODFREY'S (BLACK SPINE) CUCUMBER, the finest 
variety in cultivation, packets containing 12 seeds Is. Gd. 

Also the following esteemed varieties of CUCUMBERS and 
MELO NS, in packets containing 12 seeds, at Is. each : 



CUCUMBERS. 

Henderson's Black Spine. 

Improved Patrick. 

Walker's Long Rambler. 

Manchester Prize. 

Hunter's Prolific. 

Superlative Improved. 

Cuthill's Black Spine. 

Ohio Squasha Custard Gourd, Gd 

Antirrhinum, from named flowers, Gd. 
Calceolaria, from fine varieties, Is. Gd. and 2s. Gd. „ 

Hollyhock, from fine named varieties, Is.Gd. and|2s.6i?. „ 
Lilium giganteum, the most distinct and noble species^ Of the 

genus, packets containing 20 seeds, 2s. Gd. 
*** A remittance or reference to accompany all orders from 

unknown correspondents. 

Paradise Nursery, Hornsey Road, Islington. 



MELONS. 
Victory of Bath. 
Beechwood. 
Bromham Hall. 
Canteloupe. 
Duke of Bedford. 
Golden Perfection (extra fine). 
Scarlet Flesh (Anderson's). 

per packet. 



^/l ESSRS. E. G. HENDERSOJN and SON, of the 
■* Wellington Nursery, St. John's Wood, Loadon, will com- 
mence sending out in April next their new Seedling FUCHSIAS 
with White Corollas, both double and single, some striped or, 
variegated Corolla' d Fuchsias, and a Fuchsia with a Purple 
Corolla. The latter Fuchsia (Prince Albert) was purchased of 
E. Banks, Esq., after having proved the flower as possessing un- 
questionable merits. All the other varieties were purchased of 
W. Story, Esq., of Newton, in the county of Devon, who succeeded 
in introducing a Scarlet Fuchsia with White Corolla, which new 
feature in this tribe gives one of the greatest novelties that they 
have had the pleasure of seeing for many years. Mr. Story, 
being the raiser of this new Class, offered them to Messrs. 
Henderson for 100 guineas, which offer they accepted. A 
faithful drawing of three of the varieties here offered has been 
taken by Mr. James Andrews, the well-known floricultural and 
horticultural artist; sketches from which have appeared in Van 
Houtte's " Flore des Serres," Verschaffelt's ". Illustration 
Horticole," and wiH also appear in Turner's "Florist," for 
February. The dwarf, compact, and free flowering habits of the 
plants will he sure to please eveiy grower of this tribe. 

QUEEN VICTORIA (Story's).— Splendid wide sepals, bean^ 
tifully re flexed, of a bright scarlet crimson, and a lovely clear" 
white corolla. Price 10s. Gd. 

PRINCE ALBERT (Banks's).— Scarlet crimson sepals re- 
flexed, and rich violet corolla. This flower we consider unequalled 
by any, its reflexing properties beine; such that either more or 
less would be a fault; indeed the flower is perfection itself. 
10s. Gd. 

MRS. STORY (Story's).— Fine large scarlet tube, long wide 
sepals refiVxed; corolla fine substance, and clear white. 10s. Gd. 

RANUNCUL^EFLORA (Story's).— Scarlet sepals and tube, 
with double white corolla, a flower not having that confused 
appearance as many of the double varieties are known to possess. 
This was considered the best of the only two double white 
varieties flowered by Mr. Story. 21s. The other double variety 
we do not appear to have received. 

PERUG1NO (Story's).— Fine large scarlet sepals and tube, 
with a conspicuous striped corolla of rose and purple flakes, 
handsomely reflexed and free flowering. 10s. Gd. 

EMPRESS EUGENIE (Story's).— Wide reflexed petals of a 
rosy crimson, the inside of petals having a violet shading; 
corolla fine white. 10s. Gd. 

RAFFAELLE (Story's).— A beautiful variegated corolla with 
crimson sepals well reflexed, and of good substance ; the colour of 
the corolla is a rich chocolate flaked with rose, free flowering 
10s. Gd. 

LADY OF THF LAKE (Story's).— Fine deep crimson, with 
a blush white corolla, veiy pretty. 10s. Gd. 

WATER NYMPH (Story's).— Bright scarlet crimson globe 
stout wide petal, corolla fine clear white; an elegant flower. 
10s. Gd. 

Or if the set of nine be taken, the price, 4Z. 4s. 
January, 1855. 

|\/| ESSRS. E. G. HENDERSON and SON were 
-L* J surprised to see an advertisement a few weeks back in the 
Gardeners^ Chronicle, from Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, and Co., of 
Exeter, offering two new Fuchsias, similar in character to those 
described above, and after a written communication with Mr. 
Story, it was thought necessary for one of the Firm to make 
further inquiries about them, and in consequence Mr. Andrew 
Henderson went to Exeter and Newton, where he was informed 
by a jobbing gardener at Newton that he had received SEVEN 
POUNDS for them after (as the said jobbing gardener stated) 
he had been offered 20J. for them by a Nurseryman in London, 
but whose name or address he did not know. 

Messrs. E. G. H. & Son think the above explanations neces- 
sary, in consequence of a great number of their customers having 
ordered them at higher prices than are quoted above. This 
reduction is made in consequence of information which they have 
received, that leaves no doubt on their minds but that those to 
be sent out by Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, & Co., are similar m 
character to the above.— Wellington Nursery, St. John's Wood. 



2— 1 855.] 



T II B (.'A li. I) E N ERS'4 CHRO N I CLE. 



ESTABLISHED ABOUT HALF A CENTURY. 

BASS AND BROWN'S NMW SEED LIST 

IS NOW READY, 

AND CONTAINS EVERYTHING WHICH can BE DESIRED OF THE CHOICEST, 
NEW, AND OTHER VEGETABLES. 

Considerable attention in paid to ffi'ow only fficfhi ' tot It for aale, and our Oollection it veryteUcl. 



ASSORTED COLLECTIONS OF VECETABLE SEEDS. 
Tht following, of the very lie.il in cultivation, oanuot Jail l„ ,/lvi: lln most. rMnplrtr. tatlsf nation. 



nnln 



No. 1, Collection IV, 

titinH Bufflolont fo 

No. 2, Collection In smaller proportion . 



„l,,,l 



talnim; mum 

y ... ' ... £3 0«. Oil, 
... 2 
A FEW CHOICE NEW 

oTl'S'H I, (ill 1 1 RAGLAN, or Improved ll.tm Il, pro 

duclngS in 10 Peas In n pod, and allowed to bo tho finest 

io coll i \ in Ion prr M I i'':. '' ■' 

EPPS'S MONARCH, now lull marrow, and tho largo I 
Hlzed IVa cultivated ... por qunrt fi 

FAotllEARK'H NEW NONPAREIL, a dolloloiis now 
wrlnklrd marrow, of groat produce ami rum pndn. a very 
rapid grower, coming In bolero tho Champion of J5ngland 2 

Tho List of FLOWER SEEDS 
to nil the London Tormi 



< ,:i, < Ion in imallor propoi tlon . 

Collect! I '. I I IndB for D nuuill r-.i r.lor. 



...f.\ fir, 

... 15 



VARIETIES OF PEAS. 
,\i ii N'S PAKADI8E, b moat valuable oarlyvory largo 

marrow Pea, podfl lai [0, long, I well lllled, ami fine 

flavour. Tliin Pea, though vi-y largo, cornea In 

- i i the W m trlok per ntmrl I I ■ 

HAIR'S DEP1ANCK, wrinkled iiimrow, fine d.,. 1 li 
,,, I- i n No I, lliinlil U'K'iiu ):i', I lull ' . I ».. ml \I ' ; 

ink- Emperor, or Palrbeard'a Conqueror, Burbldgo'fl Eclipse, 
i ihampl i i Ingland, and other best 



ill also bo found, ns usual, very select. Goods Carriage free (not under 20».) 
ni and all .Stations on tlm London and Norwich Colchester Lino. 



SEED & HORTICULTURAL ESTABLISHMENT, SUDBURY, SUFFOLK 



FRUIT TREES.— SURPLUS STOCK. 

WILLIAM JACKSON and CO., Bedalo, Yorkshire, 
having a portion of their Nursery Ground tocloar, lieg to 
offer the following FRUIT TREES of tho most useful and 
approved oorts, Htropg and well grown, lu n bearing state, at 
annexed choap rates :— Por dozen.—*, d. 

Applon and Pears, good strong Standards 8 

Do. do. do., Dwarfs 

Do. do. do., Dwarfs, trainod 18». to 24 

Choriios, good strong Standards 10s. to 12 

Do. do. do., Dwarfs, trainod 24s. to 80 

Plums, good strong Standards 9s. to 10 

Do. do. do.. Dwarfs trained 24s. to 30 

Apricots, Poaches, and Nectarines, trained 42s. to 48 

A roforonco or remittance is respectfully solicited from un- 
known correspondents. — Jan. 18. 

HOLLY HOCKS. 
JOHN CHATER and SON offer the following New 
J and Choice HOLLYHOCKS in Pots at 18s. por dozen, hamper 
Included :— Pourpre de Tyro, Yellow Model, SaftVanot, Duko of 
Rtttland (now), Penelope, Swansdown, Gem, Lady Braybrooke, 
Spectabilis, White Perfection, Black Prince (new), King of Roses, 
Raphael, Napoleon, Magnum Bouum, &c. 

Also the following strong ground Roots, 7s. 6ii. per dozen : — 
Queen, Bella Donna, Elegana, Brilliant, Marmion, Mrs. Russell, 
Venosa rubra, Obscura, Aurantia, Purpurea elegans, Flower of 
too Day, Marchioness of Breadalbane, Queen of England, and 
Model of Perfection. 

New Crimson Rockets, 6s. por dozen ; Double White do., 3s. 
ier dozen, 20s. por 100. 

Hollyhock Seed, in packets containing 200 seeds, Is. 6d. ; 
400, 2s. 6d. ; warranted from best flowers. Choice Pansy, Is. per 
)acket. Sweet William, 6d. 

Descriptive Catalogues may be had on application to J.Ciiatep. 
5j So.v. Haverhill, Suffolk. — Post Office Orders payable at 
tlaverhtll. 



FASTOLFF RASPBERRY. 

YOUELL and CO. are now sending out extra strong 
canes of tho above most excellent RASPBERRY, unequalled 
>y any other variety for the size of its fruit and richness of flavour, 
it 16s. per 100; Large White Raspberry, 24s. per 100; New 
Monthly Fruiting ditto, 24s. per 100. 

CHOICE FRUITS (WAMtAXTED true to name.) 
4.PPLES, Standard, in best selection, good heads, 9s. 0<f. per doz. 
„ Dwarf ditto ditto 6 „ 

„ Trained ditto ditto SO „ 

PEARS, Standard ditto ditto 12 „ 

„ Dwarf ditto ditto 8 „ 

,, Trained ditto ditto 30 „ 

PLUMS, Dwarf ditto ditto 9 „ 

„ Trained ditto ditto 36 „ 

'EACHES.Df.trained.inflnestrongpIants.Ses.toeO „ 
NECTARINES, Dwarf trained ditto 36s.to60 

APRICOTS ditto ditto 86s. to 60 „ 

HIERRLES, Standard, in fine variety, ditto ... 12 „ 
„ Dwarf ditto ditto ... 9 „ 

„ Trainod ditto ditto 36s. to 42 „ 

JOOSEBERRIES, 25 of the finest varieties (good bushes), 
selected for size and flavour, 30s. per 100, or 4s. per dozen. 
URRANTS.— Improved large White Dutch, Black Naples, 
Raby Castle (red), and large Red Grape, 4s. per dozen. 
These are the most desirable kinds in cultivation, and are 
highly recommended. 
RHUBARB.— Royal Albert, 9s. per doz. ; Linnreus, 9s. per doz. 

Tobolsk, Gs. per doz. (strong). 
SEA K ALE. — Extra strong,2 years, 6s. per 100 ; 3 years, Ss. per do. 
ASPARAGUS.— Extra strong for forcing, 6s. per 100; 3 years 

old, 3s.6d. ; 2 years old,- 2s. 6d. 
LILY OF THE VALLEY.— Strong for forcing, 6s. per 100. 

All orders of 2?. and upwards are delivered carriage free to 
uondon, Hull, and Newcastle-on-Tvne, as well as to any railway 
nation within 150 miles of the Nursery. Communications by 
itearoer and railway to all parts of England, Ireland, and Scotl- 
and, as well as the Continent. Post Office orders to be made 
layable to Youell & Co. 

Youeix & Co., Royal Nursery, Great Y'armouth. 



NEW SEEDLING POTATO— THE CHAMPION 
KIDNEY. 
This Potato bears a great resemblance to that fine old Potato, 
he Ashleaf Kidney; it possesses the following good qualities 
ver the Ashleaf. If planted at the same time it will be ten days 
arlier, all the sets always vegetate well, and do not die offiu the 
Toond as the Ashleaf does ; 2 pecks of seed will produce a 
:'eater weight of Potatoes than 3 peeks of the Ashleaf. It is 
Jite equal to that in flavour, and is eatable during the whole 
"inter. Sets that have had the shoots broken off five or six 
.lues during the spring will vegetate again as if it had been the 
rstshoot. About twenty Gentlemen and Gardeners who had 
(.ed to plant last season have assured me that they never before 
tew any Potato to equal it, and should continue to grow it as a 
rst early Potato. Numerous orders have been already received 
om persons who saw it growing during the last summer. It 
las been grown and thoroughly proved for the last four years, 
nd found to be less liable to disease than any other Potato that 
as Seen grown. Oat of 25 sacks grown this season there was 

' ij' ng lo diseased Potato among them. 

bold In quantities of not less than 1 peck ; they will be sent 

omper and Package free, at 5s. Gd. per peck, or 4 pecks for It, 
unper tree. A remittance In cash must accompany all orders, 
, -Tii . amc " ,n ^ '" penny postage stamps. Purchasers would 

vim" >"," 0"™ V.™™' ""•"'ay station to their residence. 

LDW AKD TILEY, Nitrservmas, Seedsmak, & Florist, 
14, Abbey Church Yard, Bath, Somerset. 



RENDLE'S PRICE CURRENT ami GARDEN 
DIRECTORY fur 1115,5 is now published, priix Cd. 
To be had of all Booksellers, and from 
William E. Rf.ndlh & Co., Seed Merchants, Plymouth. 



SEEDS FOR THE FARM. 
QUTTON'S Pit ICED LIST will be seen on the last 
1^ page of last weok's Chronicle, page 16. 

N.B.— In the List above referred to, two typographical 
errors occurred, viz., in the prices of " Sutton's Purple- 
topped Hybrid Turnip," and "Hardy White Swede." 
Both of these useful hinds are 1 s. 6d. per pound. 
Early orders arc requested and recommended. 



ammes. 




Gramraw. 




U ... 





110 


10 ... 





39 


11 ... 


18S 


640 


12 ... 


105 


260 


13 ... 


95 


330 


11 ... 


100 


390 


15 ... 


100 


420 


10 ... 






SATURDAY, JANUARY 13, 1855. 

♦ 

Since the account of the Chinese Yam (Dioscorca 
Batatas) which we gave a few weeks since 
(1854, p. 820), a further report by M. Decaisne 
upon the result of last year's experience in France 
has reached us. It appears from this statement that 
the root has excited the greatest interest in that 
country, that it is already regarded as a sufficient 
recompense for the disasters which attended the 
Potato disease, and that the public establishments 
are overwhelmed with applications for it from all 
parts of the country.- The substance of M. Decaisne's 
statement is as follows : — 

About the middle of April, when he considered 
the danger from frost to be over, he planted out in 
the garden of the Museum of Natural History some 
pieces of the roots. Some were taken from the 
upper and smaller part of the tubers, others from 
the thicker part. The first were scarcely as thick 
as the little finger, and averaged 2§ inches in length ; 
the others were much larger, and formed slices or 
cross sections of a cylinder, each 1^ to li inch thick 
on the edge. Three tubers weighing from 10} to 
14 ounces were planted whole, in order to compare 
their produce with that of the cut sets. The 
plantation was made in an open border on the level, 
and not on ridges, as ought to have been done, a 
circumstance, however, which in no way affected 
the growth of the tubers ; it only rendered the 
taking up difficult. The distance between the 
plants was 19J inches every way ; this was another 
mistake, for, according to the judicious observations 
of M. L. Vilmorin, they should have been much 
wider apart. The short time which has elapsed 
since the introduction of the Chinese Yam prevents 
M. Decaisne's determining what may be called a 
good or a bad year for it ; the future alone will 
show under what conditions of climate it best 
succeeds. All that can at present be said is, that 
in 1S54 the growth of the plants was uniform, that 
their long twining stems grew vigorously, and were 
thickly covered with leaves, that abundance of 
flowers were produced (they were all males) about 
the beginning of August, and finally that vegetation 
ceased and the leaves began to acquire a yellowish 
tint after the middle of September, thus indicating 
that the tubers had nearly come to maturity. 

With the exception of some specimens kept apart 
for other experiments, all the plants were separated 
into three distinct lots. Two of these lots were staked 
— one with strong stakes 10 feet or more in height, 
the other with stakes 6 or 7 feet high. The stems 
twined round the stakes very regularly, in the same 
way as Running Kidney Beans, and soon grew 
beyond them. In the third lot the plants were left 
unsupported, and their stems spread over the ground 
without taking root, twining amongst each other ; 
these did not nearly attain the length of those which 
were staked. In no case were the plants either 



■ artbed up or 1 

to I.'- n 'i'o 1. 'I . taken np on the 

'lib of November, 

• ■I iln- difft rent 1 , 

valion v. liiib v.' re adopted. 
A. Tubers planted 

10} 0::. cadi. — Tin- 

plants, ' 

I ■ ■ ■ enotmoui and q 
run, 1,110 weighing, 
olhei ^ lbs, 9 ■ Tl 
erub of the coclicliaffer, and onlv yielded j 

Tho 
lulu: ted I 

u ilhonl I- 1 • ii. .' I det ■ ■• d 01 cbangi -i 
standing the i ize of thi 
ihi« mode of planting is d 
1,1, .-.■■ ,-.i 

li. Plantation - .if the talcrt 

varying in length and thu 'ticss. 

' PLANTS WITH KT.'. ! 

This lot consisted of ]<; plants, of wb 'ii ',-,.: pro- 
duced two middle 
fully 11^ hi,., and which ought to 1 
only forming one. Weigbed carefully three days 
after the tubers were taken up, and when dry and 
clean the following was the result : 
No. 
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

G 

7 

8 

[Total, 3 kil. 705 grammes, about 8 lbs 2^ oz., or 

a mean per tuber of 8 oz. , ,. 

••PLANTS WITH STAKES 6 to 7 LLLT HIGH. 

The plants, of which there were 28, also pro- 
duced only one tuber each, of the following 

weights : — 

No. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

[Total, 9 kil. 655 gramme?, := 21 lbs. 4i oz. ; or, 

on the average, 12 oz. ^^ per tuber.] 

•'•PLANTS NOT STAKED. THEIR STEMS STRAGGLING 
ON THE GROUND. 

The number of plants was 13, and they gave the 
following results : — 

GEuraes. 

£45 

1-50 

140 

120 

110 

55 

[Total, 3 kil. 916 grammes, = 8 lbs. 6i oz., giving 
an average of 10 oz. j^ per tuber.] 

The sum total of the produce of the three lots 
planted with pieces of tubers gives 17 kil. 
grammes, or 38 lbs. If oz.. as the produce of 57 
plants, which is at the rate of rather more than 10J- 
I oz. for the average weight of each tuber. 

In this calculation the quantity of space on 
which the plants grew is not taken into account, 
nor would it have led to any useful inference, 
because, as has been already stated, the plants 

■ were too far apart. But when he takes into 
consideration the perfectly tap-rooted nature of 
this plant ; the shortness of the slender lateral 
roots, which are not more than from 3 to 3f inches 
long ; and moreover the large development of the 
stem and leaves, which clearly indicates that the 

I plant lives principally on elements dissolved in the 
atmosphere, M. Decaisne infers that at the dis- 

' tance of 10, or even S inches every way, the plant 
would have sufficient space for its proper growth. 
There would thus be from 16 to 25 plants in a 
square metre. Taking the 20. plants io produce on 
an average each 10J oz, of tubers, we have about 
13| lbs. per square metre, or a total of about 
23 tons 17 cwt, of tubers per acre. This is double 
the average weight of Potatoes produced in France 
on the same space of ground. 

So large a produceM. Decaisne admits to be entirely 
hypothetical, and calculated for tie best conditions 



-amme3. 


No. 


Gr&JDi&fita 


40 


15 ... 


... 


50 


16 ... 


270 


55 


17 ... 


380 


195 


18 ... 


370 


690 


19 ... 




550 


20 ... 


265 


520 


21 ... 


... - 


790 


22 ... 


230 


540 


23 ... 


... 225 


420 


24 ... 


3->j 


420 


25 ... 


... 55 


440 


26 .. 


165 


450 


27 ... 


... 210 


765 


28 ... 


175 



No, 


Grammes. 


No. 


1 ... 


488 


8 


2 ... 


475 


9 


3 ... 


460 


10 


4 ... 


488 


11 


5 ... 


400 


12 


6 ... 


... ... 495 


13 


7 ... 


290 





20 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 13, 



of soil and temperature, in the climate of Paris ; it 
is also made upon the supposition that the whole of 
the ground is occupied. But although the computa- 
tion may be too high, and notwithstanding that the 
Chinese Yam costs more to plant than the Pottto, 
M. Decaisne has nevertheless arrived at the conclu- 
sion that the produce of the Dioscorea Batatas will 
exceed that of the Potato, and that the greater 
difficulty in taking up will be comp:nsated by the 
greater amount of nourishment which the tubers 
contain. It is in order to diminish the labour of 
taking up that he recommends the Yam to be planted 
on ridges, following as much as possible the Chinese 
method described in our former article. The reasons 
upon which this opinion is formed are the following. 

The tubers of the Chinese Yam were in general 
from 13J to 19£ inches long ; seldom more. The 
upper third is small, perhaps as thick as the little 
finger ; this is in his opinion the only part that 
should be kept for planting, and, in most cases, three 
or four slices, large enough to form vigorous plants, 
may be obtained ; the rest of the tuber may be used 
for food. 

It is important that the entire tuber should be 
taken up, especially since its lower extremity is 
always the largest part, and that which is richest 
in starch. By laying out the ground in ridges or 
narrow beds 10 or 12 inches high, the gardener has 
only to dig a spade's depth in the side of the ridge 
or bed, in order to reach the lower end of the root ; 
and by turning over the ridges, so as to level the 
ground at the same time, the crop may be taken up 
without difficulty. It is evident, indeed, from what 
has been stated, that if the sets are planted suffi- 
ciently close, the labour in taking up will not be 
greater than that required for the same weight of 
Potatoes. M. Decaisne hesitates to settle positively 
the breadth of the beds, or the distance from ridge 
to ridge; but he suggests that a space 20 inches 
broad planted with three rows of Yams would 



upon what was formerly a subject of constant debate, 
not only among those actually engaged in the opera- 
tion, but also among the theoretical investigators of 
science. 

So long as it was believed that absolule wood was 
formed corporeally from above downwards, it was 
inferred that the lower parts of a plant must be 
gradually encased in solid matter derived from 
branches ; and that consequently, of necessity, the 
stock of a plant must be enveloped in layer above 
layer of the wood of the scion. It is needless to 
repeat the arguments employed in support of this 
view ; they were cogent, and for a long time held to 
be irrefragable. The application of the theory to 
grafting led, among other things, to the conclusion, 
that if a scion would take it would speedily form 
a sheath of wood over the stock, and thus secure 
itself for ever. Once to form a good union was, 
therefore, looked upon as sufficient security for the 
permanent life of the grafted plant. It is true that 
cases, apparently at variance with the theory, 
occurred every now and then, but plausible explana- 
tions of such instances were readily found. 

It is, however, now certain that although wood is 
formed by a descending process, yet that its descent 
is not in an organised state. >-rlnid matter, out of 
which it is produced, passes, indeed, from above 
downwards, but the formation itself is wholly local 
and superficial, and consequently there is no such 
thing as an encasement of the lower part of a tree 
by wood descending from above. That important 
fact having been once established the union of a 
scion and its stock evidently became a case of mere 
adhesion, extremely powerful in some cases, feeble 
and readily destroyed in others. There are therefore 
two essentially different results obtained by grafting 
— the one permanent, the other transitory. The 
practical application of that truth we reserve for 
another occasion. For the present we confine our- 
selves to a new demonstration that the nature of 



all that we are acquainted with is the fact. In the 
cells of the Red Beet resides a power of forming 
red matter, and in those of the White Silesian Beet 
that of forming yellow ; and this peculiarity is not 
affected by the one growing to the other. Red- 
forming cells produce their like and yellow-forming 
theirs. Thus the limit between the scion and its 
stock is unmistakeably traceable, and notwithstand- 
ing the combination of the two sorts in one each 
perseveringly retains that which is natural to it. 

What is true of Beets is true of all other plants, 
and we shall endeavour on an early day to apply to. 
the practice of grafting the unquestionable facts 
above explained. 



answer very -well. The furrow or space between | the union between a scion and its stock is no other 
the beds should not be more than a foot wide — just than that now described. 



About the beginning of Sep- 
tember, 1853, Dr. Allan Mac- 
lean, of Colchester, an inge- 



enough for a man to work in. He adds that the 
plants should not be staked, because their stems if 
allowed to spread over the ground preserve its mois- 
ture ; and also because they may be made to root ' nious experimentalist and good 
by a sort of layering similar to that practised by the physiologist, grafted a young 
Chinese, who by that means obtain a considerable J plant of the White Silesian Beet 
increase of produce. This mode of layering is upon a root of Red Beet, and 
described in our former articles. vice versfi. At the time of the 

It should be understood that M. Decaisne only experiment the plants were 
speaks of light free soils, and not of those which are each about as thick as a straw, 
compact and harden much with the action of the A complete junction was effect 
sun. The former are, in fact, those in which the 
Yam succeeds best. In China it is exclusively 
grown in sandy soils where few other green crops 
thrive. 

M. Decaisne regards the Chinese Yam as superior 
in quality to the Potato. Although no comparative 
analysis of the two has been made, he believes that 
the Chinese Yam is much the richer in point of nutri- 
tive principles. Its roots are white as snow in the j formed by " chok 
interior ; they neither contain visible fibres nor | case ; above the 



New Plants. 

109. CcELOGYNE PLANTAGINEA. 
C. (Flaccid.e) pseudobulbis clongatis teretibus, foliis 2 oblongo- 
lanceolatis 5-costatis undulatis petiolatis patentibus, racerao- 
pendulo glabro niultifloro, bracteis " parvis fuscis acutissimis " 
deciding, petalis lineari-Ianceolatis, sepalis paulo latioribua 
carinatis, Iab&lo ovato-oblongo trilobo acuminata laments 
hypochilii 3 epicbilii 4 fimbriatis. 

For this fine species we are indebted to the Lord 
Bishop of Winchester who purchased it, it is believed,, 
at one of Stevens's sales two or three years ago under 
the above name, which it probably received in India, 
and although apparently unpublished, is too applic- 
able to be rejected. The plant forms a tapering pseudo- 
bulb about 6 inches long, sheathed at the base by 
acuminate scorched scales, and bearing a pair of firm 
.UttjacPreaves, about a foot long, with five principal ribs, 
and strong channelled stalks. The flowers appear in a 
; long pendulous raceme not unlike that of Cynibidium 
1 j>eiidulum ; they are greenish yellow with a white lip 
streaked with brown. The latter has a taper-pointed 
( middle lobe, and is crested with perpendicular fringed 
plates, of which there are three near the base, and four 
upon the middle lobe. It is perfectly distinct from alL 
previously known, but approaches 0. ftaccida more 
nearly than any other. As we have alrea'a-y stated the 
plant has been for two or three years at Farnhara 
Castle, where, until this year, it resisted all inducements 
to flower ; but eventually his lordship overcame its 
reluctance by carrying the system of starvation lo- 
an extreme extent. The specimen with which we have 
been favoured was a model of good cultivation ; it had 
been in flower for a month. The bracts had fallen, and 
we describe them from information communicated by Mr. 
J. W. Laurence, the Bishop of Winchester's gardener. 



ed ; and when, in 1854, the plant 
of White Beet grafted on red 
was taken out of the ground, its 
longitudinal section exhibited 
the appearance represented in 
the annexed figure. There was 
a slight contraction at the line 
of junction, much like that 
'"a rocket 
of con- 



|!V 



tough woody matter, and when boiled they become traction the plant was abso- 
so soft that a slight pressure converts them into a lutely white, below it it was 
paste, which he can only compare to that of the absolutely red. Not a trace of 
finest Wheaten flour. Cooked by steam or roasted, blending the two colours could 
they look and taste like the best Potatoes. They j be discovered. By similar ex- 
have one advantage, which every one will appreciate, ! periments on other vegetables 
namely, the short space of time required for cooking. [ and plants Dr. Maclean had so 
Two pieces of tubers, of the size of a hen's egg, one : far assured himself of the per- 



the Chinese Yam, the other the Batate blanche, were 
both put into boiling water at the same time with a 
Dutch Potato of the same size ; the first and second 
were done in ten minutes, the third in 20 minutes. 
And we must recollect that the facility with which 
the Potato may be cooked is one of the causes which 
have greatly contributed to the popularity of the 
Potato in a culinary point of view, as it requires 
but little fuel. 

Another point of great importance to cultivators 
is, that it may be kept easily for a year, and perhaps 
longer. We all know that the Potato is certain to 
sprout in spring. The Chinese Yam is wholly free 
from this disadvantage ; it is neither affected by 
cold nor heat, and perhaps not even by moisture. 
Left in the ground, it remains alive through the 
winter without injury, as has been proved by a root 
which passed there the last severe winter, and pushed 
freely in spring ; so that it is a hardy plant in the 
■widest acceptation of the term. 

Some discussion respecting the effect of grafting 
Rhooodendrons has lately found its way into our 
columns, and it is desirable that at the approaching 
grafting season those interested, either practically or 
theoretically, in that operation should consider well 
the real nature of the process. So large a number 
of facts has now been collected by the united obser- 
vations and intelligence of modern cultivators ' 



Ground line. 

The result of the 
trial wholly confirmed that view, and demonstrated 
that the White Beet adhered to the Red Beet by mere 
junction of cellular matter; that of the scion and 
stock holding together in the first instance, and 
each afterwards producing its own colouring matter 
in its own new cells as they formed superficially, 
the red cells adhering to the white cells while in the 
nascent state, but retaining each the peculiarity 
belonging to it, without any interchange of contents 
through the sides of the cells in contact. 

This is entirely consistent with all that has been 
discovered by the modern physiologists who have 
applied themselves to a study of the nature of the 
individual cells of which plants consist. They 
have clearly shown that each cell has its own special 
inherent power of secretion ; as indeed may be seen 
by any one who examines thin sections of variegated 
leaves or other parts. It will then be seen that 
some cells are filled with a red colouring matter, 
others with yellow, others with green. In other 
words" one cell has the power of secreting red matter, 
another yellow, and so on. The colours do not 

.. ^...^...mic, that run together, but are contained each within the 

it has become perfectly safe to speak dogmatically | cell that produces it. Why this is so no one knows : 



feet independence of scion and 
stock as to acquire the belief 
that neither the colouring nor 
any of the specific characters of 
the one or the other would or 
could be altered by their union. 



llli] 



VEGETABLE PATHOLOGY.— No. LIV. 

239. Sterility. — It was stated (see p. 231, 1854) that 
the same effect in vegetable pathology may arise from 
very different causes, and though the ultimate injury 
may be identical, the diseases which produce it may in 
reality be altogether unallied. Such effects may some- 
times in point of fact be mere symptoms rather than 
specific maladies. In a treatise, however, like the 
present intended for general use, it would not be prudent 
to draw too nice distinctions, but to treat such subjects 
as may aris^ slmn lv and practically. In many instances, 
therefore, sucrftSytHptoms will for practical purposes be 
regarded as disease; and to concentrate attention on each 
subject, it will be necessary to keep together as much as 
possible all that bears on one particular point, for unless 
some such mode were adopted, reference must be made 
for information to more than one division, and some- 
times to every distinct head under which disease may 
be classified. Where a disease, therefore, arises from 
constitutional cduses and those functional, proper notice 
will be taken of it under the particular head which treats 
of such diseases ; but if in any case it arise also from 
other causes, information on such points will be given 
under the original notice, thus obviating multiplicity of 
reference, preventing needless repetition, and facilitating 
comparison of matters similar, though possibly not 
identical. 

240. "The disease with which we commence our 
specific notices, sterility, is a case exactly in point, for 
though sometimes purely constitutional, and that 
functionally or organically, it may be equally induced 
by external causes, and those of various kinds. How- 
ever induced, it is in most cases a formidable misfortune 
to the cultivator, and unhappily is at present too often 
beyond remedy. 

241. Sterility. Constitutional and functional. — Botli 
in the animal and vegetable world, wherever copious 
varieties and races have been produced by long domesti- 
cation or cultivation, there are marked constitutional 
differences as regards sterility. In the poultry-yard ont 
race will produce a supply of eggs throughout the year 
while another, distinguished perhaps for other good 
qualities, is notoriously unproductive. The same hold} 
good with the vegetable world ; while one variety 
extremely prolific, another of better quality perhaps 
under whatever circumstances it may be placed, what u 
commonly called a shy bearer. If, however, our attention 
be turned to individuals, we shall find instances 
absolute sterility — in the animal kingdom strictli 
absolute, in the vegetable perhaps only for a season 
inasmuch as new organs are formed every year, or a 
least preparations made, though possibly not complete, foi 
their formation. I am not speaking now of that temporar; 
sterility to which every plant, whether of short or lonj 
duration, is subject ; for this is no disease, but merelj 
a state of infancy or progress, during which sufficient ma 
terials, out of which the exigencies of a fertile conditioi 
can be supplied, have not at present teen stored up 



■i 



t ii e a a it i) E N i;i;s- ch i. on [CLE. 



Whether this is effected lifter a low weeks, or only after 
several years, the matter 16 juet tli" same, and it is well 
known that tlio fertility of young planln may be accole- 
rntod by grafting on a ripened stem which can Mij>|>ly 
what is wanting to the ascending sap. Tho tendency in 
tho caflo before uh is either to make no progross towards 
fjio formation of flowers and their proper organs, or only 
to proceed through the primary stages of metamor- 
phosis without accomplishing tlio ununl end to which 
those changes in the leafy appendages tend. It may 
bo absolutely impossible to discover iu ouch cases any 
organic malformation ; but as it is sometimes evidently 
duo to exuberance of growth, it is sometimes equally 
evident that it is want of tone which produces sterility. 
If, however, they are really constitutional, and not due 
at all to external causes, the most judicious treatment 
may fail, and for the very reason that wo cannot discover 
tho precise constitutional conditions to which the effect 
is due. Menus, however, will be taken to repress unna- 
tural luxuriance in tho one ease, or to give more tone- to 
the Bystom in tho other, and such pains will often bo 
rewarded with partial success. It will very rarely 
liappon, however, that inveterate constitutional tendency 
can bo altogether surmounted. 

2'12. Ono of the most ordinary causes of sterility, 
whether permanent or temporary, is tho hypertrophy of 
some particular part of tho plant, in consequence of 
which the nutriment which should have been employe I 
in the formation or perfection of tho organs of fructifi- 
cation is diverted to some other purpose. Plants, for 
Instance, like Tarragon, which increase much by the root 
without any abnormal development, seldom produce 
perfect seed, and trees which send up many suckers or 
feeders are comparatively unproductive : instances 
arising from artificial hypertrophy (238), to which mul- 
titudes might be added, are mentioned nbovo. 

243. Tlio organs of fructification may be apparently 
perfect, and yet no impregnation may take place, even 
though the pollon grains may germinate. It is probable 
'that in such cases there is some deficiency of power in 
the ovules, or the vegetative force by which they arc 
excited, and not in the pollen grains themselves — an 
inference supported by analogy in the animal kingdom. 
This force in the pistillary organs is sometimes so great, 
as in Coolebogyne, as to supersedo the necessity of the 
anther altogether, a fact analogous to those instances in 
the animal kingdom where increase takes place by 
budding, as in several of the Radiattc. It appears 
from the mass of facts stored up by Gartner, Herbert, 
and others, on hybridisation and muling, that the 
influence of tho male and female parents are not 
altogether correlative. It does not follow that because 
the pollen of a will [produce perfect fruit in 5, that 
the pollen of b should have the same effect on a. It 
appears, too, that the same male parent does not produce 
equal fertility in female parents wli^li it is capable of 
fertilising. The pollen of Dianthus superbus will 
fructify D. barbatus, Armeria, chinensis, Caryophyllus, 
caucasicus, and arenarius, but it will not impregnate 
them in the same degree, and the number of seeds 
produced will diminish in the order in which the names 
of the species are written down. External affinity is 
not always the measure of success. The coats of seeds 
are sometimes affected even where perfect impregnation 
does not take place ; and as^ftiiy derangement 
of the mutual balance of the parts of which 
an organism consists is more or less fatal to the 
completion of such delicate processes as the vivifi- 
cation of the contents of the embryo sac, it is conceiv- 
able that a thousand circumstauces may prove impedi- 
ments though wholly beyond our powers of research. 

244. Strictly speaking, sterility may be absolute, even 
where there is, according to the gardener's views, a 
perfect crop of fruit. In some cases, and perhaps in 
most, succulent fruits will not swell and proceed to per- 
fection without impregnation; but it is certain that in 
other instances, as in the common Mulberry, the full 
virtues of the sarcoearp may be perfected without the 
intervention of any male blossom; and it is notorious 
that Cucumbers of enormous size, and many other fruit, 
occur in which it is impossible to find a single perfect 
ovule. Some of the best varieties of Grapes and Oranges 
bear no seed, and the same may be said of exotic fruits, 
as the Banana and Breadfruit. It does not follow, 
however, that the rudiments of fruit may not exist in the 
young state, or that the pollen may exert no power. 
The influence of the polleu is not, however, the only 
influence which will cause the succulent portion of the 
organs of fructification to swell. The process of caprifi- 
cation is an instance in poiut, as also that of touching 
the orifice of a Fig with oil, or piercing the young walls 
with an oiled straw. M. J. B. 



ON RAISING NEW VARIETIES OF PEARS 
FROM SEED. 

_ What, it may be asked, is the object to be kept in 
view at the present day, in raising new and improved 
varieties of Fears from seed ? On examining attentively 
the varieties obtained from seed by our predecessors, 
and especially those raised from the last sowings of the 
tate Van Mons, it would seem as if the task was accom- 
plished, and that we have only to repose under our 
laurels. In fact, the vigour of certain varieties culti- 
vated on the Pear stock is evident, their hardiness in 
our climate is well known, their productiveness is in- 
contestable, and their varied and delicious flavours 
incline us to think that the conquest is already made, 
and that the Pear-tree may be almost considered as 
being acclimatised in our northern latitude, and as 
•having attained perfection. Such being the case, it is a 



doty incumbent on us to preserve these acquisitions in 
all their vigour, and without change from disease, by 
propagating them according to the rational principle! 
laid down in our preceding articles. Thus we may 
transmit, intact, to posterity tho fruit of the Inborn ol 
our ancestors, 

But another much more important duty algo devolves 
on us, and that ia not to interrupt the chain of pot bit 
improvement. We ought to re now successively lite 
Seods of the beat hardy kinds of IVart*, in oral r to 
improve on tho results already obtained, Tho chances 
of success are not now no problematic bh when Van 
Mons commenced his sowings; for be had to employ 
either iho seeds of varieties of indifforont quality, or 
those of sorts from more southern regions than our*. 
I!y Howing the needs: of these, rearing the leodlingl and 
sowing their seeds as soon as they bore fruit, and again 
tho first Heeds of this third generation, and BO on, be 
obtained six or eight gencratiens in the cour s of half a 
century ; and by these means, conducted on fixed prin- 
piples,he has done more for acclimatising and improving 
tho Pear tree in our latitude than chance had during 10 
centuries. According to this system, it is no longer neces- 
sary to sow tho seeds of such old varieties as the lieurie 
Gris, Cliaumontel, St. Germain, or Virgouleuse ; and | 
scarcely those of the Passe Colmnr, IicurrCd'Hardeiipont, 
Beurre Diel, and Ileum' Ranco. This would be labour in 
vain ; it would be like taking hold of the chain by the 
wrong end and landing at the bottom, instead of com- 
mencing at the lowest link and ascending to the highest. 
The varieties above mentioned have not, generally, a 
strong constitution, and they arc much exhausted in 
consequence of a bad system of propagation. The 
seeds of the following varieties may, however, be success- 
fully employed : — Conseiller de la Cour, Comte do 
Flandres, Br. Trousseau, Prince Albert, Due d'Orlcans, 
Comte do Paris, Rousselet de Janvier, Genera! D"ti!!S!l?-l 
Beurre" Berkmans, Calebasse Tougard, Nouveau Poiteau, 
Souvenir d'Esperen, and Triomphe de Jodoigne. In 
our severe and chongeable climate, vigour and hardi- 
ness for bearing in the open ground are more especially 
required. Should the fruit be only second-rate, yet it 
is better to use the seeds of hardy sorts than those from | 
fruit of first-rate quality produced by trees of a broken- j 
down constitution. The Eyewood, raised by Mr. Knight, ' 
must be reared as a pyramid, by means o[ a support, 
during the first three years from the bud or graft 
on the Pear stock ; this is a proof of its debility. By 
careful pruning this variety will form a handsome 
pyramid in five or six years ; but the shoots are too 
flexible. Its branches have not sufficient substance. ! 
Although from its fertility, and the excellent quality of 
its fruit, it deserves a place in every fruit garden, yet 
it would not be advisable to sow its seeds with the view 
of obtaining improved varieties, for the seedlings would 
most probably retrograde. Marie Louise Nouvelle, of 
Vau Mons, from its greater vigour, and its larger and 
more delicate fruit, is doubtless several generations in 
advance of the Eyewood, but appears to have come from 
the same source. The seeds of this fruit would be 
preferable to those of the Eyewood ; but it would not 
be advisable to sow either of them. The varieties above 
recommended make handsome trees, are hardier, and 
their fruit keeps longer. In obtaining a new variety, 
which ought to be considered at the present day a real 
improvement, it ought to possess, as already stated, good 
vigour, hardiness, and handsome form of growth. In 
short, the trees ought to bear as orchard standards in 
our coldest localities. The fruits, in form and flavour, 
should equal, at least, those which we already possess ; 
and the period of ripening should be later, commencing 
iu December and ending in April. 

By following the preceding instructions, astonishing 
results will be obtained before the end of the century, 
as regards varieties adapted for orchard culture. In 
pursuing with perseverance the experiments, a number 
of varieties will also be found suitable for gardens. It ; 
is likewise very probable that some amateurs, knowing 
the vigour, beauty, and pi-oductiveness of a good seed- 
ling, will give it the preference, to a certain extent, to 
propagated trees, which do not always exhibit the most 
desirable properties. A period will thus be reached 
when the more intelligent amateurs, in sowing the seeds 
of a variety, of which the perfection has been carried 
to the utmost limits, will not plant, trusting to the prob- I 
ability that seedling varieties will spring up and form 
magnificent long-lived trees, bearing fruit of the highest 
excellence. This is, moreover, the opinion expressed 
by Van Mons in various passages of his " Ponionomie." 
We unreservedly share it as regards our own seedlings, 
all derived from the last sowings of that skilful pomolo- 
gist. In fact, out of more than 500 of these seedlings, one 
could scarcely find 25 which do not exhibit, in their 
upper parts, all the characters of civilised trees, that is 
to say, having the appearance of good productive 
varieties. In the face of such evident facts, it is 
impossible not to be convinced. 

In conclusion, by following a good system of propaga- 
tion, and improving the condition of trees already 
existing, the horticulturists of the present day will fulfil 
their duties iu regard to their successors. This, we 
think, ought to be the aim of every person in all the 
countries of Western Europe who takes a distinguished 
part in the cultivation of fruit trees. /. De Jonghe, Rut 
clcs Visitandincs, Brussels, Dec. 5, 1854. 



iced in abundanco. Jt u ■ 

or beds, One of the vtry beat Galifi i 



LIST OF ANNUALS. 

(Concluded from p. 6). 
Zcptosiphon lutcum is a pretty little plant, with 
needle-shaped leaves. Its flowers are golden yellow, and 



ai c j rot 
pa tenet, 
annuals. 

lAmnonti This a good thing, either f.,r 

early or late flowering ; it . ant inebi 

The Bowers, which i>re produced abundantly, an m -. 
dull white colour ; it in beat adapted for patches, It in 
a native of California. 

I ■< - ura in a most Enterestinc annual, with 

flowefi like tl-e common Toadflax to snape,! 
i hie in colour. It grows about a foot bull, it in a 
most profuse bloomer, anil in well adapt* d either for 

beilt, or border*!. It in a native of ll.< sootll of EarO] B. 

Z4ii " — Thin in a plat 

veiy delicate and slender bai.it, much r< 
common I lax. It (grows about a foot nigh, ao*j has 
largo, brilliant red flowers. 1' i' eonld I 
flower w'll, it would be » splendid plant for pot culture. 
It was introduced from rati*. 

toaia lattritia.— Though much neglected, (his is a 
very pretty plant when tnaied *,*, a climber .and trained 
on trellis work. Its flowers are pale acarlet, with a 
dull white patch in the centre. It M rather (a 
requires to be sown in Inn'.. Il in a native ol !'■ ro. 

Jyupinwi Afr/ri/zirinwi. — This i» the vrry best of (he 
annual Lupines ; it crown about :;i| illCOSS high, M 1 
has an erect habit. It in a most profuse blocmer, with 
spikes of (lowers about 7 inches long. It* Mouioms are of 
a rich blue colour, tipped with whit/:. Itia well adaj.Uil 
for borders, It is a native of California. 

Malva zfJ/rina. — This, although of a straggling h*bit, 
is nevertheless a most beautiful plant, ate. well 
of cultivation, growing to the bright of 2 feet, with lar?*; 
white bell. shaped flowers, streaked with red. It is well 
adapted for growing in clusters on borders. I' 
from the south of Europe. 

M'.riibUii Jaluna (Marvel of Peru) is not SO tx;ccii 
grown as it deserves to be. Its long, trumpet-shaped 
flowers are highly ornamental. It is a col 
plant, which grows about 18 inches in bright These 
are many varieties differing very much in colour, g/.me 
being self-coloured, while others are very much streaked. 
It is best adapted for borders, but ought to be sown in 
heat, to bring the plants to perfection. 

Nolana grandijlora. — This is a creeping Chilian plant, 
with rather succulent foliage. Its flowers, which are 
much like those of a Convolvulus, are of a lightish 
colour, streaked with blue. It is a pretty thing for 
covering rockwork or small beds. 

Oxalis rosea. — This is another of the very [ 
and best of annuals ; it growsabout 6 inches hi^h. I\s 
flowers are of a pale rose colour, and are produced in 
abundance. It is a good thing for greenhouse decora- 
tion in spring, and open borders in summer. It cin-.ea 
from Chili. 

Perilla nayykinensis is a pleasing plant, with dari 
purple foliage, for whose beauty alone the plant is growD. 
Tlie leaves are much crisped ; the flowers are 
value, but on account of the variety it makes it well 
deserves a place in borders, and requires to be sown in 
heat. It is a native of China. 

Phacetia Iripinnatijida. — This is a profuse blooming 
plant, with dark-blue flowers and a habit like that of a 
Heliotrope. It is quite hardy, and requires very little 
attention. It grows about 1 foot high, and is well 
adapted for beds or patches. It is a native of California. 

Platystemon cahfornicum makes a very showy bed, 
and flowers very early. It grows about 1 foot in 
height. Its flowers are of a whitish colour, and are 
produced abundantly. This is also a na'ive of California. 

Podolepis rugala is rather a showy plant, and remains 
a long time in perfection. Its flowers are large, of a 
pale yellow, much resembling the Old Everlasting ; it 
grows about 18 inches in height. P. chrysantba much 
resembles it, with flowers of a brighter yellow. It is a 
native of Australia. 

Portulacas. — These much resemble in appearance 
an ice plant, baviDg succulent stems and cylindrical 
leaves. They are very showy plants, but require green- 
house treatment, although lhey may occasionally be 
turned out in the open border in summer. The best 
are Thellusoni, which is the strongest growing — it has 
large blood-red flowers ; T. flore plena, witn double 
flowers ; splendens, with pale-red flowers ; alba striata, 
with white flowers, streaked with red ; and Thorbomi 
lutea, with yellow flowers. They are natives of tempe- 
rate regions. 

jflhodanthe Manglcsi. — This is a Swan River Annual, 
and is a most beautiful thing. Its flowers are large, of 
a rosy pink colour, and it grows from 9 to 12 inches in 
height. It remains a long time in perfection. lis best 
use is for greenhouse decoration in early spring, or it 
makes a most beautiful bed in summer, but the seedlings 
require pricking out in small pots to become establish el 
previous to transplanting. 

Sctponaria calalrica is rather a slender spreading- 
plant, with pink and white Sowers. It grows about; 
6 inches high. It is a most beautiful thing, well de- 
serving pot culture, or it is well adapted for beds or 
borders. It is a native of Calabria. 

Sileiie pendula alia has showy white flowers, some- 
what resembling the common Bachelor's Button. It 
grows a foot in height, and is a most abundant bloomer. 
It is a splendid thing for greenhouse decoration, and also 
for beds or borders. It flowers best in peat soiL It is 
a native of the south of Europe. 

v ' ■ . ; . specic^a is a pretty S nth Airer:;:- 
plant for blooming through the summer. It bears 
large orange and black-coloured flowers, which are 



22 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 13, 



proiluced in abundance. It grows about afoot high. It 
is well adapted for beds or borders. 

Tagctcs signata. — This is one of the most interesting 
and neatest of annuals. It grows about 15 inches high, 
with finely divided leaves, and its flowers are also very 
showy; they are yellow, and produced abundantly. It 
is well adapted for beds or borders. This is also a 
native of South America. 

Valid 'turn cximium. — The flowers of this plant much 
resemble the pot Marigold, with large coarse leaves. 
It grows about a foot high, and is a very showy plant 
for borders. 

Wltitlavia grandiflora. — This most beautiful new 
annual was exhibited at one of the Chiswick exhibitions 
this year for the first time by Messrs. Veitch. It sur- 
passes Eutoca viscida in the beauty of its bell-shaped 
corolla and long stamens, which exhibit the anthers to 
so good advantage. It grows a foot high, and flowers 
profusely. It is a native of California. 

Zinnia elcgans. — This makes a very pretty bed, and 
one packet of seed will furnish many varieties. It is a 
stiff growing plant, about a foot in height. It is a 
native of Peru. /. H. Bcckman. 



Home Correspondence. 

Grafted Rhododendrons (see page 6). — Your corre- 
spondent " J. R." must surely be unacquainted with the 
improved methods of grafting these fine plants now- 
employed by our best propagators, or he would never 
have written as he has done. I could show him thousands 
grafted in such a way that nearly all are rooted from 
the scion, and are on their own roots, whilst it is very 
rare for them to throw up a sucker. There is much 
unnecessary declamation against grafted trees, many of 
•which are far better than if they were not grafted. 
This op.tcrv against them may be attributed to sey c i*~l 
causes, the principal one being that unthinking persons 
have sent out trees grafted on stocks on which it was 
impossible for them to succeed. Thus the evergreen 
Deodar has been grafted on the Larch. If ".J. R." has 
visited Elvoston, he must have seen hundreds of fine 
Deodars, all of which are grafted on the Cedars of 
Lebanon. Who ever saw the English Elm on its own 
roots throwing up thousands of suckers, equal to the 
same plant grafted on the Scotch Elm ? Would " J. R." 
plant his walls with Peaches on their own roots ? How 
many of our finest Roses refuse to grow on their own 
roots but grow vigorously when worked, whilst others 
are best when not worked. It is only when the stock 
is unsuitable, or the grafting clumsy, that the effect is 
bad. How are Camellias to be propagated ? The same 
question may be asked respecting the Purple Beech (surely 
it is not injured by grafting), the varieties of the Ash, 
Thorn, and numbers of other things. But to return to 
the Rhododendron ; there are many fine varieties 
which could not be increased except by grafting, and 
there are many which grow better and stronger when 
grafted than on their own roots. No one who has seen 
the plants, trees I should rather say, shown in London 
by the Messrs. Waterer, could suppose that they had 
been injured by grafting. With regard to raising 
varieties from seed and sending them out (unproved) with 
names, I know of no practice more dishonest. Although 
it is true that many seedlings produced by crossing two 
kinds, as arboreum and catawbiense for instance, may 
resemble each other, is it right to sell them as alta- 
clerense, when some may prove inferior to that variety, 
and many in the same bed will doubtless be worthless ? 
Then, again, when one of the parents is a hybrid, perhaps 
no two of the seedlings will be alike. " J. R." may rest 
assured that if he ever possesses fine varieties he must 
have them grafted. J. R. Pearson. 

Amlierstia nobilis. — This fine stove tree is now in 
flower at Wynyard Park, the seat of the Marchioness 
Dowager of Londonderry, and I believe that it is the 
second plant of the kind which has blossomed in this 
country. The plant under notice was imported in 
1852, being then but 9 inches in height, and now it is a 
fine healthy tree 9 feet high, with five flower spikes on 
it. The spike now in bloom measures 2 feet long, and 
has 18 flowers on it, all of which are extremely brilliant in 
colour. John Stewart, Wynyard Park, Jan. 9. 

Rain at Melbury House Gardens, Dorsetshire. — 1852 : 
November, 13 ^fa inches ; December, 6 y'jfo inches. 
1853 : November, 3£? a inches; December, l-A'^ inches; 
1854: November, 2 —^ inches; December, -fifa inch. S. 
Double Digging. — There must, I apprehend, be some 
error in terms in Mr. Smith's account of the expenses 
of labour. Double digging, as understood by gardeners 
and others, is digging two spits (about 20 inches) deep, 
and either bringing the bottom spit at once to the sur- 
face (usual in market-gardens and nurseries where the 
soil has been long under spade cultivation) or turning 
it over and leaving it at the bottom ; the latter is my 
practice in bringing fresh land under spade cultivation, 
and not, as you assume, bringing at once 10 inches of 
clay to the surface. It is not till the sixth or eighth 
year that the bottom spit is gradually brought up, the 
ground in the meantime having been double dug three 
or four times. The cost of double digging my land (a 
tender loam without stones, resting on a subsoil of 
calcareous clay, at first stiff, but after being stirred 
very tender) is for the first time Is. 3d per rod, 
afterwards Is. per rod. Now, this is what is always 
understood as double digging, and of course when 
practical men read that this can be done at Lois- 
Weedon for i^d. per rod they feel that some great 
difference must exist either in the price of labour or in 
the method of having it done ; it seems to me that the 



term " double digging " is incorrect if, as you state in 
p. 4, the depth altogether of the first digging is only 
10 inches or one spit. The term "shallow spits" is 
not, I believe, used by Mr. Smith, and is calculated to 
mislead ; the depth of a spit is understood by all farm 
labourers as about 1 inches. Mr. Smith says, " The 
diggings at first are to be as much as two spits deep, but 
the depth is to be measured year after year until they 
reach the depth of 20 or 24 inches." The term " two 
spits deep " has misled many, and I have no doubt has 
given rise to many failures, owing to the cost of double 
digging being so much more than the price given in 
the pamphlet. I know the arable lands of all the 
eastern counties intimately, and with the excep- 
tion of the blowing sands of Norfolk and Suffolk, 
and the loose black soils of the fens, I fully believe 
that no good corn land can be stirred 20 inches 
deep under Is. per rod, and no single digging under 
3d. per rod, and much care is required in having 
the latter done ; tile four-pronged (Lyndon or Parkes') 
fork is the best tool, and this should be thrust into the 
soil nearly perpendicularly ; a "loose hand" will make 
it form a beautiful slope, and stir a very large surface 
at a small cost, but to very little purpose, as far as the 
real interests of his employer go. I give my labourers 
3d. per rod for single digging between rows of fruit trees 
3 feet apart ; this seems to approach very nearly to 
Mr. Smith's practice in digging between his rows of 
Wheat, requiring about the same care, but then it is 
double his price. The Lois-Weedon system is so full of 
interest, and appears so advantageous, that it is of con- 
sequence to clear away all obstacles to its being carried 
out, and the apparent difference in the price of labour 
can most probably be explained by some one who has 
tried the system in a stiff soil. T. R., Herts. 
^ How to have Q™i Water in Ciay Districts.— The dif- 
ncuity of procuring good water for domestic and farm 
purposes, so generally experienced in clay districts 
where the well water is frequently bad, may, I think, 
often be overcome by a plan which 1 have lately adopted 
with success. The soil is a lias clay ; I collect in a 
cemented tank the rain that falls on an acre and a half 
of lawn which is thorough drained with pipes 3 ft. 6 in. 
deep, and adjoins the house. The water is excellent, 
nearly soft enough to wash with, whereas the well water 
is not only very saline, but lias a nauseous smell and 
taste. In the first instance the tank was merely 
lined with dry brickwork, when the water was 
better than that from the wells, but not so good 
as it is now. The bad qualities of the well water 
being attributable to the soluble matters in the clay 
with which it is in connection, the necessity of a water- 
tight tank is evident. The small quantity of soluble 
matter taken up by the rain water in its passage from 
the surface of the land to the pipe-drains cannot be 
avoided ; but beyond this it may be kept pure, if the 
tank is effectually separated from the clay. This plan 
is very inexpensive, and capable of general adoption in 
country places, where a suitable field to collect the 
water is almost sure to be found near the house. I 
think arable land will answer nearly as well as Grass 
land ; and if already drained, the trouble of conveying 
the water from it to the house, and forming a suitable 
receptacle there, must be small. In many cases the exist- 
ing well, if pirtially filled up so as to exclude the springs, 
might be lined and bottomed with cement at an expense 
of only 21. or 3/., and made to answer the purpose. Of 
course, the size of the tank must be proportioned to the 
quantity of water required, and there must be a waste 
pipe from it. Richard Varden, Seaford Grange, near 
Pcrshore. 

Beurre Superfin. — In reply to the queries of M. de 
Jonghe, I may state in the outset that I have been all 
my life, now nearly 40 years, accustomed to observe 
the characters and merits of fruits. I was born in a 
nursery of fruit trees, I have lived a nurseryman of 
fruit trees, and I cow cultivate for my amusement a 
collection of upwards of 1300 varieties. I therefore 
leave M. de Jonghe to judge whether or not I am com- 
petent to distinguish the difference between two trees 
or two fruits. I do not quite agree with M. de Jonghe 
when he says that the question now, " is simply whether 
the Beurre Superfin has a different form, a different 
flavour, and period of maturity from that of the Cum- 
berland, figured in the 'Album de Pomologie.' " What 
M. de Jonghe has to show after what lie said in his 
first communication on this subject is, that the name 
of Beurre Superfin" was applied in 1846-47, at Angers, 
to a seedling raised by the late Van Mous, which fruited 
for the first time in his nurseries in 1827 ;"aud also 
that the Pomological Society was in ignorance when it 
did not know " how to distinguish this Pear among a 
thousand, and restore to it the original name of Cumber- 
land." It is an easily ascertained fact that the original 
seedling tree of Beurre Superfin is still existing at Angers, 
and that the original tree of Cumberland is still at Cum- 
berland, iu Rhode Island, where it has been since the 
beginning of this century. Where is the original tree 
of the Cumberland of Van Mons ? Robert Hogg. [We 
think that the public has now had enough of this 
discussion.] 

Coniferce: Collectors and Cultivators. — The subject 
which you have permitted to be introduced into your 
columns (see p. 806, 1854) should not be allowed to 
remain within the narrow limits in which it has already 
appeared — I mean the vexala quwstio of the difference 
between two Cypresses. I believe them to be the same, 
but that is not what I want to write about. The sub- 
ject to which I refer is that of the history and introduc- 
tion of many Conifers which are now beginning to show 



their matured characters, and to prove themselves worthy 
of distinctive names. That which was of old the irrita- 
menta maloruin has operated strongly upon nursery 
gardeners and their lists, wherein many tempting names 
jire found to swell the corresponding list of guineas. 
Some very good papers have been published in the 
Horticultural Society's Journal, such as Hartweg's and 
Dr. Lindley's, Mr. Gordon's, a paper on Himalayan 
Conifers, and the translation of Endlicber's catalogue, 
which last, by the bye, has put to confusion many a stu- 
diously-labelled Pinetum. But there still remains a hiatus 
which none but those who live at the fountain-head of 
horticulture and botany can fill up. Plants are intro- 
duced — introducers take their treasures to be presented 
at court — there they receive their titles, make their 
how, and are pushed on by the crowd which follows ; 
they leave their cards and addresses, but sometimes 
these frail and perishable memorials are lost (as seems 
to be the case with the ancestors of Cupressus Lam- 
bertiana) ; they slink away into the world of fashion 
at Chiswick, and there, suffering from the vicissitudes 
of garden stuff, lose their labels or get misplaced, or, 
what is worse, are sent out to subscribers, who cut them 
up for propagation, and when the time comes for their 
being planted out into the world, their names are obli- 
terated, or replaced from the stores of the gardener's 
imagination. There are many cultivators and collectors 
whose object is one of a higher order than that of 
merely adding names to their collections, or of surpass- 
ing some rival in entities of no value. I apprehend that 
gentlemen who apply their spare moments and spare 
money to encourage the introduction of rare and 
beautiful things into this couutry are in many ways 
public benefactors ; it is unnecessary to enumerate 
the exotic plants of which the valuable qualities 
have led to their universal cultivation — plants, 
I mean, which are now naturalised in our woods 
and hedge-rows, which were once as rare and 
curious as the araucaria or taxodium. There are many 
plants of great promise now in the country of which it 
is extremely difficult to obtain information. A mere 
curiosity is a poor treasure. A rusty musket=fcall would 
have a value if it were picked up on some hero's grave 
upon the sad but beautiful banks of the Alma ; — so it is 
with plants. If ever there were a tribe of plants which 
from its vast variety and combined qualifications of use 
and beauty surpasses any other, it certainly is that of 
the Coniferae : their applicability to valuable uses, their 
aptitude for purposes of shelter or of beauty is daily 
more and more apparent. Governments introduce 
them to replenish or replace old royal forests worn out 
by centuries of unvarying Oak ; artists and gardeners 
find no contrasts of form or colour without the whole- 
sale introduction of the many-formed many-tinted 
Conifers ; places bare and bleak, cold and ugly, are now 
filled and furnished ; and some day soon, planters who 
have high and dry light soil unfit for Oak, and ill-placed 
for Turnips, will begin to substitute the happy family of 
Piuus Laricio and Deodar for Oak and Ash ; and still 
further draw from the same tribe the means of shelter- 
ing the residences, beautifying the neighbourhoods, and 
filling the pockets of their heirs : but it is upon the 
collector of the present time that all these good and 
pleasant results depend. As one of these, I have long 
wished to see the blanks and omissions of the catalogue 
published in the Horticultural Society's Journal in 1850 
tilled up. Many would join with me in cordial thanks 
to you if you could prevail on the authorities of the 
horticultural world to open their drawers, or turn back 
to former pages, and draw out the memoranda 
which they alone possess, of the introduction of many 
plants now lying neglected and ignored for want of 
sponsors. For instance, to name a few, I have tried in 
vain to discover when and by whom Pinus Bungeana 
was introduced, certainly the most distinct plant in my 
collection, and hardy as an Oak ; the same too about 
Pinus osteosperma, a very peculiar species, and the 
graceful hardy Cupressus Corneyana (miscalled in the 
Hort. Soc. Journal " the female of the Juniperus 
sinensis ") ; Pinus Fordi, very distinct ; and the hardy, 
robust, and rapidly growing Abies Douglasi taxifolia, 
a strongly marked variety ; so too about Pinus Padu- 
fiaDa, and the beautiful Juniperus alba and fragranSj 
which are species and not varieties ; and Cupressus 
Knighti, which is totally unlike any other which grows £ 
not to omit some concerning which I have lately re- 
ceived inquiring letters, viz., Cupressus Schomburgki and 
Ksempferi, Pinus Na?sa (Neoza) and P. pallo (palo) bianco, 
and others, with the names of which I will not swell this 
already too long letter. I trust your interest and 
authority will bring forth some of the information which 
I, in common with many others, greatly desire ; and I 
thank you for the room you have already allowed for 
intercommunication on this subject. Pinus Gloucestrensis* 



?0CtCttC£* 



Linnean, Dec. 19. — Prof. Bell, President, in the chair. 
J. Newton Loomis, M.D., was elected a Fellow. Mr. 
Gould exhibited a fine specimen of the Giant Puff-ball 
(Lycoperdon giganteum), found by him in Muntford 
Wood, near Somers Leyton, Suffolk. Read : a memoir 
" on the food of certain gregarious fishes," by Dr. 
Knox, communicated by W. Yarrell, Esq., V.P. The 
inquiries, of which the results were given in this paper, 
were commenced about 1824, and related to thejfeeding 
habits of certain fishes of whose history in this par- 
ticular little or nothing was at that time known. 
The researches were commenced with the, Ven 



2— 1855. j 



TH E GA R I) E N BR8' nil RON l C i. B 






dace, a I'ihIi abounding in some of the Scottish 
lakes, and whoso food was considered both by 
fishermen and naturalists to bo entirely unknown. 
Ono forenoon's inquiry destroyed 1.1m illusion. Dozens 
of tlio fish were opeued immediately ou being removed 
from the lake by means of nota, and thoir stoinuchs were 
found to be crammed with thousands of individuals of 
various kinds of entomostraca, or microscopic shrimps, 
as they might bo called. The solution of tlie mystery 

doponded simply on placing a portli I the contents of 

tho stomach under a strong lens. The inquiry was 
noxt extended to the Char, of which some line speai 
monB were obtained from Windermere, nod the 
food proved to ho the entomostraca with which 
tho lakes abounded. Tho early spring or Grey 
Trout, of Looh Leven, were, in like manner, found 
to havo their stomach filled with entomostraca when 
oxaminod in tho early purls of tile year, though Inter 
thoy wore found to have been feeding on the buccinums, 
ana tho common food of trout. Tlio Herring had been tlie 
subjoctof repeated and very extensive investigations. Tho 
fish was obtained from tho deep Hen, and of the hundreds 
examined, there were only three in whose stomachs 
were found anything hut entomostraca of various 
Bpocies. Of these three, ono had Keen living on sand 
cols, another on what, appeared to bo small heriings, and 
in the stomach of the third were found the hIikIIh of j 
about a dozen small bucci minis. When near tho const | 
tho herring was frequently found not feeding ; thus, in 
tho Forth, in tho months of January and February, a 
very largo number examined were found quite 
empty. After spawning, and while close to tho 
shore, they seoiu to tnke to other food, ns sand- 
eels and shrimps. In July fine small herrings, which 
had been feeding on entomostraca, were found to bo 
of good flavour,' while others of the same take 
which had been living on sand eols ns well as ento- 
mostraca, were insipid and worthless. As to the 
Salmon, nothing is ever found in the stomachs ami 
intestines of the fresh run salmon but a little reddish 
substance ; this placed under a microscope was found 
to be composed of the ova of some species of the 
echiuodermata. Of the salmon, while in the sea, this 
Was found to be the constant and sole food. From his 
researches on this subject the author concludes as an 
established fact, that many valuable gregarious fishes 
live, some exclusively, others partly, on the entomostraca. 
The largest of the gregarious fishes he had as yet 
observed as living exclusively on the entomostraca 
was the Early Grey Trout of Loch Leven and the 
Char ; but he had no doubt that on the American 
continent, there were many admirable fislns of the 
natural families of Saliuonidte, Corregoni, Clupeidaj, 
and even others, whose food, whe^discovered, would be 
found to bo entomostraca of various species. 

Entomological, Jan. 1.— The President in the chair. 
The Secretary announced the list of donations to the 
library received from various societies and authors since 
the last meeting, and gave notice of the alterations in 
the council ,aud officers proposed to be made at the 
ensuing anniversary meeting. The President exhibited 
a small specimen of a new kind of silk, which he had re- 
ceived from Vienna, spun by the caterpillars of Saturnia 
Spini,and forming a felt impervious to wet, the caterpillars 
being placed in confined situations and thus compelled 
to spin their silk in Hat layers. He also exhibited a speci- 
men of the species or local variety of Helobia, which he 
had described many years ago, from Beu Nevis, under 
the name of H. impressa, and which Mr. Dawson had 
omitted in his recent work on the ground beetles. Mr. 
Douglas exhibited the nidus formed of fungoid matter 
in the centre of a decaying Oak by the larva of 
Cratonyehus castanipes, Pic, a species of Elateridce not 
hitherto recorded as a native of this country. Mr. 
Downie exhibited a model bee-hive on the bar principle, 
but with certain improvements in the floor both for ven- 
tilation and for enabling the refuse to be easily removed. 
Mi\ Samuel Stevens exhibited splendid specimens of 
Jumnos Ruckeri and Dicranocephalus Wallichii from 
India. The reading of a series of short notes on the 
Economy of various insects by Mr. Curtis was continued, 
amongst which it was recorded that Carabus glabratus 
and the larva of some species of Staphylinus bad been 
observed to eat earth-worms. Mr. Waterhouse read a 
paper by himself and Mr. Janson on the synonymy of 
the British species of the Staphylinideous genus Steuus, 
Consisting of 44 species. Mr. F. Smith read descrip- 
tions of a number of new species of ants collected in 
Brazil by Mr. Bates, and accompanied by very interest- 
ing notes on the Economy of some of the species 
observed by Mr. Bates ; amongst which was the notice 
of the immense swarms of a species of Myrmica which 
being drowned were found lying in masses on the banks 
Of a river for eight or ten miles. Mr. Edward Brayley 
suggested that this circumstance was of importance in 
throwing light upon the occasional accumulation of 
fossil insect remains of which Mr. Westwood had lately- 
given some curious instances at the Geological Society. 
Mr. W. W. Saunders also mentioned that ou one occa- 
sion the shores of Norfolk were observed to be covered 
with immense number's of dead specimens of Galeruca 
Tanaceti, which rendered the coast quite black from 
the vast accumulation of them. 



have already ecn En thi oolumt •.( tho daily ; 
Tim period of time to which tin y n 

October t» to NoVeuib'-r /», the w-ll known dfl 

battle of I m1; or i on 1 1 n. The author appears t-< lu 
a guest of sir George Brown, and mu it, then foi 
had j^od opportunity of seeing what wai going foi 
Ho skilfully nai rates thestirriogincidenti which oi 
to him. In an agreeable manner,and without d 
upon the dark aide of the picture III hi i painted. 

Tit for Tat (email 8 vo,, Clarke and Beeton 
American reply to Mm. B« i ohi t I towe and Hi c " Uncle 
Tom." TIioho who wiah to hoar how exaggeration can 

be I by exaggeration may possibly be gratified by 

the pag"H of this book ; for ourselves we have no admi- 
ration for extravagance and absurdity, to nay nothing 
of bad taste. The authoress may bo "a Lady," which 
wo doubt ; she certainly ia not a gentlewoman. 

AuHlralia and it:: fluid I'irl.h, (Ingram;, in an account 

by Mr. Hargreaves of the mo ir in which bi 

covered the great gold bold of Australia, of its 
as at present ascertained, and of othi i mal i relating 
to the subject. To those who arc interested in so grout 
a question the statements made by tho author will be 
most valuablo, considering that tiny are inconteslably 
authentic ; at tho same timo his opinions will bo n cei vi j 
with the respect due to thoso of a man who, although 
not pretending to science, has unquestionably a mosl 
extensive practical acquaintance with the gold fields of 
California as well as Australia. 



Notices of 23ook& 

A Month in the Camp before Scbastopol, by a Non- 
combatant (8vo., Longmans), consists of a series of 
clever sketchy letters, some of which, we think, we 



Garden Memoranda. 

Mr. Gaines' Nursery, Battersea. — In tho show- 
house hero a few plants are now in bloom, such ns 
Daphnes, Epacrises, the Winter Heath (Erica hiemalis), 
Chinese Primroses, Early Tulips, and Tree Carnations, 
&e. The last, we need scarcely say, are extremely 
useful for winter decoration, and for supplying " cut 
bloom." On the middle of the centre table are Camel- 
lias, supported on all aides by large specimen Azaleas. 
Among Rhododendrons, the young plant of R. javani- 
cum, which was shown in such good condition at a 
meeting of the Horticultural Society in Regent 
Street last year, promises again to flower finely 
this season. Several houses are entirely filled with 
young Pelargoniums, which are very extensively 
grown here, not only for "furnishing" but also 
for the purpose of exhibition. Some of the kinds of 
Pelargonium used here for forcing are already coming 
into bloom ; they consist of Mrs. Johnstone, Gage, 
album multiflorum, Phyllis, Surpass Napier, Mars, 
Gauntlet, and a purple seedling. The various variegated 
kind*, ns Attraction, Mountain of Light, &c, were also 
plentiful. Of scented Pelargoniums, one of tile greatest 
favourites is Odoratum variegatum, a sort with small 
leaves, margined with white, and very strongly per- 
fumed. The stage of a lean-to house, 70 feet long, was 
wholly devoted to the growth of Roses in pots, the 
varieties employed for that purpose here being Fabvier, 
Abb6 MoUand, Cramoisie supcrieure, Goubault, and 
yellow Noisette. These are now coming into bloom, 
and some Moss and Perpetuals have just been placed 
under glass to bring them on to succeed them. Cytisus 
racemosus is cultivated in quantity, large pitfuls of 
it being here in different stages of growth. Being 
extremely showy, and remaining a very long time in 
beauty, it is a plant much prized for all purposes of deco- 
ration in which hardy greenhouse plants are employed. 
For autumn " furnishiug," Kalosanths are found to be 
invaluable, and therefore stagefuls of them are grown 
here for that purpose. Double white and pink Primulas 
have been blooming very finely, and keep up a consider- 
able amount of gaiety in several of the houses. 
Calceolarias, Acacia armata, Fuchsias, Myrtles, and 
Verbenas are abundant here, more especially the latter, 
of which there are some thousands. Fuchsias 
have just been primed, potted afresh, and put 
into a little heat to start them into growth. Clove 
Carnations are already in flower ; they consist of 
some of the most forward layers which had been " potted 
up" from the open ground and placed under glass, and 
very useful things they are at this season. Hyacinths, 
Tulips, Double Jonquils, and Narcissi, have been started 
into growth, and some of the latter are coming into 
flower. Of rare plants perhaps the most remarkable 
was Eugenia Ugni, of which Mr. Gaines has a good stock. 



-, 8tc., 

' ' ' ' 

i oil, oi | 

until it Is well settled. I then in MijrefaM 

frame, or pro] .-, until they are well I 

which they will be in a fi 
tho largest ai i l pot into S-lneb pi 

'ion, bat always! srevto 

potted, 
Mid never to i blfl them h 

mould, and 
loam and peat, the whole i* indwell 
orated with small charcoal and sand. It. I 
fail I —Few plant* ol comparatively 

I 1 1 than Iheee 
have done. I hevi a collection of them in flower now, 
, all through tin: winter, l or 
applying i 

easily pro| , should be n 

half-ripened wood, like the show rati 1 (hen 

close off below n joint and removing the lo«r< r leaves. 

or April will be found tin: I,-'.' mouths for 
in a stock for winter blooming, as tiny will mike excel- 
lent plants during summer and autumn. Although they 
strike readily nearly all the year round if placed m a "light 
bottom-heat, tho moat healthy ol the old pUnts should 
be selected and placed in n warm temperature v> «-»cite 
growth prior to tin teing taken off. By fol- 

lowing i | v will bo found to strike more fr<:':ly. 

The pots should be thoroughly drained for their recep- 
tion, and a portion of rough sidings or moss placed 
over the croc . i I should consiet of one- 

half light sandy soil and one-half leaf-mould and sand 
run through a fin.- sieve and well-mixed together. With 
this the pots should be filled to within about half an 
inch of the top, the remainder being made up with 
sharp sand pressed firmly and slightly watered before 
the cuttings are inserted. If placed in a slight bottom- 
heat they will not require any bell-glasses to cover them, 
for if only slightly shaded during sunny days they will 
very speedily take root. If any of the Grass should 
decay it should be removed the moment it is perceived, 
ns it creates damp. As soon as they have become suffi- 
ciently rooted, pot them into 4-inch pots, still keeping 
them in a warm moist atmosphere, and stop them, in 
order to form them into compact bushes. As soon as 
they have again filled the pots with roots, give them 
another liberal shift into 7-inch pots, still keeping them 
in a warm atmosphere, and using the syringe freely until 
they have got quite established, when they should be 
gradually hardened off, and finally placed in a cold frame, 
where they may remain during tlie summer months. 
Except potting, stopping the shoots, which should only be 
done when the wood is in a half ripe state, neatly tying the 
shoots as they progress, watering when required, fre- 
quently overhead, and occasionally stirring the surface-sou, 
nothing wdll be needed during the* summer and autumn. 
I have, however, found green-fly troublesome at times, but 
if the water- pot is frequently used overhead but little 
need be feared either from them or red spider ; if they 
happen to be attacked by mildew, apply sulphur as soon 
as it is perceived. When cold damp weather sets in, 
remove them to the greenhouse or conservatory, where 
they will come into bloom in succession during the whole 
of the dull winter months ; after they have done 
flowering, select the most healthy cuttings — the old 
plants should be cut down for another year or thrown 
away. The stopping should always be regulated by the 
time when they are wanted to be in blossom — for in- 
stance, for early winter flowering the plants should not 
be stopped after July, and so on ; if the plants are well 
ripened by autumn, they may, by a little additional heat, 
be had in flower whenever they are required. The soil 
best suited for their culture is maiden loam, leaf-mould, 
rotten cow-dung, and silver-sand, to which may be added 
a portion of mortar rubbish, in order to keep the soil 
porous ; manure-water, with occasional waterings of 
soot-water, will be found beneficial during the growing 
and blooming season. B. 



FLORICULTURE. 

The Chinese Primrose. — Allow me to correct your 
correspondent " R. M." in his statement that his con 
servatory is as gay as it well can be, with all the best 
varieties of this useful flower. That his plants are good, 
I do not doubt, but as he says that he raises them ali 
from seed every year, I imagiue that his collection would 
be greatly improved if he would grow a few good plants 
of the double purple and double white, as I think them 
superior to the single varieties, either for the con- 
servatory or the bouquet ; and as they are as easily 
cultivated as the latter, I am of opinion that no one should 
be without them. My method of growing them is as 
follows. As soon as the plants have done blooming, 
which is in the latter part of March, or beginning of 
April; I place them in any cool pit or house for two or 
three weeks, to renovate them after their exhaustion 
from blooming. I then examine them, and select 
what shoots I want to propagate for my next year's 
stock, but instead of cuttingtheni clean .off the plant 



Peopagattxg C amellias : J H. They are increased by inarching, 
grafting, and budding on the single red and Middtemas red^ 
cuttings of both of which strike readily. These latter s hould 
he taken oil in Augnst or September, as soon as the young 
shoots are ripe. Thev are prepared by being cnt through 
horizontally at a joint, or better taken en -srith a ■ beey 
divesting them of a few leaves at the base, and potting them 
in sand. 



Miscellaneous. 

I "igetables for the Crimea.— The appearance 

of scurvy and dysentery among our forces at the seat of 
war, and the difficulty of procuring fresh vegetables 
there, has led to an inquiry at the Army Medical 
Department as to the best mode of preserving Potatoes, 
Carrots. Turnips, and other common vegetables. The 
result has been that a large quantity, preserved by the 
process of Dr. Verdeil by the house of Morel and Co, 
! of Paris, has been sent to the Crimea. It may be 
interestinj. therefore, to give some account of the 
process, which is remarkable for its simplicity. It has 
been Ions known that vegetables which have been dried 
with such precaution that they only lose on desiccation 
the water they contained, return to their natural state 
on being cooked in water. The unresolved difficulty 
was to preserve them in the dried state unalterable, for 
dried plants, like hay, decompose after a time by a slow 
fermentative process, which gives rise to a peculiar 
odour. Messrs. Masson and Challet proposed to com- 
press dried vegetables powerfully, and so form them 



24 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 13, 



lulu otuuii iu.ici.-, very- Jiaiu :iuU. couUeii&L'ii, m oider u> 
diminish as much as possible the surface in contact with 
the air. But it was soon discovered that this method did 
uot suffice,' and that the vegetables so preserved acquired 
an unpleasant odour and taste. Dr. Verdcil, attributing 
the cause of the fermentation to the presence of fermen- 
tisable principles, and to the non-coagulated albumen 
existing in fresh vegetables, which simple drying leaves 
unaltered, adopted the following process. The fresh 
vegetable is cooked completely and almost instant- 
aneously by the actiou of steam pressure. This rapid 
coetion without water does not alter in any way the form 
or colour of the vegetable, and does not remove either 
its flavour or its juices; but its vitality is destroyed ; 
its albumen being coagulated can no longer act as a 
ferment; its fermentisable principles are themselves 
destroyed by this coetion at a high temperature. It is 
then sufficient to dry the vegetable so cooked in a forced 
current of air. Once dry, it remains unalterable, aud 
may be preserved indefinitely, provided it be protected 
from water aud excessive moisture. We have eaten 
vegetables preserved by this method, after being boiled 
in the ordinary manner, and have not been able to detect 
the slightest difference between them and fresh vege- 
tables. The soup a la Julkni\e } made from a mixture 
of Carrot, Turnip, Cabbages, aud French Beans, is 
admirable, and will form a most comforting diet for our 
soldiers. The Potatoes are also excellent. dJcdicalTimes. 



Calendar of Operations. 

(For the ensuing week,) 

PLANT DEPARTMENT. 

Const ryatory, &c. — Nothing adds to the interest of 
a collection of p'auts like cleanliness and neat orderly 
arrangement ; therefore see that the foliage of any of 
the specimens is not disfigured by insects or filth, and 
let the pots and everything about the house be kept 
scrupulously clean. Indeed, the gardener who studies 
his own interest will give his best attention to these 
little matters, especially in the show house, for the finest 
specimens lose half their interest unless they are kept 
clean and trim. Where necessary, let the foliage of 
Camellias, Oranges, and such like broad-leaved plants, 
"be carefully washed, and get this done before the blos- 
soms begin to open, as it cannot be done afterwards 
without injuring them. It is only in very bad cases 
that it will be necessary to resort to the tedious process 
(>t washing the foliage by hand, fur a timely application 
of warm water from the engine or springe will 
generally prevent scale, and keep the foliage clean. 
Cold Pits. — Look over your stock at the earliest 
convenience, comparing it with your wanlSj and 
remove to a growing atniospLure at once such as 
it may be necessary to propagate extensively. Healthy 
young wood of Verbenas, Anagallises, and most 
bedding-out plants .root very freely in a mild 
bottom-heat of about 70P, and soon form nice 
plants. It is very important, however, that a good 
stock of cuttings be provided as soon as possible, 
so as to allow of getting them rooted, and the plants 
removed to, cold frame's, thus making room for. other 
flings in the propagating' housej and securing" strong 
plants, properly inured to the weather by turning- 
out time. 

FORCING DEPARTMENT. 

Pineries. — Where leaves and tan are used for 
affording bottom-heat, a stock proportionate to the de- 
mand should be providt d the first opportunity, storing the 
leaves as much- out of the way of wet as possible, and 
the tan in an open shed, allowing it to heat sufficiently 
to drive off the superfluous moisture it may contain. 
This prevents its heating excessively when used, and it 
also lasts much longer, and affords a more regular heat 
when it can be had rather dry before using. Some of 
the most forward of the plants for fruiting will probably 
now be wanted to be showing, aud in this case the 
"bottom-heat should be increased to about 85°, giving 
sufficient water to the foil to nicely moisten it, but avoid 
in this respect the error of many persons, who in their 
anxiety to get their plants to show at the desired time 
injure their roots by too much heat. Maintain a sweet 
moist atmosphere to these and plants swelling their 
fruit, and take advantage of bright days to dew the 
plants over with the syringe, and let the temperature 
rise considerably above the mean. Vineries. — Be 
careful with houses where the Vines are advancing 
towards flowering, and maintain a regular temperature, 
for any check now would be serious. It will not 
be safe to let the night temperature sink much 
under 60° after the bunches are perceptible, and 
65° should be secured by day, allowing it to rise 
10° or 15° with the assistance of the sun. See that 
the roots are at least properly protected from the vicis- 
situdes of the weather ; and if fermenting material is 
used to warm the border, endeavour to secure a steady 
heat from it by frequent turnings, and adding fresh 
materials as may be necessary. Proceed i-lowly with 
houses that have just been closed lor forcing until the 
buds are fairly started, maintaining a moist atmosphere 
either by means of a bed of fermenting materials inside 
the house or frequent syringings. Let the temperature 
range from 45° to 50° at night, and from 55° to 65° by 
day according to the state of the weather. Peaches — 
Where the trees are in flower, or the buds beginning to 
open the syringe should be laid aside, and anything like 
heavy syringing should not be practised after the buds 
become prominent. Until the fruit is fairly set, the 
night temperature should not exceed 50° by means of 



mo heat. Take every opportunity ot giving fresh air 
after the buds become prominent, and do this freely on 
fine days ; for there is no chance of getting the blossom 
strong, or the fruit to set well in a close atmosphere. 
Strawberries like Peaches require abundance of fresh 
air aud a low temperature until after the fruit is fairly 
set ; for plants being started 45° at night and 50° will 
be sufficiently high by artificial means, and a little air 
should be admitted at all times when it can be safely 
done. If the roots can be afforded a mild bottom heat 
without the plants being placed too far from the glass, 
this will be of great service in inducing a healthy root 
action. Water with tepid weak manure water. A further 
portiou of the plants to succeed those in heat should be 
removed to the protection of a cold frame, selecting the 
strongest plants. 

FLOWER GARDEN AND SHRUBBERIES. 

Push forward alterations as rapidly as possible while 
the weather is favourable for such work, and get all 
planting, &c, finished as quickly as possible. Where 
it can possibly be done, alterations affecting the removal 
of large trees and shrubs should be done early in 
autumn, when transplanting can be done with less risk 
than at any other season. Also get ground intended 
for fresh plantations prepared without loss of time, for 
the longer planting is delayed after this season the more 
care and expense will be necessary to ensure success. 
Be careful to secure everything, whether large or small, 
against the wind, and do not delay this until the plants 
get blown about and injured after planting. Get plants 
on walls pruned and nailed, leaving Tea Roses, or any- 
thing liable to be injured by the frost to be done in 
spring after the danger of severe frost is past. See to 
getting in a stock of briars for next season's budding 
where this is not already done. Also look to the pro- 
tection of tender varieties of Hoses, or such as have been 
found not to stand a severe winter uninjured without 
protection. 

HARDY FRUIT AND KITCHEN GARDEN. 

Proceed expeditiously with the pruning and nailing 
of wall trees whenever the weather is favourable for 
such work, and get the younsc wood of Peaches and 
Nectarines uunailed, for if the 
mild weather continues much 
longer ihese will soon be oif the 
move. Pear trees that are infested 
with scale should bo uunailed and 
painted with a mixture of soft soap 
aud soot, rubbing it well into the 
crevices of the bark, and if a little 
clay is added to the mixture it 
will render it less liable to be 
washed off by rain. In cases 
where the scale has been some 
time established, as much of it 
should be removed before painting 
as can be done by means of s a 
very hard brush, or by scraping 
the bark where this can be done 
without injuring the buds. Take 
advantage of frosty mornings to 
get 'manure, .wheeled upon- Ui£_,- 
•quarters where it may be wanted, 
and get all vacant ground dug or 
trenched as soon as circumstances 
will admit, throwing it up rough 
in order to expose the largest 
possible surface to the action of ^ 
the weather. Look to Peas that 
have broken the ground, and pro- 
tect them from birds, &c. Also 
get in a farther sowing for suc- 
cession, or to replace those that 
are above ground in the event 
of their getting cut off by the 
weatler, which may happen. At- 
tend carefully to Lettuce, Endive, 
and Cauliflower plants, &c, under 

glass, exposing them freely to air on fine dry days, and 
dust a little fresh lime or soot among them occasionally. 



iNotices to Correspondents. 

Australia : A Sub. Pack seed intended for this or any other dis- 
tant colony in coarse canvas bags, and get tliem conveyed in a 
cabin where they have plenty of ventilation. You will not get 
Madras Beans in Europe. 

Books: Diss. Thanks for the suggestion. Hereafter we will do 
so, whenever we know, which is not always. 

Cucumber Pit : -4 G. We see no objection to the plan, provided 
the walls, constructed as you describe, can he made to stand. 
Mills on the Cucumber is a very good book; so is Moore's 
little treatise. 

Datura ceratocatjlon ; AH. has great difficulty in raising 
seeds of this plant, and begs for advice. 

Gooseberry Caterpillars : G L. You will find ample informa- 
tion respecting the best means of destroying these given at 
pp. 453, 469, and 485 of our last year's volume. White Helle- 
bore powder, if good, is the most certain .J 

Names of Plants: E II. The fragments seem to belong to 
some Thunbevgia— perhaps T. Hawtayneana or coccinea. J. B. 
Eriobotrya japonica; the Pear is the Chaumontel. — AS. Lepi- 
cystis sepulta, J. Sm., ali&s PolTpodium sepultnm, Kaulf., native 
of tropical America. S.— G A. Adiantum Capillus Veneris. 
The frond sent exhibits a very curious case of morphology 
tending to confirm the view entertained by Dr. Lindley, as 
given in the "First Principles of Botany," that the sporangia 
of gyrate Ferns were "modified leaves." In the present case 
the fringe consists of minute clusters of young plants, which 
are produced on the apices of the veins or the under margin of 
the lamina of the frond, and therefore occupying the^ place 
where sporangia would be produced under ordinary circum- 
stances; but in this case a metamorphosis has been induced, 
through the plant having been growing under a bell-glasir. 
The specimen was much shrivelled before it reached us — never- 
theless some traces of imperfect sporangia were observed ; but 
further investigation is required by the examination of the 
"fringe" in its most nascent state. 5. 

Peach Walts: A S. Hartley's rough plate is the best glass fv 
all horticultural purposes. If you write to Messrs. Hartley, 
Sunderland, they will tell you of whom in the west of England 
you can procure it. 

Progress of Horticulture in the United States. S. Such a 
letter should have been authenticated by your signature, &c. 
We do not object to gardeners going to the United States. You 
quite mistake us. What we do object to is taking upon 
ourselves the responsibility of'recornmending them to do so. 

Protecting Walls : Siglsmund. The plan of covering by means 
of woollen netting is coming into general use — by way of trial. 
We give once more the woodcut and explanation, for the 
benefit of yourself and other new subscribers. They are as 
follows :— A rod is placed horizontally beneath the coping of 
the wall. Another horizontal rod is fixed upon posts 3 feet 
from the bottom of the wall, and 18 inches from the^rround ; 
the two horizontal rods are connected at intervals by slight 




STATE OF THE WEATHER AT CH IS WICK, NEAR LONDON. 
Forthe week ending Jan. 1 1, 1553, aa observed ai the Horticultural Gardens. 







Baeos 






Tbhfkbatukb. 








ETBB. 


Ol the Air. Of the Eartl 


Whn, 


\* 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean 


1 loot 
deep. 


2ieet 
dee]i. 


Friday 5 


11 


30.133 


3n.cr.2 


51 


40 


45.5 


46 


16 


S.W. 


Satur. G 




311.361 


30.240 


50 


4* 


47.0 




46 


S.W. 


Sunday 7 


IS 


3u.5:io 


30.430 


49 


42 


45 A 


46 


46 


S.W. 


Mon. . 8 




30.46) 


30.31 3 


43 


41 


41.5 


46 


46 


S.W. 


Tues. 9 




30.405 


30.383 


50 


2S 


39.0 


a 


46 


w. 


Wed. 10 21 


30J»25 


30.*95 




27 


33.0 


46 


N.E. 


ThUTB. 11 


* 


30.525 


30.457 


33 


29 


33.5 


44 


45 


N.E. 


Average . 


30.4-20 


30.324 


4R.4 


35.3 


41.1 


45C 


J5.S 



Jan. 5— Fine; very fine ; overcast. 

— 6— Uniformly overcast throughout. 

— 7— Overcast; densely clouded ; overcast. 

— 8— Lightly overcast and tine; densely overcast at night. 

— 9— Fine; overcast; slight rain at night; frosty. 

— 10— Foggy throughout ; dense fog at niabt. 

— 11— Slight frcst; foggy; densely overcast. 

Mean temperature of the week 5j deg. above the average. 
RECORD OF THE WEATHER AT CH1SWICK. 
During the last 29 years, for the ensuing week, ending Jan. 20, V 65. 





at g i 

Hi 
5^ 


£ S £ 


3h 


No. of 
Years in 
which it 
Rained. 




Prevailing Windf. 


Jan. 


Greatest 
Quantity 
of Main. 


■1 

3 

3 
1 

4 

-1 


4 
4 

5 
3 
2 
6 


«|8 

4 3 

3 3 

5 1 
2! 3 
1 ! 3 
4; 1 

4 1 


3 6 

l\\ 

•2 8 

4 10 

5 ; 

S| 6 


4 

3 
3 
4 
5 


Z 


Sunday 14 
Mon. 15 
Tuea. 16 
Wed. 17 
Tliuxe. 18 
Friday 19 
Satur. 20 


42.4 
413 
41.6 
423 
42.3 
426 
41.S 


31.0 

29.5 
31. S 
31.0 
31.2 
30.7 
30.8 


35.3 
36.7 
36.7 
3-.7 
36.7 
36.3 


16 
10 
16 
10 
13 

u 

11 


0.S0 in. 

0.54 

0.34 

0.43 

0.55 

0.PS 

0.65 


3 
3 

3 

3 
1 
1 



The highest temperature during the above period occurred on the 19th, 
1823-therra. 00 deg. ; and the lowest on the 19ib, 1S3S— tfcerm. 4 J deg. 
below zero. 



braces or rods, as is shown in the woodcut. A covering:, 
prepared by sowing woollen netting, on its upper and lower 
edges, to coarse calico, is then attached to the upper rod by 
loops and to the lower hy pieces of tape; when the protection 
is complete. Mr. Harrison, of Snelstone Hall, near Ashbourne 
Derbyshire, who has tried the plan, states that the co t of the 
wors ed net (which is 2 yards wide), is Is. 8rf.per yard running-. 
The calico 1 yard wide is 2d. or 1\d. according to quality, and. 
when usid is slit down the middle", and one half being sewn to 
the top, and the other to the bottom of the net, the covering 
becomes 3 yards wide. The tape and making up he finds of 
small cost, while of poles be has abundance of no value. The 
whole together in London, where every article has to be pur- 
chased, ought to be under Is. 6d. a yard running, including 
making and putting up. The advantages of this netting axe 
very great; it is fixed up and taken down in two or three hours, is 
set up when the blossom cannot longer be kept back, and 
remains permanently fixed, until taken down about the latter 
end of May, when all danger from frost is over. 

Red Spider : SB. The best remedy for this pest is to paint yonr 
Peach trees over now with a mixture of sulphur, soft soap, and 
clay, brushing it well into all the crevices, so that the whole 
of the wood may be covered.^ 

Rhododendrons: Ten Years, Cut them down just before the buds 
begin to swell in the spring. 

Rhodoleia: An Old Sub. We believe this plant has not yet 
flowered in Europe. It is a glorious thing. Its right mode of 
culture is not certain : but we apprehend it must have artificial 
warmth — though not stove heat— In winter. 

Tanks : An Old Sub. They should be constructed of slate. Iron 
rusts and lead corrodes by the action of the carbonic acid dis- 
solved in water ; the purer the water the more it corrodes. But 

* why will cement crack? It ought not, if good and skilfully 
used— unless the tank s are pierced by metal pipes, or subjected 
to great variation of temperature. 

Woods and Forests: J P. We regret to say that the language 
of your letter makes it quite impossible to print it. Such a 
letter would probably lose you your place, and prevent your 
getting another. 

Misc. : T B F. Four of the numbers required to complete your 
set are out of print ; the others may be had. 



-1855. 



T HE A G IMCii L.TU I; A I, G A / BTT i: 






T 



>HE 1-UNlHiJN MANUHK COM I/ANY beg (0 call 
tha attention of Agriculturist to their WHEAT nnd 
CLOVER MANUitKH for present hbo, Tlie London Monnra 
Compmiy hIh(i offer Gonulno Peruvian Guuno, Nltrato of Bod a, 
Concentrated Crate, Superphosphate of Llmo, fiwhery and otbor 
SaltH, and nil Artificial Manures of value. The London Manure 
Company guarantee Peruvian Guano and evory Munuro they 
-Hiipjtiy td bo strictly genuine. Edwaiid Pun»Kn>Scc. 

Bridg e Btroot, Blaokfrlars. 

PERUVIAN GUANO, Bolivian Oimno, SupnrplioH 
phato of iilmn, Nitrate of Soda, Sugar Soum, and uvojy 
•doHcrlption of Artificial Manures, Unseed Cakos, &o< 
Wm. Inhlih < 'a unk, 10, Murk Limq, London. 

SKWACiU CUAKCOAL MANURE.— This highly 
fertiU»liiK Manure, whloh Is Peat Charcoal comnlotoly 

saturated willi Lomhiii Hinviif;*', will bn It I most ofilcfont for 

ovory species of crop ; m-. n- especially for Peas, Beans, Turnips, 
Mangold Wur/.ni, and other root eropa. it win produce a greater 
ruturn for the outlay than Guano or any other Man tiro at an 
equivalent value: it also possesses the property of retaining Its 
fertilising power longer than other Manures now In use. it may 
tin obtained at the SEWAGE MANURE WORKS, Stanley 
Bridge, Fulham, at il. per ton, and in quantities less than half 
a ton. at 5,v. per ew.fc, for roady money only; and in quantities not 
loim than a ton, will bo delivered at, tho London Termini ol the 
Railroads free of charge foreartnge. No cliargo for sacks. 

it may also he had from Messrs. G.Qidbb^ Co., 36. Down Street, 
Piccadilly, Agricultural Seedsmen, Agonts for London; and from 
nil the other Agents of tho Company. 

rym: FOLLOWING MANURES .are manufactured 

-L at Mr, I.awicb' Factory, Doptford Crook i Turnip M i. 

7/. per ton; Superphosphate of Lime, 71.; Sulphuric Acid and 
Coprolites, iil. 

Ofllce, CD, King William Stroot, City, London. 
N.B. Genuine Peruvian Guano, guaranteed to contain id per 
cent, of ammonia. Nltrato of Soda, Sulpliato of Ammonia, and 
other Chemical Manures. 

ARTIFICIAL MAN UHES.'&c.— Manufacturers and 
others engaged in making ARTIFICIAL MANURES may 
obtain ovory nrcossnry instruction for their economical and 
ofllcient preparation, liy applying to J. C. NE8BIT, F.G.S., &C, 

3? rlnoipalof the Agricultural and Chemical College, Kennington, 

London. Annlysos of Soils, Guanos, Superphosphates of Lime, 
Coprolites, &0., nnd Assays of Cold, Silver, and other Minerals, 

-are executed with accuracy and dispatch. 

Gentlemen desirous of receiving instructions In Chemical 

Analyses and Assaying, will tiud ample facility and accommoda- 

tlon a t the College. 

JOHN MOKKKN, Cimkai, Commission A. .in:, 
Ock Street, Abingdon, is open for Commissions for tho sale 
of Agricultural Implements, Manures, Seeds, &c. ( and for the 
purcha se of Corn, &c. 



W AI;;:u 



PH ILLIPS' 




PATENT. 



THE PRIZE PULPING MACHINE of the Royal 
-•- Agricultural Society's Show, held at Lincoln, July, 1854. 

Tho First nnd only Prize ever offered hy the Royal Agricul- 
tural Sociely lor tho best Machine for reducing Hoots to a Pulp 
wis awarded to the Machine Invented and Exhibited hy Fre- 
nmtick- Phillies, of The Hall Farm, neatonradon, Suffolk. 

Frederick Phillips hegs to infoim thiV.ido that lie is pre- 
pared to grant Licenses for the mak ing of tlftsc Machines. 

pLAYTON, 8HUTTLEW0KTH; and CO 'S 
>T ,™ !1ZE PORTABLE STEAM-ENGINES, and COM- 

binfd thrashing, straw shaking, riddling 

and WINNOWING MACHINE may be seen at their London 
Establishment, 6, Fitzroy Terrace, Now Road, where all infor- 
mation relative thereto can lie obtained. These Machines are 
constructed to horn Parley, and make a perfect separation of the 
chaff from the pulse. They are fitted with Elevators, which 
deposit tho grain into hags, and beyond the feeder of Machine 
require no hands except to take away the Corn, &c, as thrashed 
tho whole of tho operations being performed hy self-acting 
machinery, whereby the Corn, Straw, Chaff, and Pulse are 
delivered in tho places assigned for them. 

C. S. nnd Co. have paid special attention to this class of 
Machinery, nnd Fixed Barn Machinery, and from tho position 
they have taken at the Royal and all the leading agricultural 
shows ot England, flatter themselves that tor efficiency dura- 
bility, and simplicity, their Engines nnd Machines aro not 
-surpassed by nny other maker in England. All letters for- 
warded to tho Works at Lincoln will have immediate attention ■ 
and Illustrated Catalogues forwarded to all parts of the kin-doiu 
postage free. 

WATERPROOF PATHS.— BARN AND CATTLE SHED 

FLOORS. 

T^HOSE who would enjoy their Gardens during the 

™™ ,er mon,lls should construct their walks of PORTLAND 
CEMENT CONCRETE, which are formed thus:-Screei i the 
gravel of which the path isat present made from the loam which 
Is mixed with it and to every partof clean gravel add oneof sharp 
river sand. To five parts of such equal mixture add one of Port- 
land Cement, and incorporate the whole well in the drv statehefore 
ipplying tho water. It may then be laid on 2 inches thick. Any 
labourer can mix and spread it. No tool is required beyond the 
»pade, and in 48 hours it becomes as hard as a rock. Vegetation 
sannot grow through or upon it, and it resists the action of the 
everest frost. It is necessary-, as water does not soak through it, 
to give a fall from tho middle of the path towards the sides 
nA-SS.r S ?. ,,, °,, pi ' , ' p!u ' <>,i ™ n, " lies fi rst-rato paving for B\RNS 
CATTLE-SHEDS, FARM-YARDS, and all other situations 
where a clean, hard bottom is a desideratum. Maybe laid in 
winter equally well as in summer. " 

Manufacturers of the Cement, J. B. White & Brothers 
Hilbank Street, Westminster. "".mms, 

DTEPHENSON AND PEILL, 61, Gracechorch Street, 

^London and 17, New Park Street, Southwark, Manufacturers 
>f Copper Cylindrical and Improved Conical Iron BOII ERS 
rad Conservatory and Hothouse Builders, either in Wood or 
Iron, respectfully call the attention of the Nobility, Gentry and 
Surseryrnen to their simple but efficacious method of warmin" 
Horticultural and other Buildings by Hot Water warm <r>v 

From tho extensive works they have executed, references of 

taiia&d res l' ect , a . blht y <*■» &e given, and full particulars 

iirnishett on application. 



IMPROVED LIQUID MANURE, 

Oil t.l. I.I'.W, I'lill'l Al'.l.l. P(J UP, 

Tho valve in u ball >.r ImptrlnhaMi 
material, and cam of i tog In 
A 'Mm barrol la ol 

>V llluiy to corrode, and can lm ml 

\ lowordd al pli J In li u .-.ill fold 

\ togotlior, and llio who] 

'"$ on nlioiilil'-i toan] i ond orfanli 
Price ol'H in. Pump, Willi li 
'I lie r in rol in 27j In, long, and llio t<-i;i 
in d '. fl tllff.ll. 

ij, lurii Gntiii Peroha BuoUon Pipe, 
1 1 li. por foot, 
i ' Ini ii I- lexfblo Rubbi i i ad I 

But ' Plpi . 8 ■ I ■' por foot. 

May In; obtalnotl Ol any Ir .iiiiioiifM 

or i'liiiiil.ni' in town or countiy, at tint 
abovo prices, or of llio I'alei ■■ 

Miiniifni tiirnni, JOHN W.\ ii.-iru Bt SolfO, 

B, Oreacont, Jowln troot. London, 

Every dcaoi Iptlon ol M 

llaiiilng Water, by mcana •■> Whcola, 

it.miii, Deep Will I'liii., 
Flro anil Garden EnglncH, &c.— Engnivlngii m-iit on applli 

WARNER'S PATENT VIBRATING STAN- 
DAICD POMPS. 
PATENT CAST-IRON POMPS, for llio naoof Fern I I 

tnges, Mannro Tanks, and Wrlln of n dcpOt not exceeding 30 feet. 
Dlan-.oter Length ol Barrel, 
ol I'.iii ill lindiT noi;e, 
2Jln.Bhoitl ft. 7 In. 





Pitted for lead, 
3 „ gutta porcba, 
„ • or cast Iron 
6 „ flanged pipe, 
6 „ I as required. 
short, with 10 hot of LI ad Plpb 
attached, and Bolts and Nuts 

ready for fixing 2 12 

long ditto ditto t,itto 2 15 



long II 
ditto :i 
ditto :> 
ditlo 3 



The short barrel Pump Is very convenient 
for fixing in situations of limited height and 
space, for the supply of coppers and sinks in 
Wash-houses with soft water from under- 
ground Iniiks, or in Hot, Forcing, ami PJo.nl 
Houses; they may be fixed, when desired, 
under the stage. 

May bo obtained of nny Ironmonger or 
Plumber in Town or Country, at the above prices, or of the 
Patentees ond Manufacturers, JOHN WARNER and SONS, 
8, Crescent, Jcwin Street, London. 

Every description of Machinery for Raising Water, hy means 
of Wheels, Rams, Deep Well Pun ps, &c. ; also Fire and Garden 
Engines, &c. &c. — Engravings sent on application. 



rpHE 
-a inc 



HE LANDS IMPROVEMENT COMPANY, 

NCORrORATED BY SPECIAL ACT OF PARLIAMENT FOR 

England and Scotland. — To Landowners, the Clergy, Soli- 
citors, Surveyors, Estate Agents, &c. — Loans may be contracted 
for the execution by the proprietor or by the Company of every 
landed improvement, especially Drainage, Building, Clearing, 
Enclosing, Warping, Irrigation, Embanking, Reclamation, Roads, 
Planting, Machinery, &c. The plans (of buildings), specifica- 
tions, and estimates are prepared by the proprietors, and are 
submitted to the approval of the Enclosure Commissioners. Pro- 
prietors may avail themselves of tl e powers of the Act to recover 
from the inheritance their own funds to he expended on improve- 
ments. They may also apply jointly for the execution of a 
mutual improvement, such as a common outfall, &c. For forms 
of application, &c, apply to the Hon. Wm. Napier, Managing 
Director, 2, Old Palace Yard, Westminster. 



I 

railing ; 1400 cal 
- i untlei th, | 

for8OO0 

•vly parti) i 
will be built ; and a dead, mi 

»■ We ■ I 

■ 
i 
and '.ii the improvi 
pn ent. Mi 
day '.I I 

A 0000 'I'.-il 'if ■■ i \,y ;j 

I ',f .Mr. Mi 'in that tlie I 
' ' germ ot an 

irmlitution on the modi 1 of (J 
tical or profewional clabi ; and 
Club i hould lake it* place ami 
University, Athenaeum, and other*. It . 
thin would be more than a n 
re-creation, of the exial i 

cesHation of the London Farmer*' Club, and the 
commencement ol ai 

The cluh which Mr. Mscm i 

may be ;i very desirable Ihii 
room for it among the other metropolitai 
of the kiri'i, but there is no reason on that ai 
why the existing rli-ei, 
once a month at York Hotel, Blacui 
cea>e to hold its meetings, or to rifrrforni any other 
of its fund ions. The two objects are entirely dis- 
tinct, and are not likely to be united in any institu- 
tion of the kin'l which Mr. Mecui indicate*. 



THE GENERAL LAND DRAINAGE AND IM- 
PROVEMENT COMPANY. 
Incorporated ry Special Act of Parliament. 
Offices, 52, Parliament Street, London. 
Directors. 
Henrt Ker Setmer, Esq., M.P., Chairmnn. 
Sir John V. Shelley, Bart : , M.P., Deputy-Cltoirmon. 



John C. Cobbold, Esq., M.P. 
Sir William Cnbitt, F.E.S 
Henry Currie, Esq. 
Thomas Edward Dicey, Esq 



William Fisher Hobbs, Esq. 

Edward J. Htitchins, Esq.. M.P. 

Samuel Morton Peto, Esq., M.P. 

William Tite, Esq., F.R.S. 
William Wilshere, Esq. 
Empowered to execute, or to assist Landowners in executing with 
their own Capital and by their own Agents works of Drainage, 
Irrigation, Road-making, Enclosing, Reclaiming, and the Erection 
of Farm Buildings upon any Estates, tinder Settlement, Mortgage, 
or Disability, and without nny investigation of Title, to charge 
the total amount of the outlay and expenses upon the property ' in? an estate. 



Thf. wayfarer in the midland counties mutt fre- 
quently have been struck with the strange and w:!d 
appearance presented by hollows and exca- 
which he often meets with, especially on t. 
side of the river Severn. These, as they are ' 
out of the side of some slight eminence, or occa- 
sionally forming a deep pond near some xo>. ■': 
as at Henwick, Powick, and various pl.v 
Worcestershire, at present excite attention by 
the wild shrubs and flowering plants which fill up 
the dry hollows or surround the water-filled tanks, 
thus forming spots to which the botanist is often 
attracted. 

The advance of vegetation about most of 
excavations attests that it is now some 
since they were made, and a moment's thoar.1 I 
their origin shows that they belong to a fc ; 
use or a worn out instituiion. The came of 
" Alarley Hole," which these pits usually tear 
amongst the cottagers, not only reminds one of the 
uses to which the contents of these pits were 
applied, but suggests a few notes upon the use of 
marl of practical importance. 

Fifty years since marl was considered, not only is 
a manure, but almost as the manure, and so mcch was 
its use extolled that landlords and farmers made 
search for marl with as much industiy and circum- 
spection as are now employed in seeking for guano or 
coprolites; and the possession of a marl pit, without 
reference to the quality of the marl, was, indefed. a 
great recommendation in taking a farm or purchas- 



"'RIGI DOMO.' 



-Patronised by her Alaiesty the 
r-rT;„ „ Q,I ?f n ,' D ?H? of Northumberland for Svon House, His 
find,,,! t ^' ke D 0f P M ; onsl »™ for Chiswick Gardens, Professor 
-£Sf r?i " " ort : c " lu ', ral Society, Sir Joseph Paxton for the 
E^ntrPark Zoological Society, and Mrs. Lawrence, ot 

w'ofw'n,!,.!?'? 110 '" tL J CanT »ss made of prepared Hair and 
wool, a perfect non-conductor of Heatand Cold, keeping, where- 
annhed. « fixe d temperature. It is adapted for 



improved, to be repaid by annual instalments, varying accordins 
to the number of years over which Landowners may determine 
the repayment shall extend, within the limits of 31 years for 
Farm Buildings, and 50 years for Drainage. Roads, and other 
Improvements. William Cliffokd, Secretary. 



/•COLLEGE of AGRICULTURE and CHEMISTRY, 



Mr. YorxG, an agricultural writer of note at this 
period, says, " All farmers who have marl un^er their 
fields, and do not make use of such as a treasure, 
are to be condemned. In some counties it is the 
common manure, and almost everywhere to be 
found when dug for ; in such places the ff.rmer3 
have nothing to do but resolve on the undertaking : 
they all acknowledge the expediency of the work, 



AXD OF PRACTICAL and GENERAL SCIENCE, 37 and I 
38, Lower Kennington Lane. Kennington, near London. 
Principal— J. C. Nesbit, F.G.S, F.C.S., &c. 

The system of studies pursued in the College comprises every ! 
branch requisite to prepare youth for the pursuits of Agriculture, I 
Engineering, Mining, Manufactures, and the Arts; for the Naval and seldom dispute the creat profit of it, but In 
and Military Services, and for the Universities. I ol h e r parts the knowledee of marl is very confined/' 

Analyses and Assays of every description are promptly and 
accurately executed at tho College. The terms and other par- 
ticulars may be bad on application to the Principal. 



Eiit aflrt cttlttira l <Ba?ettr. 

SATURDAY, JANUARY IS, 1S55. 

MEETINGS hOB THE ENSUING WEEK. 
TatjasDAT, Jan. 19— Agricultural Imp. Societr of Ireland. 



applied, 



rom a ticks „?" e scor ?'"ug rays of the sun, from wind, and 
•equiredle„,?h CC ' S , Bnd , mo ™ in S f '™ts. To be had in any 
>f Fir?, ft, "I ,war<lK of 2 y«<is wide, at 1,. 6<$. per yard run, 

ityualtoSv.rS' 7 J Trinity Lane > Ca ™ on streot 
-iiy, ana tho Royal Mills, Wandsworth, Surrey. 



In the Rural Economy of Norfolk, Mr. MinsHAii, 
a writer of the same time, says,'" Marie has been so 
long in use in that district that there are few farms 
without marie pits upon or near them, so that 
searching for marie is at present seldom requisite, and 
the att of discovering it not much studied.'" He adds, 
''The herb Coltsfoot (Tussilapo farfara) abocr-ding 
on the soil is considered as an indication of a ;am 
of marie being situated near the surface. ' 

Now if we consider marl as being an -. _ .:-. :~ 
deposit, having a tolerably large admixture of lime, 
we shall not be surprisedat another remark by the 
same auihor, where he says : " T:me and accidents, 



The " Markets Improvement Committee " have 
determined that Friday, the 26th January, shall be 
the first business day at the Nkw Market in 
Copenhagen Fields, but we believe it is their inten- 
tion formally to open it on the previous Wednesday. I or intentional researches, have not failtd to discover 
The time allowed them by the act of Parliament beds of marl in almost every estate, and, in some 
expires on the 1st of February, so that they cannot ' places, on almost every farm, situated sufficiently 
delay beyond the 26th. The works are in a state of near the surface to be worked with advantage." 
great forwardness, and there will be no difficulty : Here, then, the geologist will at once conclude that 
in obtaining the necessary certificate of one of H.M. the marls of different counties may exhibit wide 
Secretaries of State as to the fitness of the place, differences, according to the formations whence they 
before the day determined on* [ arederived. For example, in Woi cestershire, the marl 

Upwards of 30 acres of ground are occupied by ' pits have been excavated in the Keuper marls, lie 
the various market places, buildings, lairages, and upper division of the new red sandstone. In Glon- 
abattoirs. About 35,000 sheep will find accommo- cestershire there are now abandoned marl pits in the 



26 



THE AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE. 



[Jan. 13, 



lower lias shales, and in Wiltshire the Oxford 
Clay in the northern parts of the county, and chalk 
marl in tliH south, have furnished this ingredient. 

Inasmuch, therefore, as marls in different parts 
of the country vary as to geological position, so we 
may expect them to differ in chemical constitution ; 
and tlnmgh as yet analysis of marls which have 
severally been m-ed for manure is, to a great extent, 
a desideratum, yet the following analyses, the two 
first by Professor Way and the third by Professor 
Voelcker, wjll sufficiently illustrate our present 
position. These are examples of marls analysed 
after their value as manure has been long tested in 
their respective districts; but in the present day we 
may go further, and determine the value of a marl 
before the expense of digging, carriage, and trial, has 
been resorted to. 





PnoFEssoa W 


it's Analyses. 


3. Malm 










t. FOSSILIFEROUS 


2. Gray Marl 


from 




Gkeen Marl. 


or Malm. 






Soluble 
in dilute 
Acids. 


Inso- 
luble in 
dilute 
Acids. 


Soluble 

in dilute 
Acids. 


Inso- 
luble- in 
dilute 
Acids. 


By Dr. 

YOELCKER 


Silicic acid \ 
(silica) ... J 


31.68 


22.06 


2.16 


16.63 




Carbonic acid-j 


undeter- 
mined. 


«... 


29.16 






Sulphuric acid . 


.45 




0.21 




1.546 


Phosphoric acid 


3.76 




0.21 




.242 


Chloriue 


trace 




0.08 






Lime 


5.61 


1.52 


41.62 


1.71 


40.757 


Magnesia 


.85 


1.09 


.30 


a trace 


.825 


Potash 


3/21 


.45 


.26 


.32 




Soda 


1.20 


.31 


1.64 


.07 




Protoxide and "1 












peroxide of > 


16.91 


) 


2.20 


) 




iron ... J 




S 5.75 




f 5.57 


.780 


Alumina... 


.74 


J 


.11 


) 





Note. — No. 1 is from the green sand formation. 

2. Chalk marl " extensively applied as a manure." 

3. Probably chalk marl, used largely by farmers, who 

apply it in a powdered state both to pasture as to 
arable lands. 

Now these examples of marls still used show a 
large percentage of such important matters as phos- 
phates and the alkalies to which their efficiency as 
manure is mainly due, and consequently where these 
are absent marls can only act as mechanical ame- 
liorators. Now from their general sterility, where 
unmitigated by accidental admixture, we know that 
marls of the Keuper, the lias, and the Oxford clay 
must be deficient in fertilising properties, which in 
itself explains the reason for abandoned marl pits 
and neglect of marling in Worcestershire and Glou- 
cestershire ; whilst, on the contrary, the very fact 
of marling being, even in the present advanced state 
of _ agriculture, still followed out in parts of Wilt- 
shire, and with advantage, would lead to the con- 
clusion that the marls in the latter districts con- 
tained some important fertiliser, and chemical ex- 
amination has proved this to be the case. 

Some time since, in company with Mr. R. S. 
Maskeleyne, the Reader of Mineralogy in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, we examined a large marl pit 
Dow being worked at Chisledon, Wilts. The exca- 
vation was in the chalk marl of geologists, and 
towards the bottom of the pit was a thin layer of 
included nodular masses, from the size of a nut to 
that of a Walnut, and somewhat of the same shape; 
these, we found upon examination, yielded equal to 
40 per cent, of bone phosphate, and we have no 
doubt were in reality coprolites. Mr. Maskeleyne 
subsequently informed us that he had made frequent 
examinations of the marl with a view to determine 
the amount of its phosphatic matter, and that in some 
specimens he had detected 7 per cent, of phosphate 
of lime, but he estimated the average at 1 J per cent. 
of this important fertiliser. 

From these few remarks we may safely draw the 
following practical conclusions : — 

lstly. It is not true that every marl, as was 
formerly supposed, is capable of acting as a manure 
or fertiliser. 

2dly. There are some marls exceedingly rich in 
fertilising ingredients. 

3dly. The value of a marl therefore must depend 
upon its included chemical substances, which can 
as easily be determined by the chemist as the posi- 
tion of the marl by the geologist ; and 

4thly. The present abandoned marl pits of Wor- 
cestershire and Gloucestershire are an evidence of 
the folly of expending money and labour on an ex- 
tensive scale, without first considering the principle 
npon which the expected good was likely to result. 
We may also conclude that, though the Worces- 
tershire marl pits have thus become monuments of 
terming empiricism, those of the chalk marl of Wilts 
attest that all marls are not alike valueless. 

One of the most important among recent contri- 
butions to our agricultural literature is a translation 
r "H t, Fr / nch - M °ns. Leonce de Lavergne, one 
01 the Professors in the late National Agricultural 
institute of France, has published a volume on 



the rural economy of this country, which is remark- 
able for the life-like and accurate pictures it presents 
of our national agriculture, and even of its local 
peculiarities.* 

It is greatly to the advantage of a description 
when it depends not merely, nor so much, upon well 
chosen and well ordered words as upon comparisons 
or contrasts ; and the agriculture of the different 
divisions of France, well known to M. de 
Lavergne, is, with great emphasis to the lesson he 
would teach, being continually cited in this work, 
and presented to the English reader as the standard 
of comparison by which the merits and the faults of 
our agriculturists are exhibited. The work is 
distinguished by its remarkable accuracy and the 
skilful manner in which its topics are arranged. We 
may add, too, that it is written in a vigorous, dash- 
ing style— more after the fashion of a review article 
than of a formal treatise. 

We shall shortly call the attention of our readers 
to it more in detail : at present we confine our- 
selves to a mere enumeration of its contents. The 
abundant evidence of agricultural development 
exhibited in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park 
astonished foreigners even more than the proofs of 
our commercial and manufacturing ascendancy : for 
the latter they were prepared — the former, never- 
theless, told a perfectly true tale. " English agri- 
culture taken as a whole is at this day the first in 
the world." What are the causes to which it owes 
this proud position ? That is considered, and most 
ably, in the first 10 or 12 chapters of the work. 

The remainder of the volume is devoted to 
descriptive notices of agriculture in the southern, 
eastern, western, midland, and northern counties, in 
Wales, in Scotland, and in Ireland: and the last 
chapters of this very interesting volume are occupied 
with a statement of the origin of Ireland's difficul ties, 
and of the means through which she is emerging 
from them. 

M. de Lavergne has written a work which will 
be as extensively read in its English dress as in its 
original French. We shall again direct attention to 
this volume. 



CROSS-BRED SHEEP. 
Your correspondent, W. P. Ayres, calls attention to 
the successful crossing of Welsh mountain ewes with a 
Southdown ram, deducing the inference that the practice 
of putting a large ram to small ewes is both profitable 
and commendable. " That the breed of small sheep,'' 
he tells us, "should be much improved in size by cross- 
ing with larger rams, is quite in the nature of things." 
True to a certain extent, but the practice ought to be 
regulated by extreme caution. If, for instance, he 
reason from analogy that because the produce of a 
Southdown ram and Welsh ewe is good, therefore that 
that of a Leicester ram and Welsh ewe must be better 
still, as being a larger male, I have no hesitation in 
telling him his doctrine is both unsound and dangerous. 
I speak feelingly on this point, having once suffered from 
the experiment, both pecuniarily and mentally, more 
than just now I am either able or willing to divulge. 
I was many years since persuaded by a neighbour to 
join him in the purchase of a lot of Scotch mountain 
ewes, to which we put (more shame for us !) heavy 
Leicester tups. Of all the pests that ever afflicted man 
these Scotch ewes were about the worst. They coursed 
the country like so many greyhounds. No fence could 
keep them within bounds. They were a constant torment 
to all concerned, from master to man. We were, how- 
ever, content to put up with mere trouble ; but worse 
remains behind. At yeaning time we lost, I am afraid 
to say how many, of both ewes and lambs, from the 
very circumstance held out by Mr. Ayres as an advan- 
tage — the extra size of the lambs, which occasioned a cor- 
responding difficulty in parturition. True, such lambs 
as did struggle into existence and live, soon beat their 
mothers out and out as to size and weight ; but their 
numbers were deplorably few, and I never was better 
pleased than when I washed my hands of the whole 
concern — a matter I had no little difficulty in accom- 
plishing — for, to say truth, I was thoroughly ashamed 
of the transaction from beginning to end, and in- 
wardly resolved never to engage in such another 
speculation, nor let others do so without dul} r warning 
them of the probable consequences. I may be thought 
to attach too much importance to a mere isolated 
experiment, and to undervalue that related by Mr. 
Ayres. All I can say in answer is, that if his Welsh 
ewes brought forth the usual average number of 
lambs, with only a fair amount of casualties, on both of 
which points he preserves, perhaps, a judicious silence, 
he may consider himself in high luck. Still I contend 
the principle of breeding from large males is bad ; and 
I am fortified in this opinion by the late Henry Cline, 
Esq., whose able treatise " On the breeding and form of 
domestic animals," I had not seen when I made my 
unlucky experiment, or probably I might have been 
spared that act of folly. Only mark the words of that 
accurate and scientifio observer. " It has been generally 
supposed that the breed of animals is improved by 



* The Rural Economy of England, Scotland, and Ireland, by 
Leonce de Lavergne. Translated from the French, with notes 
by a Scottish Farmer. Blackwood and Son, Edinburgh. 



the largest males. This opinion has done considerable 
mischief, and would have done more injury, if it had 
not been counteracted by the desire of selecting 
animals of the best form and proportions, which are 
rarely to be met with in those of the largest size. 
Experience has proved that crossing has only succeeded 
in an eminent degree in those instances in which the 
females were larger than in the usual proportion of 
females to males ; and that it has generally failed when 
the males were disproportionally large." (P. 4). " To 
obtain the most approved form, two modes of breeding 
have been practised ; one, by the selection of individuals 
of the same family, called breeding in-and-in ; the other, 
by selecting males aud females from different varieties 
of the same varieties of the species which is called 
crossing the breed. When a particular variety ap- 
proaches perfection in form, breeding in-and-in may be 
the better practice, especially for those who are not well 
acquainted with the principles on which improvement 
depends. When the male is much larger than 
the female, the offspring is generally of an imperfect 
form. If the female be proportionally larger than the 
male, the offspring is of an improved form : for instance, 
if a well-formed ram be put to ewqs proportionally 
smaller, the lambs will not be so well-shaped as their 
parents ; but if a small ram be put to larger ewes, the 
lambs will be of an improved form. The proper method 
of improving the form of animals consists in selecting 
a well-formed female, proportionally larger than the 
male. The improvement depends on this principle, that 
the power of the female to supply her offspring with - 
nourishment is in proportion to her size, and to the 
power of nourishing herself from the excellence of her 
constitution. The size of the fostus is generally in pro- 
portion to that of the male parent ; and therefore, when 
the female parent is disproportionately small, the quan- 
tity of nourishment is deficient, and her offspring 
has all the disproportions of a starveling. But when 
the female, from her size and good constitution, 
is more than adequate to the nourishment of a 
foetus of a smaller male than herself, the, growth 
must be proportionately greater. The large female 
has also a greater quantity of milk, and her off- 
spring is more abundantly supplied with nourishment 
afterbirth." (P. 7 — 9). The following observations are 
so judicious, and bear with such force on the case men- 
tioned by Mr. Ayres, that I cannot resist transcribing 
them : — 

" It may be proper to improve the form of a 
native race, but at the same time it may be very in- 
judicious to attempt to enlarge their size. The size of 
animals is commonly adapted to the soil which they 
inhabit. Where produce is nutritive and abundant the 
animals are large, having grown proportionally to the 
quantity of food which for generations they have been 
accustomed to obtain. Where the produce is scanty 
the animals are small, being proportioned to the 
quantity of food which they were able to procure. 
Of these contrasts, the sheep of Lincolnshire and of 
Wales are examples. The sheep of Lincolnshire would 
starve on the mountains of Wales. Crossing the breed 
of animals may be attended with bad effects in various 
ways, and that even, when adopted in the beginning, on 
a good principle ; for instance, suppose some larger 
ewes than those of the native breed were taken to the 
mountains of Wales, and put to the rams of that country, 
if these foreign ewes were fed in proportion to their size 
their lambs would be of an improved form, and larger 
in size than the native animals, but the males produced 
by this.cross, though of a good form, would be dispro- 
portionate in size to the native ewes, and, therefore, if 
permitted to mix with them, would be productive of a 
starveling ill-formed progeny. Thus a cross, which at 
first was an improvement, would, by giving occasion to 
a contrary cross, ultimately prejudice the breed. The 
general mistake in crossing has arisen from an attempt 
to increase the size of a native race of animals, being a 
fruitless effort to counteract the laws of nature." (P. 13.) 

A few words on the practice of breeding in and 
in; or, in other words selecting individuals of the 
same family, in contra-distinctton to the system of 
breeding fronrmales and females of different varieties 
of the same species, called crossing the breed. Very 
strong, and apparently plausible objections used to be 
raised against the in-and-in system, and I am free to " 
confess that I was at one time of the number of the 
objectors ; but I have since had reason to think I was 
in error, my chief ground of change in opinion being the 
system pursued by my friends Messrs. J. and T. Brown 
of Denver, in. Norfolk, with which, as a neighbour and 
pretty constant yearly visitor, I bad ample means of 
making myself acquainted. For more than half a 
century has their excellent flock of new Leicesters been 
managed on the in-and-in principle. They let -many 
scores of tups annually, which are justly held in the 
highest repute by every one who has made use of them f 
and yet, strange as some people may think it, Messrs. 
Brown have never on any occasion gone beyond their own 
flock for the purposes of its improvement and renova- 
tion. In fact, it has now arrived at a pitch of perfection 
as to form and blood, as to render recourse to any other 
aid completely unnecessary. I have said thus much on 
the in-and-in system, under judicious management, 
because, though not perhaps immediately connected, 
with the main subject under discussion — the supposed 
improvement of mountain sheep — yet it is indirectly so ; 
and, at all events, is a striking and an authentic proof 
that it may be adopted, not only with impunity, but with 
decided advantage. T., Gloucester, Jan. 4. 



y 



2—1855.1 



'I'll E A G IM 01 l/i i i: A L GA / BTT E. 



. 



EQUIVALKNCY OF STARCH AND MKJAR IN 
FOODS, Bv .1. It. Lawks, Esq,, F.R.8., and Dr. 

J. II. GlLDKR-T, F.C.S. 

{Itlii'l'iiul Amu OIATION, LlVIGIirOOL, 1804.) 

(Suction I! : Read Saturday, September 23rd.) — 
Abstract,.- At the meeting "I tin- Briti li As ociatiou at 
Belfast, the authorfi hnd given a paper on the Composi- 
tion of food in rotation to respiration and the feeding of 
Anon ii in which they had illustrated by referi 111 a to 
numoi'otiM experiments, that, as our current food-stuffs 
go, it wiih Hi" iiiiioiiniH thciy supplied of the assimilable 

won-nilrng mm, rather than those of the nitrogenous 

ConBtitticiiiM, which measured both tlio amount con- 
sumed by a given weight of animal within a given 
time, and the amount of increase obtained from u 
given weight of food. The results which formed the 
subject of tlio present communication afforded further 
illustration of somo of the points brought forward in the 
former one ; but. these now experiments, like tlio former 
ones, Inn! boon arranged with reference to certain prac- 
tical questions, ns well as to iho more soientlfic bearings 
of the subject. Thus, tlio.se interested in the growth of 
sugar hail long wished to obtain Iho introduction of tlio 
lower qualities of that article, for (coding purposes, 
duty free. Tlio subject of the remission of tlio malt 
tax, for the same object, bad also frequently been agi- 
tated. According to tlio results of the experiments — 
numoroiiM tables of which were exhibited in the room, 
and in which the animals (pigs) hud been made to rely 
for about one-third of their total food upon tlio starch 
or sugar employed — it appeared that all but absolutely 
identical animints of tlio dry substance of the starch and 
Sugar thus tried against each other had both been con- 
sumed by u given weight of animal within a given time, 
and been required to yield a given weight of increase. 
The practical identity in feeding value which had from 
the known chemical relation of the two substances been 
hitherto assumed, was now therefore experimentally 
illustrated, and it doubtless only varied in point of fact 
with their slightly varying per centages of carbon. If, 
then, sugar liavo no higher feeding capacity than starch, 
tile relative prices, weight for weight, of sugar, duty 
free, and of the starchy grains generally used for feeding 
purposes, would afford an easy means of estimating the 
probable economy of the use of the former. At the 
price, including duty, of the coarse Peuang sugar used 
in the experiments, it would cost three or four times as 
much as the starchy grains at the present time ; and it 
should be remembered that these would also supply a 
considerable amount of the needed nitrogenous con- 
stituents of food. The new results, so far as they 
could be supposed to apply, considering the difference 
between cane-sugar and the saccharine matter of malt, 
were also consistent with direct exjfcriments published 
by the authors some time since, on the comparative 
feeding values of malted and unmalted grain. It was 
true that malt and other saccharine matters might 
serve in some degree to give a relish to the food, and 
thus induce the animals to consume more ; which, iu 
"fattening," is always a consideration ; but this inci- 
dental benefit could not counterbalance much increased 
cost. Indeed, the tendency of all the experiments was con- 
trary to the conclusion that an extensive use of malt for feed- 
ing purposes would be such a boon as had been supposed. 
The proved practical equivalency of starch and sugar in 
food was also of interest in reference to some other of the 
views illustrated by the authors in their former papers. 
Thus it hud been show n that a fattening animal assimi- 
lated much less nitrogen than had usually been estimated, 
and that, on the other hand, it might store up very 
considerably more fat than existed ready formed iu its 
food ; whilst this produced fat was doubtless in a great 
measure formed from the starchy and saccharine sub- 
Stances which constitute so large a proportion of the 
non-nitrogenous constituents of our staple vegetable 
foods. It was these, too, which in practice served 
largely to meet the requirements of the respiratory 
function, which, it had been shown, under ordinary 
circumstances, measured to such an extent the, amount 
of food demanded by the animal system. 



MODIFICATIONS OF LOIS-WEEDON. 
Some time ago a writer iu the Gazette drew attention 
to the possibility of growing a summer crop iu the 
intervals of the Lois-Weedon .corn tillage ; from a 
failure in such an attempt about 10 years back, I was at 
the time induced to object to this proposition, and this 
writer received my objection in good part and wiih a 
good grace, as I had found that even with an interval 
of 3£ feet the Lettuces introduced had been drawn up 
SO as to be useless ; the rows of Barley were, however, 
extremely rank (the straw 5i feet long). As however 
such an introduction would evidently be so much gain, 
I this year determined to try the success of it on a 
small patch of ground (one-tenth of an acre), in which I 
was growing Wheat on modifications of Mr. Smith's plan ; 
and I conclude on its feasibility with Turnips, Carrots, 
and Parsnips which I have tried, and think it will also 
be found to succeed with Mangold Wurzel, Rape, and 
Open Cabbages, and perhaps with spring Beans, but I 
should think not with close Cabbages or Potatoes, that 
is with intervals of only 3 feet. The Wheat ought to be 
of those kinds having the shorter and stiffer straw ; the 
one I grew was the red-chaffed white, sown after the 
middle of March, and not reaped till September 30th, 
which was against the experiments. On June 15th one 
of the intervals was sown with Sutton's Six-week Tur- 
nips ; at tlie time of reaping some of these were from 
16 inches to 21 inches in circumference ; these are now, 



November 20th, from 20 to 21 inch ■., ■).', if -.. 

each on an average. OnJunc !8rdtlu proximah interval 
was nown with Aberdeen! ; at reaping -'in' ol thi 
from Into 12 inches In circumference ; tin 
inches,and w* igh over 24 lbs. oai li i n 
only received a dusting ox weed aeh< , tlio ground having 
been manured tin- year before, Had thi Wheal been 
autumn-sown, from its earlier removal I 

would probably have been now i, i , . 

also have been i own earlier^ 

Tlio further view I had in iliit: experimental | 
ground was to at certain the effi ■ : ol mi mod 
in Mr. Smith's distances ; I sowed the Wheat in double 
rows, I foot apart, with intervale of '.: feet "mi ol 
.; feet j in treble rows and 8-feet intervals, 
able lo Mr. Smith's plan, and again in double 
rows, 2 feet apart, wiih intervals of 8 feet Thopi 
in the various planH appeared to bi pretty equal on 

equal areas of ground, lor tlio Wheat in double lov.u 

1 loot apart and 2 feet intervals, occupying a breadth 
of .'! feet, gavo an average of -Hi lbs. iii the straw ; add 
to this one-third to bring it to what ought to bo tin- 
produce on a breadth of \ {'net, and it would he fol lbs. ; 
and tho double rows, with 3-fcet intervals, gave an 
average of Go lbs. Add another third to it to bring it 
to what ought to bo a similar produce on a breadth ol 
C feet, and it would bo lit) lbs., and the treble rows, with 
tlio 3-feet intervals, gave 111 lbs., and the double rows, 

2 feet apart, with the 3-feet intervals, gavo !)0 lbs. 

Iu the produce of the grain crop it appears then to 
be very immaterial whether we have, of course under 
certain limiis, the narrower or wider intervals, but that 
we have in tho wider intervals the advantage of an 
interlined green crops. With treble rows 1 foot apart 
there is, however, a great disposition to overlap, and as 
there appears so little difference in the produce between 
them and the double rows occupying the Mime distance 
of 2 feet, the double rows must on this account, as well 
as the superiority of their fallow, and the practicability 
of supporting them by earthing on each side, receive 
the preference ; indeed, I do not know that had the 
Turnips been tried in the intervals of the treble rows 
they would have succeeded so well as they did in the 
intervals in which they were grown, those of the double 
rows at 1 foot apart. 

The intervals of 3 feet maybe eligible for the smaller 
hand-worked plots of the amateur or for labourers' 
allotments, but on a larger scale, as allowing more room 
for working the ground wider intervals may be required, 
say from 3 to 5 feet, and then the corn strips might be 
widened to 3 or 4 feet. And, perhaps, as I have sug- 
gested in a former paper, to permit of the carriage on 
of manure, and off of crops, in narrow draft carts, the 
strips of grain may be profitably farther widened, and 
those of the intervals so as to admit of two rows of 
Turnips, or so many as may be advisable of other 
green crops, without such an extension as would forfeit 
the mutual advantages plants of different composition 
may derive from their proximity. 

I would remark that the strips of Wheat, between** 
which were 'the Turnips, were in no way inferior to the 
adjacent ones; but some care was required in the 
reaping to lay the Wheat lengthways of the strips. 
/. M. Goodiff. 



• caused tin reby, 
who trii 

able lo r< ach the immense prol 

print, though l have certainly n all ■ >i a fair remtmen- 

tion on cro| :-. l i 

into the idea ol making fortune* all 
by Max cm' 

'111 Hill us 

in ol the regl l>n on bi* farm; uM if 

tth part of '..hit- land in the 

was thus regularly under Flax, ire woedd be 

'juiio indepj ndent ol any foreign eupply, and would 

i fibre and Linseed that would if* many 

S benefit ol both the manufacturing 

i interest*, 

As I i, ; to the important profit*, 

I may as well Introduce here some ■tateineoti of tho 
actual cost ol Mux cultivation on my own farm, care- 
fully prepared lor me by my land-Meward ; abv» the 
result of similar exp ■ ■ u about 

Belfast, who took the trout..- ><;; accurate 

at .: — 

No. I. Flax grown on Mr. < barley's farm, one statute 

. , considered an average crop; 

* . -/. 

ploughing lat, lot. Id.; 2nd, It 17 6 

„ '■, ,,| two harrowinga 10 8 

„ t- ireoda o 2 S 

„ narrating seed and rolling i I 

,, weeding * o 

,, )" , and rope* 2 <J 

,, polling o H 

,, rippling and binding 12 8 

ing boll* 012 

„ denning out water pond 12 

„ carting lo water 4 8 

„ pulling in ditto, arid fixing 1 1 

„ lifting out of ditto 1 2 

„ caning to Gross 4 8 

„ spreading 4 4 

„ lifting, binding, stroking 2 8 

„ carting homo 3 8 

„ stacking and thatching ?. 2 

,, c-irting to mill 4 1 

„ ditto back 2 9 

„ scutching 29} stones 1 14 2 

„ seed, 1 barrel 1 5 

„ rent and taxes, 40« 2 



Cr. 



Total expenses on one aero 



£9UU 



By sales, 2»i stones, at St £11 1C 

IWlufor feeding 30 bushels, at Sd. 1 = 12 18 

Profit £3 2 

No. 2. — Flax grown on Mr. Hunter's Farm, at Dun- 
murrv, 1852, above an average crop : — 

Dr. £ u d. 

For rent and taxes, b\ acres (Irish) at 31. 10j, equal to 

about 8 9-10tbs acres statute measure, at 40*. ... 19 5 

For ploughing and preparing ground 13 

For seed 11 

For weeding, pulling, and steeping work, &c 15 

For scutching at mill 14 10 

£72 15 



Cr. 

Ev snles, 32cwt 10 lbs. 
By ditto. 312 cwt. 21 lbs. 



£ 10 17 9 
109 6 0=120 



3 9 



£47 8 S 



FLAX CULTURE IN IRELAND. 

The soil best suited for Flax is a nice dry loam, not 
too light, and yet not of a clayey nature. The land 
should be drained and free from weeds ; much damp 
injures the crop, and a quantity of noxious plants rising 
with the Flax will materially check its perfect 
development. 

In Belgium, Flax is usually sown after Oats, but my 
experience, and that of my neighbours in this climate, 
is decidedly in favour of sowing after Wheat. The 
rotation I should recommend, and what I usually 
practise, is to break up lea grouud in Oats, followed 
next year by Potatoes and Turnips, &e. Fourth year 
Wheat, the one-half laid down with Clover and Grass- 
seeds, Fifth year, Flax (}), Beans (J-), and Clover (J). 
Under this rotation, on a farm of 100 acres, the crops 
would stand thus : — 

Grazing , ... 20 acres. 

Oats 20 ,. 

Potatoes, Turnips, &c 20 „ 

Wheat 20 „ 

Flax (o or so), Clover-hay (10), and Beans (5 or so) 20 ,, 

100 

Of course this rotation is subject to frequent modifica- 
tions, sucli as stealing a crop of Turnips after early- 
Potatoes, and taking vetches of Rape before late 
Turnips. Some people might wish for more Flax and 
others for less ; this cau be varied at discretion, pro- 
vided it does not come oftener than once in 10 years on 
the same soil. It is great folly to put in Flax the 
first year after a Potato crop ; the plant grows too 
rank to thrive, and the farmer besides loses the inter- 
mediate very profitable crop of Wheat, without any 
real benefit to counterbalance the sacrifice. This folly 
is sometimes committed by ignorant farmers who think 
Flax an exhausting crop ; whereas, a little scientific 
knowledge explains that if not grown oftener than once 
in 10 years on the same soil, it is not a severe crop 
among the usual group and in its proper place, but quite 
the reverse. Iu fact, if sown after Wheat, and the 
ground laid down with Clover and Rye-grass, it is really 
an extra crop, grown without manure, and in no way- 
interfering with the Oat crop that usually follows hay 
or grazing. 

Too often the profits of the Flax crop have been 



Profit ... 
being 51. 6s. 7o!. per statute acre. 

No. 3. — Flax grown on Mr. Coates's Farm at Malone, 
1850, a fair crop : — 

Dr. £ t. d. 

To rent of S Irish acres, at 5o, nearly equal to 13 English 

or statute, at 61s. 3d. 40 

To taxes on same 2 9 3 

„ ploughing, preparing ground, and sowing 6 12 S 

„ cost of sowing 19 2 

„ wages for weeding, pulling, and stacking ... ... 15 7 9 

„ rolling, taking off seed, and re-stacking 8 8 

„ commission on sale of seed 10 

„ steeping, spreading, and cartage of Flax, cost ... 7 1 10 
„ To cash paid for scutching at mill 21 12 10 

Cr. £121 7 

By cash received for seed — 

891 bnshls, at 9;. ... £40 5 6 
22" do. kept ... 7 9 
By cash received for inferior seed for cattle 
per flax fibre — 
379 stones of 16 lbs, at 6s 113 14 0=161 8 6 



Profit 



;-:: i -: 



equal to SI. Is. Sd. per statute acre. 

This Malone farm is close to Belfast, and the rent is 
consequently very high for an agriculturist The price 
obtained (6*.) is rather below the average, and shows 
the crop was nothing particular in fineness or quality. 
Mr. Hunter did not save the seed of his crop of Flax, 
but treated it in the old-fashioned manner, which he 
thinks most remunerative. Mr. Coates saved the seed 
for sowing ; while my steward took off the seed for feed- 
ing purposes only. Both these parties are gentlemen of 
high standing and probity, and I am sure furnished per- 
fectly correct accounts o"f their crops and expenses as 
far as they knew, but I think Mr. H- under-escnuued 
his working expenses a little. OomBaaicated by Mr. W, 
S. Sill, of Belfast, to the Journal of the Society of A rU. 



Acreage 



Home Correspondence 



Far 



21. net. — With all 



deference to you, I am firm in my conviction that one 
farm horse consumes the produce of 6 average acres of 
arable land. If yon admit that the cost of a farm 
horse for his weekly keep is lOi or 26?. per annum, the 
case is at once proved, for M'Cnlloeh, Porter, and 
Spackman do not allow more for the average gross pro- 
duce of 1 acre in England and Wales than I stated, and 
Mr. Lavergne in his recent able and comprehensive 
volume on" B British Agriculture" (translated by a 



28 



THE AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE. 



[Jan. 13, 



Scottish liirmer), estimates the gross produce at 200 
francs per hectare (2.} English acres), 3.'. 12s. per 
English acre. This corresponds very nearly with ray 
own estimate made a few years since in a paper I read 
before ihe Society of Arts. A farm horse would thus 
clear 7 acres instead of 6.J, which was my calculation. 
I will not go into the question whether 72s. per acre 
gross produce is creditable to British agriculture in the 
lflth century, although I have a strong opinion about it. 
In a future paper I will again consider the live stock 
question. /. J, Mechi, Dec. 28. [It is a question, we 
admit, not of what ought to be but of what i.*, but then 
if we take acres according to their actual and not ac- 
cording to their possible produce, we must take horses 
not as they ought to be but as they are fed. And 
we don't suppose that on an average farm horses cost 
.nearly 10s. a week apiece for food]. 

Health Commissioners are being established in all 
towns for the express purpose of examining drains, and 
making fresh sewers where required to carry off all 
things offensive either to the eyes or nose — a very 
proper precaution to prevent effluvia from impregnating 
the air, arising from decaying vegetable and auimal 
-Substances so prejudical to life, where in certain states 
of putrefaction. The removal of such nuisances from 
the abodes of the working classes will be a boon to 
them ; but to be permanently useful and decrease the 
amount of cholera, typhus, bowel complaints, &c, &c, a 
better description of habitations must be erected for the 
poor to live in, houses or cottages through which the 
air of heaven may freely circulate, not however through 
the roofs, broken windows, or crazy doors — rooms large 
enough for human beings to sleep in with common 
decency, not dens into which are crammed men, 
women, and children, so closely packed they touch 
each other on th&floor, the dead often coming in contact 
with the living. The poisonous gas which these unfor- 
tunate creatures are doomed to breathe, when crowded 
together, is most disgusting. Not only have the 
labourers and artisans to inhale such a pestiferous atmo- 
sphere after a hard day's work, but they are doomed to 
feed upon unwholesome food in the shape of diseased 
meat, liberally supplied from the country to the large 
towns, where it meets with customers, disguised in 
highly seasoned pies and sausages. The indulgence in 
this gross food leaves on the palate a craving for 
beer and spirits, in themselves anything but pure. 
In addition to all this there is a scanty supply 
of water for the daily purposes of cleanliness 
and cooking. It is evident attention to sewage 
'will not remedy the crying evils, under which thousands 
of industrious men and women are labouring. It must 
be followed up by attention to other matters so inti- 
mately connected with the comforts and respectability 
of the working classes. No wonder drunkenness and 
-debauchery are prevalent when the whole man is debi- 
litated in body and mind by the horrors amongst which 
he is compelled to exist. In many cases he flies to the 
gin palace and beer shop to drown his cares and harden 
his better spirit against the misery he endures. Fre^, 
quently the day chosen for his orgies is that set aparT 
as a day of rest from toil, which should be spent in 
thankfulness for past mercies, as well as supplication 
for future protection and in innocent recreation alter 
the labour of the week. Our deserted churches speak 
volumes for the want of precept and example in parents, 
and watchfulness in pastors. What might not the 
clergy accomplish by a never-ceasing house to house 
visitation, not driving but leading the ignorant, obsti- 
nate, and prejudiced, to a due observance of higher 
things, the only true safeguard against vice and 
wretchedness. Falcon. 

Blood as Manure. — Can any of your correspondents 
state what has been proved to be the best mode of 
applying blood as fresh from a London slaughter-house 
.as a weekly transit into the country will allow ? The 
slaughter-house owner says it is the "only thing he does 
not turn to account," and has offered to collect it, barrel 
it, and cart it to the railway. Will its value bear these 
charges and 30 miles of railway carriage ? The country 
folk do not doubt its being a good thing, but are ter- 
ribly afraid of its imparting all sorts of diseases to the 
live stock and the land itself. To meet this risk, it has 
been proposed to cart it out directly on arrival, and 
plough it into heavy clay land, with a fair proportion of 
lime ; and by March next to have the laud, so manured, 
ready for Parsnips, Globe, Mangold Wurzel, and Kohl 
Rabi, all three of which have been produced upon the 
■same kind of land as large and good as want of manure 
would permit. Is there a cheaper or better way of 
applying it? Simplex. [Your best way of using it is 
either in compost with earth, turned a fortnight before 
"Use on the land, or, as you propose, by direct applica- 
tion to the soil. Dried blood would be worth as much 
as woollen rags, perhaps rather more ; liquid blood may 
be worth six or seven times its weight of good farm- 
dung.] 



Encumbered Estates Court, which places before us facts 
indicating the degrees in which crime and pauperism 
have decreased, loyalty and peace advanced, and agri- 
culture, trade, commerce, and manufactures acquired 
development and expansion, even within the last twelve 
months. From an official report of the Inspectors General 
of Prisons, it appears that the number of gaol prisoners 
throughout Ireland on the 1st January, 1851, was 5,755; 
the number on the 1st January, 1850, having been 
10,907; and in a gradually diminishing series through 
the intermediate years — less by nearly two-sevenths 
than in the past year. Taking Limerick, according to 
Mr. Locke's expression, as "a type" of Ireland — we 
would limit the typical illustration to the most socially 
disorganised portions of the kingdom, for there are many 
counties which have not exhibited political or agrarian 
crime — we have this gratifying record of amendment: — 



County of Limerick. 



Number of Crown witnesses and ) 
prosecutors J 

Number of criminals for trial 

Of these for murder 

In aims, and attacking houses by 1 
night j" 

Cattle stealing 

Highway robbery 



Spring 

Assizes, 

1849. 


Summer 

Assizes, 

1853. 


Sumine 1 

Assizes- 

1854. 


900 


110 


S4 


620 
11 


25 
4 


19 

1 


SO 








63 
20 






1 
1 



" Ribbonism and oifences arising from the competition for 
land have almost disappeared from the face of the country they 
had so long disgraced and rendered insecure ; and it is a gratify- 
ing tact that throughout the vast extent of land, comprising 
2,000,000 acres, which has changed hands under the Encumbered 
Estates commission, only four instances of agrarian crime have 
occurred since the institution of that tribunal. "Whatever be 
the reader's previous impressions or knowledge of the subject, he 
will be astonished and pleased at the extraordinary contrast 
between these two periods (1S49 and 1854) ; nor can any serious 
mind feel otherwise than deeply grateful to an all-merciful 
Providence for preserving Ireland intact from taint of crime and 
disloyalty at the very season when organised disaffection would 
be most perilous to society and the state." 

The tide of emigration is abating, as the necessary 
result of the rushing efflux which various impulsive 
agencies have been forcing onward ; and it is also turning 
its course to British North America, whereas the 
United States and Australia, in a much lesser ratio, had 
principally been the localities to which it had 
previously tended. Yet, though there were betv/een 
25,000 and 26,000 Irish emigrants fewer in the year 
1853 than in 1852, the sum of money remitted in the 
former year by the pioneer colonists for their relatives 
to pay for their passage to the colonies considerably 
exceeded the sum sent in the latter, — the figures being 
for three years : — 



Years. 



1851 
1852 
1S53 



Number of Irish 
Emigrants. 



254.537 
224,997 
199,392 



Honey sent for 
Passage'. i>* 



£ 990,000 
1,404,000 
1,439,000 



Ireland's Recovery ; an Essay. By John Locke, A.B. 
J. H. Parker and Son, 445, West Strand. 
The state of Ireland at present is especially satisfac- 
tory, not only as regards its social improvement, mani- 
fested by the subsidence of political and agrarian 
agitations, but also by decided progress in its agricultural 
condition. Among many unquestionable evidences of 
this twofold amelioration, we have a third publication 
from the useful pen of Mr. Locke, an official in the 



That the individuals who have thus been quickly 
enabled to remit money for the conveyance of their 
friends and relatives to the new locations have been 
benefited by their expatriation is obvious ; and it is 
gratifying to reflect that the succeeding" emigrants have 
gone with hopeful assurances of success, which experi- 
rience we believe has realised. We have, for our own 
parts, no fears that the labour market will be under- 
stocked ; though wages have risen, they are yet far too 
low, and the Irish landowners and land cultivators must 
learn to value the services of the agricultural labourer 
much higher than they even now consieler them. An 
official report declares that the rise is " Is. per week on 
the average ; " we should be better pleased to learn 
that existing wages are doubled on the average. When 
this shall take place, any local want of labourers will 
be supplied from some source or other. " Emigration 
will of necessity continue to withdraw its hundreds of 
thousands annually, until deficiency in the labour market 
compels all employers to raise wages, and landlords to 
lease land on such liberal terms of rent and tenure as 
may induce the working classes from motives of self- 
interest to remain at home. 

Pauperism is of course decreasing rapidly in Ireland. 
" On comparing the number of workhouse inmates for 
the year ending 22d April, 1854, with the previous 
corresponding interval, we find the diminution to be 
nearly 40,000 in each week throughout the series." 
The returns for last year give nearly 400,000 indoor 
and more than 13,000 out-of-door paupers ; and these 
unfortunates were fed at the low average rate of Is. Ad. 
per head weekly. The rates were laid it seems so low 
as to satisfy any reasonable and Christian man who has 
to pay his share :—" The average poundage on the 
current year will probably not exceed Is. 3d. on the 
total Poor-law valuation of the island, which generally 
rates about one-fifth under the letting value."' It is our 
good fortune to pay this year in an English rural district 
more than 5s. in the pound. 

The following information is worthy of deep considera- 
tion in England, where the notion of employing the 
workhouse poor in industrial occupations seems to be 
strangely disliked by the rural magnates. Of the 163 
unions in Ireland, there were only 25 in Sept. 1853in which 
agricultural instruction was not given, and 1070 acres ! 
are attached to the workhouses for the purpose of model 
farms. At that period 3703 boys were uuder agricul- 
tural teaching, 3196 learning trades, and 14,273 girls 
employed in household, useful, and ornamental hand- 
work of various descriptions. It is a subject of con- 
gratulation that during last year upwards of 5000 boys 
and girls under 15 years of age have been taken out of 
the workhouses and put in a way of supporting them- 



selves by their own industry, so highly has risen in public 
estimation the moral and industrial training of the youth 
of the country, even in the very abodes of pauperism. 
We had occasion not long sinco to publish, in some notes 
of a lour by our correspondent Martin Doyle, the very 
favourable return from the agricultural master of the 
Enniscarthy workhouse. Mr. Locke has presented cue 
from the Ballymoney workhouse, in the most northern 
county of Ireland, which shows a large amount of profit 
to the establishment after deduction of about 351. for 
rent and rates. 

" It is a curious fact that this farm, which has been 
cultivated to so good purpose, has been tilled princi- 
pally by the boys before and after school-hours. It 
appears that they are first-rate dirk-men — not a la mili- 
taire — and act as expert attendants on the dairy. When 
sufficiently trained, their services are eagerly sought 
after by the neighbouring farmers, the natural conse- 
quence of the information they are possessed of and the 
good conduct which they evince while in service. In addi- 
tion to the general instruction in farming which the larger 
number receive, there is also a special class of 12 or 14 
who are taught the theory as well as the practice of 
agriculture, five hours being given to the latter and two 
to the former every day ; and lately, with a view to 
promote greater attention to the study in which they 
are engaged, a plot of ground and seeds for green crops 
have been given to each, with a promise that the most 
successful cultivator shall obtain a prize when the har- 
vest comes round." 

We would fain see something of this management in 
our English unions, in which the youthful male inmates 
are so frequently idle altogether, aud therefore medi- 
tating mischief and turbulence, aud keeping the master 
in perpetual irritation or anxiety ; while the superin- 
tendent of the Ballymoney workhouse is allowed by the 
guardians — who fully co-operate in his views — to keep 
every one occupied as he thinks best, and the resul's 
are good order and the acquirement of industrious 
habits. 

The agricultural report generally is very cheering, 
but it is clear that the Irishman of every class clings to 
his Potato with irrepressible tenacity. Turnips, which 
were threatening to beat them out of the field, have, we 
have reason to think, retired a little as the others have 
shown symptoms of returning vigour. In the year 
1853, there were nearly 900,000 acres under Potatoes, 
and about 600,000 under Turnips (400,000) and all other 
roots included. And without a just proportion of 
Turnips for sheep and cattle feeding, Ireland will 
continue backward in agriculture. Both Flax and 
Turnips had much increased in 1853 over 1852. There 
is some falling off in both in the present year, though 
these two are especially suited to the climate and soil of 
Ireland. Flax cultivation is stated to have increased 
500 per cent, since 1848, and of 956 scutch mills erected, 
54 are worked by steam. And Ireland, so anomalous 
in many things, gives an instance of the national charac- 
teristic in the fact, that in the last year she exported 
about 5000 tons of flax (at 58?. per ton), with tow and 
yarn, and imported nearly 9000 tons, at $51. per ton. The 
yarn exported was valued at 105?. per ton, whereas the 
imported (less than that exported) was valued at 1 80Z. per 
ton. This would indicate superior skill elsewhere in the 
spinning of fine yarns, or inferiority in the quality of the 
native raw material itself for the manufacture of some 
of the finer linens. It is gratifying to learn, that if 
spinning by steam has thrown out of employment many 
thousands of hand-spinners, the occupation of 460,000 
females in muslin sewing throughout the kingdom fully 
compensates for the disuse of hands in the former 
labour, which also was less remunerative than the pre- 
sent branch of employment. Mr. Locke reiterates 
his opinion, that peat soils are suitable lor continuous 
green crops, instead of yielding, according to the 
usual rotation, one green crop in four years ; and cal- 
culating that there are 1 1 0,000 acres of peat soil yielding 
one green crop in four years, he estimates that by sub- 
stituting continuous green cropping for the four shift 
system, there would be an increase of upwards of 
5,500,000 tons of green food (16 tons per acre) equiva- 
lent to the support of 580,000 black stock, young and 
old. Sulphates of lime, everywhere obtainable on very 
cheap terms, and in many districts easily formed on the 
spot, by combining sulphuric acid with calcareous earths, 
are, according to communications made to Mr. Locke 
by an agricultural gentleman who has.used this manure, 
certain fertilisers for the purpose. Mr. Irwin informed 
the Commissioners of Public Works that " tracts of bog 
and moor are now (in 1853) considered to yield a larger 
and more speedy return than any other description of 
improvement, as it is found that tracts of wet spoDgy 
bog, which, while unreclaimed, were of merely nominal 
value, can now be let for a single crop at a rent ex- 
ceeding the whole cost of reclamation ; and that by a 
very moderate additional application from time to time 
of clayey and calcareous material they can be profitably 
continued in tillage for any length of time, being, as 
already stated, easily and cheaply cultivated, and being 
also the only lands in which the portable fertilisers can 
be permanently substituted for farm-yard manure. An 
excellent example of this important property of peat- 
soil may be seen in the demesne of Mr. O'Connor, of 
Milton, whose green crops, grown on reclaijmed bog 
without any manure, except a moderate application of 
either guano or superphosphate of lime, now rank among 
the very best in the whole district ; and I am informed 
that on the estate of Lord de Freyne the use of guano 
on an inferior description of reclaimed bog has been 
followed by equally favourable results." Seven thousand 



(in. mm- I 
weather 



2 — 185,5. ] 

livo IiuikIihj'I '"■'•'•» l' iiv " '"''■" thorough 'lruinoil, ut mi 
average cost of M. I'M. per new, which completes a total 
of 158,160 acres drained under the provisions of the 
Land Improvement Act. In tlio inineralogical depart- 
ment there has been an ineroMod activity within ilio 
last three years, though tliu want of cheap carriage from 
the mineral districts in an impediment to tlio develop- 
ment of their treasures. 

As may bu expected, Mr. Locke i>»Ih forward very 
prominently, and, wo think, very fairly, tlio agency ol 
tho Encumbered Estates' Court in producing the present 
prosperous and hopeful state of tli« land interests through 
ovory link <>f tho agricultural chain. Having invited 
consideration to the appendix and tables, which aroao- 
signed to iiHHiHt capitalists in estimating the van. .in , 
circumstances connected with tlio acquisition of land in , Vmu { v 
Scotland, ho tliua expresses hinisolf us to tho working 
of tlio commission. 

« tt has boon brought boforo tlio public again and again, In 

18D0 and mm, tint c ties of ti.ih.av iiml Mayo wore tho in" '.I 

llolMlOHHly Involved, and burnt oivlllsod district!) nl Iriliunl. 
Ni.w, from Mm Halo under tlio commission, an Intorval <.i live 
yon™, 560,000 aoros, oqual to ono-flfth of tho whole avallablo 
nuiiarllcloH of thoHO two counties, Imvo boon sold In lots to 
oolvoiit iiuriibiiHors for a total amount of about l,oi}n,()<Ki(. J bo 
number of proprietors over this surface (Including sub salos by 

ntlvato contraot raudo subsequent to tlio sale undor tho coi i- 

ulon), low boon Inoroasod livu-lbld; ono-thlrd of tho ptireliasors 
nro Unullsh nod Scotch, and mora than one-half of tlm imilru 

number have not oxeondod 20(101. in tbeir rospcctlvo Invest nts. 

Thosn liwi, together with KhrIIsIi, Scotch, and Ulster farmers, 
settled of into years on Glow bay and other districts, forming tho 
nucloilB of a middle ohms in (ho far went. Tims the wealth and 
skilled Industry of our Hiitlah neighbours liavo becomo Indls- 
solubly linked with that part of Ireland farthest removed In 
geographloolT position, hd well as Industrial progress, from tho 
centre of civilisation and Imperial rule." 



Til E Ad It [C Cl/I'i R a I GAZET 



.,., 



II mo- iticatly .....i" comfortabb , »i i > 'Uld tbln 

i i',,.1.-, wUleb ."". scarcely be looked I oi 1 1 I I earl 



season, tlio) * il loonrogaln what tlicy have loot. I 

..,,ii iiiolti red, liavi been Improving latlsfactorll n i villi n« 

In tho re a scare Illy this year, and will. In »" 

IlkelHiood bi vol ■; dosr, Flo ihors complain il I ■■ ' 

ove w,Is cull i" I il with. a. tl 

ii,. . i ....i)' urn., >i 1/ doar, bul I; ill I 

nn/nrlee and hdl n few of our (armors found n Impc 

In their ordinary am it or winter si 

i ,. ..il-.' i. ii ' lo dl , 

hi i, are rivailv more abundanl lfil»ycar,and will, probably, be 

cboauor comparatively than cattle. IntheendofU ■ i on, when 

cattle won I lilsjli prl( , there ires a mi 

n Iforsln ,and,c ioi nil '.notafi em 

,,,.. ' this reason there will be no - 

over in having our Tnrnlps consumed on mort sd mis 
tonus than uual. Qood Turnips .... nos Ii tolling (ronii 

„„ „,,,,,; this, with tlm manure of i lu* p, I i nil " d wi 

ratlvo Wo have lorn; b i In tho lmi.lt of estimating the 

■ui-hio crop as a losing affair; bul wlion eounlln ■ tin i I 
i-iwliiif Turnips, or Iho oxpenso of feeding eatlle, H 
scarcoly Mr to debit the Turnip crop with the whole i 

donning ill" ri I. or tho whole outlay for n in 

other orops In the rotation assist In putting tho land Into 
mate I,, which cleaning becomes Imii |..i. ,ii.i' , -.i ■■ ■ s -«- ■ I urnlpi 

bo grow • not, and as a largo proportion ol tl." manure 

to Hi, ■Tm ii Ipi i v. Id bo needed, and would bo glvi ■ I 

ii,,," bo no Turnips sown. It is, In fact, a recuperative i 

with the oxhsusted Boil, and It is rather i ill to elm 

assistant In tlio operation with the whole expense of tbo needed 
manures and cleansing. 



Calendar of Operations. 



'II r I D '. O N WALK 8, 

MB, I I.I.Mr' 
MA' i' 1 !. WAI/K8, ' Ol ■ 

A."., man lectured 

. ■ Uihad. 

I'll 1. 1 .. ,n JO'i feet 

to in b i 

11 In. I In. by H In. . I' 

raize* to 29 In. by 18 In Vti. „ 

charged 2» each, and returnable a' I 

■ i , i. WHITE OL.ASS, Ci n an 
. rah . British and Patent PUU, tec, tie. White I....-J, oil., 
, .. VtMktwn A »««, i 
i ilUineld. 

CLCSS FOR CONSERVATORIES', ETC. 

HIII.I.V ,■•. (0. supply I'.-oz. .'-III. 1.1 SLAM, 
ol British Meirafaetare, at prices TerrfBi, tram td.tetd. 
r«foot,for thaoaoal sizes rw ^ud fwt 

ol which are k.-|ii rsady packed for ImmedlaUdi 

i. of Prices and Estimate* forwarded on applkai 
PATENT ROUGH 1'I.VII .1 IIICI 
TILEB and . sTEII PIPED. PBOPAO 

■., Ol igfl MII.K I 

ORNAMENTAL WINDOW OLA88, and OLAM BUADE», 
to Jaw ii, ■ . ■ ■ ■'!• 

Oardmerg* Oht h»t In <-iuM nonih. 



JANUARY. 
FoRVARSinnu SlbSS.— When tho harvest lias been favourably 
concluded tn proper season, the two last months of tho year have 
generally Httlo that is interesting in the retrospect. Those just 
past havo"motoovologically been characterised by extreme fickle- 
ness. Ono could almost believe that wo donizens of tbo hills 
wore placed In a debatable territory, alternately in possession of 
the storm spirits of tlio north and the gentle zephyrs of the sunny 
sputh. Ono hour we aro congratulating each other upon tlio singu- 
lar mildness of the day, and the next have to retreat before a borean 
blast nioro impetuous and more irresistible than a charge of Bus- 
Blan cavalry. The autumn has, upon the whole, been favourablo 
for agricultural operations ; suow has only paid flying visits, and 
frosts, although sometimes severe, have been of short duration, 
and less than the usual quantity of rain has fallen. Ploughing 
has becu pushed forward at all seasonable periods, and threshing 
grain, storing roots, &c, have filled up the intervals. The flocks 
havo been healthy during the autumn, and wore never in better 
condition at Christmas; they arc all now divided and sent to 
winter quarters. Cattle havo had plenty of sweet straw and fresh 
roots, and aro progressing satisfactorily, and until Mr. Mechi's 
" Fourth Paper'' appeared were expected. " to pay ; " but as many 
hero are more accustomed to produce before the public a well-fed 
ox than a correct balance-sheet, they feel the Tiptree dictum to 
he rather a stunner. Mr. Mcchi is worthy of all admiration 
for the energy lie has displayed as an agriculturist, ami much 
benefit will no doubt be derived from his published experience 
both as a signal of what must be avoided as well as an example 
of what may safely bo followed. Before publishing his next 
paper he must learn to reason more correctly, and not jump at 
ouce to \a general conclusion from a few isolated facts. If he 
should say that livo stock at Tiptree don't pay, nobody would 
dispute with him ; but even in that case, if his languago is not 
misinterpreted, bis farm pays better with livo stock than it would 
without them : if they do not pay immediately in a direct return 
of cash, they would seem to do so indirectly in an increased pro- 
duction of com, and, therefore, ought not to be denounced as au 
unprofitable speculation. It is not easy to ascertain exactly what 
Mr. Mechi means by " live stock." In his own practice he seems 
to purchase loan stock and dispose of it when fattened, and if his 
experience goes no further, ho is ungenerous in bringing a 
general charge of unprofitableness against the whole beeve tribes 
in every stage of their existence, and under every system of 
management. The Loudon cow-feeders pay him a rattling price 
for bis Mangolds, and it is to be presumed they at the same time 
make a living by cow-feeding. Many families in Scotland are 
supported solely by the profits of live stock, which is a sufficient 
answer to the general question, as far at least as the northern 
part of the kingdom is concerned. Different varieties of slock 
require different modes of treatment; the black-faced breed of 
sheep will produce first-class mutton on pastures where South- 
downs or Leicesters would starve, and Angus, Aberdeenshire, 
and the other Highland breeds of cattle in like maimer can be 
brought to perfection on food that may be unsuitable for fattening 
the more delicate varieties. A feeder of stock is a manufacturer 
of butcher meat, and if he regards Iris success must take care 
that tlio raw material used does not exceed the proper propor- 
tional value of tho manufactured article. What would be thought 
of a paper-maker who should insist upon using Flax instead of old 
ropes, rags, &c, as his raw material, and on finding bis balance 
on the wrong side of the sheet should turn round and tell the 

world that paper-making "don't pay?" The corn crops arc 

not threshing out liberally; in general the produce is not in 
proportion to tho bulk of straw ; but this arises less from a want 
of com than from a superabundance of fodder. The continued 
high price of produce has increased the price of farms as well as 
the number of would-be farmers. Inexperienced hands will 
doubtless find themselves in the wrong box when prices return by 
tbo down train, as doubtless they will at some period, especially 
those who allow themselves to be bound to a fixed rotation of 
cropping during the currency of a lease. A 19 years' lease is a 
good thing ; but a fixed rotation, be it what it may, is a very bad 
thing, both for landlord and tenant. The object of a fixed rotation 
is Ito prevent the tenant from wearing out his farm by over- 
cropping, and so reducing its value, which, if the tenant be a bad 
one, it generally fails to do. The landlord's interest, would be 
better served by providing by the terms of the lease that the farm 
should be left in a certain specified state at its expiry, leaving the 
tenant at full liberty to adopt the most approved systems of 
culture during its currency, and his success would be the best 
guarantee that the farm should keep both its character and its 
price in the market. Confine a man to a stereotyped system, and 
you soon stereotype bis ideas of farming, and place a most 
effectual barrier to his progress. S. 

Westbr Ross, /an. S. — After a month of uncommonly wet and 
stormy weather, we have now had a week particularly fine, mild 
and serene. Wheat, for the last few days, has been making rapid 
progress; tho earlier sown is looking thick and healthy; the 
later sown, which, from the colduess and dampness of the soil, 
was long of brairding, is now coming up vigorously. Out-door 
work, whichjwas much retarded foi|some time, is now comfortably 
proceeded with. The lot for green crop has been well nigh 
turned over ; a pretty large proportion of lea has been ploughed 
tor Oats, and manure has been carted for Barlcv, Potatoes, 
Turnips, &c. Sheep on Turnips find themselves again with 



Miscellaneous. 
Agricultural Statistics. — As tlio present experimi ntal 
collection of agricultural statistics will probably load to 
a moro extensive inquiry, tho following particulars 
will (J ho interesting :— The West Hiding of York- 
shire is one of the counties selected for the present trial, 
and it is satisfactory to state that tlio investigation gone- 
rally is being met in nn intelligent spirit by the tenant- 
farmers, nml in all probability but for the nonconfor- 
mity of some leading occupiers, the number of dissidents 
would have been much less than it is. The staff cm- 
ployed by the statistical committee of the Doncaster 
board of guardians have just completed their labours, 
and we find out of 1673 schedules delivered to the far- 
mers within the union 14110 have been filled up by occu- 
piers, 183 by the enumerators, and only 10 left blank. 
The union in question comprises 53 parishes, within a 
radius of 10 miles round Doncaster, and a population, 
according to the last census, of 33,65.5 souls. The 
extent of the union is 98,982 acres, of which 48,320 are 
under tillage— viz. (in round numbers), Wheat, 17,029 
acres; Barley, 10,061 ; Oats, 2258 ; Rye, 512 ; Beans and 
Peas, 2742 ; Vetches, 416 ; Turnips, 10,162 ; Mangold, 
117; Carrots, 8; Potatoes, 1,048 ; Flax, 15 ; other crops, 
such as cabbages, &c, 333 ; bare fallow, 3,615. There 
are 37,917 acres of Grass land, including 12,389 acres of 
Clover, Lucerne,and other artificial Grasses; and 25,528 
acres of permanent pasture. The number of acres oc- 
cupied by houses, gardens, roads, fences, &c, is 1869 ; 
and 383 acres of waste attached to farms. Woods and 
plantations extend over 6301 acres ; commons belonging 
to parishes, 1159 acres; small holdings of less than 
two acres, 617 acres; and there are 2415 acres unac- 
counted for. The numbers of live stock in the union on 
the 1st of July, 1854, were as follows :— Horses, 3806 ; 
colts, 969 ; milch cows, 2879 ; calves, 2787 ; other 
cattle, including working oxen, 4065 ; tups, 728 ; ewes, 
20,044 ; lambs, 23,290 ; other sheep, 10,756 ; swine, 6735. 
It is obvious that an important item is still wanting — 
namely, the acreage produce of grain, but this is an in- 
quiry "too delicate to press at present. The opinion of 
the farmers of the district in question is, upon the whole, 
favourable to the project of agricultural statistics, and 
would be much more so if they were fully assured that 
their landlords had no means of access to their returns 
— a security which the temporary machinery employed 
does not afford, as ex officio guardians are generally 
landlords. Times, Friday. 



CLASS FOR CONSlRVATORtE*. 

'T'HOMAS M1LMNGTON' 
-L 



r, in, by •! la. to8ln.br ■'■: in. ... 

13 '■ 

8! byflj ■ H <> 

i by 1'ij ... 

VI IB 



r-it. 



A (,-r Particulars bad on spplieal 

»•» plan, iir 
whom I I ■ II ' leek 

Largo Bheel i lor cutting up. in own. at 2J-i. and Sd.fl ■ 
HARTLEY'S imii -H PLATEOI 

and Rongh Plate, Tiles, Milk ['am, ISee and PropoirallneOlaw**. 
Wasp Traps Cucumber TuIkh, Preserve Jars, with and wltb'«t 
I 
i fiei i, Crown, and Ornamental Window Glaaa. Cry«Ul 

for ornaments. 
Greenhouses, erected Id cither wood or iron. Garden Lights 
ami Frames. 

, . 1 1 bopsgate Street Without, London— same side as Eastern- 

Counijca Railway . , 

"CLASS FOR CONSERVATORIES, CREENHOUSES, 

PIT FRAMES, ETC. 
AMES PHILLIPS amd Co. have the pleasure to- 
hand their present prices of Glass for Cash : — 

SHEET SQOAEES. CROWS SQUAfir..- 

In Boxes of 100 feeL In Boies of I 

Under 6 bv 4 £0 12s. ftf. ... 

6 by 4, and 6H by 4i 
5, — 7* „ 61 \ 



.! 



13 
IS 



12 

li 



10 



„ 6£j '" 
9 '„ 7, —10' „ H, 12 by 9, ] 
12 by 10, 14 by 10 J 
Larger Sizes, not exccetiiDg 40 inches 1 
16 oz. from 3d. to Z\d. per square foot, according to size. 
21 oz. „ A\d. to 5d. „ „ „ 

26 oz. „ G.7. tn7t\d. „ 

SIXTEEN-OUNCE SUEET GLASS OF EXGLISH MANU- 
FACTURE 'FOR ORCHARD HOUSES, TtTB SAKE OJC AIJTT 
as -n'F, supply to Mr. Ritees, and of various dimensions, alwayi 
on band, 
Double^iro^n GI&S3 of various dimensions in 100 feet boxes. 
Glass Tiles, J of an inch thick, packed in cases, containing 50. 
at XI. 17s. 6d. per case. Packages 2s. each extra, bat allowed for 
when returned. 

Glass Milk Pans, 21/. per dozen; Propagating and Bee Gla«e«?. 
Cncnmber Tubes, Lactometers, Lord Caraoys' Milk B 
Wasp Traps; Plate, Crown, and Ornamental Glass, Shades for 
Ornaments, Fern Shades, and everr article in the trade. 
Horticultural Glass Warehouse, 116. Eishopsgate Street 

Without, London- _^^___^_^__ 



Notices to Correspondents. 

Hoksk FLEsn : Taffy, The hones, &c, which you hare found 
will do perfectly to make a superphosphate of with sulphuric 
acid. They- must first be broken, torn, or ground, to a coarse 
powder. As to your pigeon dung, we would mix it with turf 
ashes, and drill it in with your Turnips; half a ton per acre 
will show itself on the crop. 

Italian Rye-grass: T P. Sow 35 to 40 lbs. per acre broadcast 
on a loamy soil when it is damp, and brush it in with light 
seed harrows towards the end of April. This will ensure you 
good food in autumn of the same year, and an abundant crop in 
the following season. If sown after a green crop as Turnips 
pulled, it will not ueed manure. Or it may be sown about two 
bushels per acre with a crop of Barley, just as other Grass seeds. 
— J JV" N. Sow it any time in April or May; or again after 
harvest, provided the land i-i moist and with a sufficient tilth. 

Italian Rye-Grass and Liquid Manure: J. Mackenzie, M.D. 
Dr. Kirkpatrick's experiments were detailed in the report of 
Mr. Hamilton's paper, given in one of the November numbers 
of the Agricultural Gazette. "We will endeavour to draw up 
such a statement as you propose of the actual manuring of Mr. 
Telfer's land. 

Linseed: Simplex. "English Liuseed." le~ the Flax crop, is 
of easy and profitable cultivation. Paper-makers caunot afford 
to give the price per acre for it that linen manufacturers will— 
and so while it is perfectly possible to make paper of the 
Linseed fibre before converting it into linen and then to rags, 
yet it is not likely to he done.— Cato. If you us 
or straw chaff, we should prefer Linseed to Linseed cake. Boil 
the meal into a thin mucilage or soup: put plenty of salt, and 
throw it over the cut chaff. 

Small Fakm : H G. The answer to your question taken literally 
is—" Lay it all down to Grass." But we imagine that you have 
not fully stated your case. You must tell ns how much 
permanent Grass yon have in the 100 acres, and also give an 
idea, whether by stating the rent or otherwise, of the quality of 
the land. 

Tisie for Applying Manure : Young Farmer. Apply manures of 
slow solubility in autumn, and of rapid solubility in spring. 
Thus, we would apply farm-yard manure, whether to Grass 
land or to arable (if we had it), in autumn, either to pastures or 
ploughed in with the stubbles. Guano we would put over our 
Wheat in February and March, and nitrate of soda at intervals 

\ in March aod April. 



GREEN AND HOT-HOUSES made by machinery, 
at J. LEWIS'S HoETicuLTURAL Works, Stamford Hill. 
Middlesex. Sent to all parts of the United Kingdom. Theae 
buildings are warranted of the best materials, and pat together 
in a superior manner. Being manufactured by steam-power, they 
are considered the cheapest and best made in England. The 
Trade and Merchants supplied at wholesale prices. List ; 
Prices by enclosing two postage stamps. 



HORTICULTURE 
IN ALL 




ITS 

BRANCHES. 



JOHN" WEEKS & Co.. King's Road, Chelsea, 




HOTHOUSE BUILDERS. 
HE XOBTLITY and GENTRY about to erect Hor- 
ticultural Buildings, or fix Hot-water Apparatus, -sill find 
at our Horticultural Establish- 



T I 




"i^cs _r:-:,:.:. _ 




ment and Hothouse Works, 
King's Boad, Chelsea, an exten- 
sive variety ofHothouses, Green- 
houses, Conservatories, Pits, &c^ 
erected, and in full operation, 
combining all modern improve- 
ments, so that a lady or gentleman can select ihe descr 

i House best adapted for everr required pnr] 

1 The HOT-WATEP. APPAPaATUS. 

! the Houses and Pits, 

: affording both top 

| and bottom best, is 

j in constant opera- ppr 

; ticnand particuiarly 
plenty of hay worthy of attention. 

Many of the Houses and Pits are of wide and lofty dimensions 
and together equal in length 1000 feet. They axe all efftctnally 
heated by one. boiler, which, during the severe winter months. 
does not cost in labour and fuel ^ ««_ 
more than Bs. Si per day. and >^ 
the apparatus is so arranged lUMiUllaillll 
that each House or Pit may be 
heated separately and to the 
required temperature. The 
splendid collections of Stove 

and Greenhouse Plants are also in the highest state of culti- 
vation, and for sale at very low prices. Also a Sue collection 
of strong Grape Vines in pots, from eyes, all the best sorts. 

Plans, Models, and Estimates of Horticulniral Buildings; also 
Catalogues oi Plants, Vines, Seeds. <fcc~, forwarded on application 
to Johx Wezss s Co., King's Kosd, Chelsea. London. 




30 



THE AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE. 



[Jan. 13, 



GODFREY'S BLACK SPINE. 

Splesdid and Prolific Frame CrcuitBER. 

WOOD and INGRAM beg to offer seeds of the 
above beautiful variety. Colour, magnificent dark green, 
with a very fine bloom; average length, IS to 21 inches, and 
produces in great abundance through an entire season. Packets, 
containing 12 seeds, 2s. 6d. ; 6 ditto, Is. 6d. 

W. & I. will be happy to refer any persons wishing further 
information respecting the variety to three or four Noblemen and 
Gentlemens' Gardeners who have grown it, and prefer it to any 
Other. 

London Agents : Messrs. Hcest & M'Mullex, 6, Leadcnhall 
Street. 

"W. & I. have also the following esteemed varieties to offer, in 
packets, Is. each, containing 12 seeds 



Sion House 
Barnes's Fearnought 
"Walker's Prolific 
Constantino's Incomparable. 



Sagg's Royal Exhibition 
Conqueror of the "West 
Improved Sion House 
Manchester Hero. 



Huntingdon Nurseries, January 13. 



K PARKER begs to offer the following: — 
• CINERARIAS (Seedlings), from all the finest varieties, 
carefully selected, including the new varieties sent out last autumn. 
Strong established plants, in 4-inch pots, at 45. per dozen. A 
choice collection of named Cinerarias in strong established 
plants, purchaser's selection, at 9s. per dozen. 

ROSES, consisting of the best varieties of Hybrid Perpeluals, 
Teas, Bonrbons, &c, well established in pots. Purchaser's selec- 
tion, at 125. per dozen. List of names forwarded upon application. 
A remittance or reference to accompany all orders from 
unknown correspondents. 

• Paradise Nursery, Hornsey Road, Islington. 

NOW'S SUPERB BROCCOLI.— Every seed new 
and true. Sealed packet, Is. ; per oz., 3s, ; pound bags for 
the trade on liberal terms. 

GLENNY'S IMPROVED BALSAM.— Unequalled for size, 
donbleness, and colour ; 6 classes, 3s. ; mixed, Is. ; sealed packets 
with culture. 

DOUBLE HOLLYHOCKS from noble flowers. Sealed 
packet, Is, 

, Stamps or P.O. orders to George Glennt, Horticultural agent, 
Dungannon House, Fulham. Sales, valuations, &c, attended; 
Ground Laid Out, Rockwork, Ornamental Water, &c, planned 
and executed. 

FLEMING'S HYBRID CASHMERE MELON.— 
The above new Melon was raised by Mr. Fleming at Tren- 
tham, and exhibited by him for the first time at the Great 
Meeting of the Horticultural Society of London at Chiswick on 
the 10th June last against a multitude of competitors, when it 
was awarded the first prize, and pronounced by the judges to be 
very far superior to all others produced, and decidedly the best 
Melon known. The entire Stock is in the hands of the under- 
signed. Packets of Six Seeds, 2s. Gd.; of 15 do., 5s. 

R. GLENDINNING, Chiswick Nursery, London. 



PYRAMIDAL PEAR TREES ON QUINCE STOCKS. 

J and J. FRASER have to offer a very fine collection 
• of the best varieties of PEARS grafted on the Quince; 
descriptive Catalogues of which may be had on application. 
In offering these Pears, grafted on the Quince stock, we would 
wish particularly to call attention to their many excellent 
qualities. They are very compact in growth, and most prolific in 
bearing, fruiting profusely while the trees are small ; thus form- 
ing a great acquisition for a small garden. Planted by the side 
of walks, in addition to their utility, they add much to the neat- 
ness and beauty of a kitchen garden. Indeed too much can 
scarcely be said in favour of these miniature Pear trees ; as a 
proof of their merit the demand for them is yearly increasing. 
Strong Trees, showing Fruit Buds, 2s. Gd. to 3s. Gd. each. 
Lea Bridge Road, Essex, January 13. 

TO GENTLEMEN ENCAGED IN PLANTING, 

WATERER and GODFREY respectfully invite 
attention to their stock of the following very desirable 
HARDY PLANTS. 



Araucaria imbricata, from 2 to 
7 feet high; as handsome as 
plants can be. 
Cedrus Deodara, in any quan- 
tity, from 1 to 3 feet high 
Do. do., 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 
feet high ; splendid plants 
Cedars of Lebanon, 3, 4, 6, and 

10 feet high 
Pinus Douglasi, 3 to 10 feet 
„ insignis, 2 to 7 feet 
„ Menziesi, 3 to 7 feet 
„ Pinsapo, fine plants, 3 to 

6 feet 
„ Nordmanniana, 1£ to 3 ft., 
all from seed and remark- 
ably handsome 
„ nobilis, 14 to 2 feet; a few 
larger, 5 and 6 feet high, on 
their own roots, and with 
perfect leaders 
„ Montezumse, 2 to 4 feet 



Pinus canadensis, 3 to 8 feet 
Cupressus macrocarpa or Lam- 
hertiana, 4 to 7 feet 
,, thyoides variegata, 3 to 
4 feet (the variegated white 
Cedar) 
Juniperus, Upright Irish,perfect 
columns, 3 to 7 feet 
„ chinensis, 2 to 8 feet 
Yew, common Englisb,3 to 8 feet 
„ Irish, 4 to 10 feet 
„ gold-striped, 14 to 3 feet 
„ do., tall standards, 4 to 7 ft. 
„ Dovaston, or Weeping, 
worked on tall straight 
stems 
Thuja aurea, the finest plants in 

the country 
Libocedrus chilensis, the finest 

plants in the country 
Large variegated Hollies 
Standard Bays 



Also an immense stock of large Evergreens, Standard Orna- 
mental Trees, &c. 

Alt the plants here offered may be 6een growing in our 
Nursery ; they are removed every year, and will travel any 
distance with perfect safety. Of some, such as Araucarias, 
Deodaras, Golden Yews, Thuja aurea, Pinus nobilis, Nord- 
manniana, we have any quantity ; and the plants, for root and 
branch, are not to be surpassed. Priced Catalogues will be for- 
warded on application, enclosing two postage stamps, to Waterer 
and Godfrey, nephews and successors of the late Hosea Waterer, 
Knap Hill Nursery, "Woking, Surrey, near the Woking Station, 
South-Western Railway, where all trains stop, and where capital 
conveyances can be obtained. 

The 2d. stamp will also include a descriptive Catalogue of their 
American Plants, Roses, and Nursery 3tock in general. 



RENDLE'S COMPLETE COLLECTIONS OF 
KITCHEN GARDEN SEEDS are now ready. 
Tliey can be had to suit various jized Gardens at the 
following prices : — 

No. 1 COLLECTION £3 

„ 2 „ 2 

„ 3 „ 15 

„ 4 „ 15 

The quantities are fully detailed in their " Price Current and 
Garden Directory," a new edition of which is just published. 
William E. Rendle & Co., Seed Growers, Plymouth. 
Established 68 Years. 



SUTTON'S COMPLETE COLLECT IO NS> 
CARRIAGE FREE. 

PARTICULARS of the SORTS and QUANTITIES Con- 
tained in SUTTON'S COLLECTIONS of SEEDS will be sent 
post free on receipt of a stamped envelope with address. 

By the perusal of this List, it will be seen that the very 
best hinds of Vegetable Seeds may be obtained in full 
quantities, and proper proportions for one year's supply 
of a large garden for the sum of 31., and other complete 
Collections of equally choice sorts for smaller Gardens at 
21., 1/. os., and 15s. The economy of cost is by no means the 
only advantage gained by ordering one of these Collections. 
Address, John Sutton & Sons, Seed Growers, Reading. 



CRAPE VINES FROM EYES. 

R GLENDINNING has a large Stock of the under- 
• mentioned Vines, extra strong in pots, with well ripened 
wood, 5 ft. and upwards in the canes. Some of the kinds are new, 
and which have been proved and found of first-rate quality : — 



Black Hamburgh 
The Pope's Hamburgh 
Wilmot's Hamburgh 
Mill Hill Hamburgh 
Victoria Hamburgh 
Barnes's Muscat 
Reeves's Muscadine 
Raisin de Calabre 
"White Frontignan 
Grizzly Frontignan 
Black Frontignan 



Cabul 
Gromier du Cantal 
Welbeck Tripoli 
Grove End Sweetwater 
Pitmaston White Cluster 
Chasselas Mnsque" 
Black Barbarossa 
Muscat non de jura 
Chasselas de Fontainebleau 
Royal Muscadine 
Large White Sweetwater 



p HARLWOOD and CUMMINS nave to offer Seeds 
W of the LILIUM GIGANTEUM in packets of 100 Seeds, at 
20s., free by post. Also Acorns of the following varieties of 
American Oaks : — 

Quercus alba \ 

., Banisteri I L „ „, 

„ obtusiloba j per quart 2s. 6d. 

„ nigra ) 

One-year's Seedliug Plants of each ... per 100 ... 3s. Od. 

Abies Pinsapo per 100 seeds 85. Od. 

They will also have in time for this Season's sowing Seed of 
the Osage Orange, at 4.s. per lb., for which early orders are soli- 
cited. Their Catalogue of Agricultural, Garden, and Flower 
Seeds are ready, and will be sent free on application. 
14, Tavistock Row, Covent Garden. 

ILLIAM BARRATT, Landscape Gardener, 
Wakefield. 
*** Plans and Estimates furnished. 



w 



Chiswick Nursery, London. 



SELECT PEAR TREES. 
The following extract from the " Miniature Fruit Garden" 
is a list of 24 fine varieties of PEARS that succeed well on the 
Quince Stock, and form handsome pyramids and bushes, I'ipening 
in succession from July till April and May. 

Pears for Pyramids, 2s. each. 



Doyenne" d'Ete" 
Colmar d'Ete" 
Baronne de Mello 
Louise Bonne of Jersey 
Alexandre Lambre" 
Beurre* d'Aremberg 



Beurre 1 Sterkman 
Zepliirin Gregoire 
Winter Nelis 
Bergamotte d'Eaperen 
Beurre d'Anjou 
Prevost 



The above form veiy handsome pyramids, they have been 
carefully pinched in, so that they are well furnished with young 
branches down their stems, most of them have blossom buds, and 
will bear this season. 

Pears for bushes, 2s. each. 



Alexandre Bivort 

Beurre d'Amanlis 

„ Diel 

„ Langelier 

„ Wetteren 

Marechal de la Cour 



Melon de Namur 

Onondaga 

Nouveau Polteau 

Grosse Calebasse(C. Carafou) 

Doyenne" Boussoch 

Rousselon (Esperen) 



The above nearly all bear large fruit, and when grown as 
bushes are well adapted for gardens exposed to the wind ; they 
bear profusely and require scarcely any care in pruning ; the 
trees offered are mostly full of blossom buds, and will bear this 
season. A Descriptive Catalogue of Fruits sent for four stamps, 
the cost of postage. Carriage paid to London. 

THOMAS RIVERS, Nurseries, Sawbridgeworth. 



SUTTON'S GRASS SEEDS (Carriage Free). 
NATURAL GRASS SEEDS FOR PERMANENT 
PASTURES, separate or mixed, expressly to suit the soil, 
— Messrs. Sdttox and Sons having for many yfars paid 
especial attention to the examination of Natural Pastures, and 
the collecting of the Grasses which thrive in the various soils of 
Great Britain and Ireland, are enabled to supply the sorts and 
quantities of Seeds, varied to suit the soil lor which they are 
intended. The cost will vary from 24s. to 30s. per acre, 
according to the sorts and quantities the soil requires. 

FINE LAWN GRASS SEEDS, for making New or improving 
Old Lawns, price Is. per pound, 2s. Gd. per gallon, or 20s. 
per bushel. For forming new Lawns, 2\ bushels, or 50 lbs., is 
the quantity required per acre. 

FINE GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS FOR IMPROVING 
OLD PASTURES (Sutton's Renovating Mixiure). Quantity 
required per acre, 8 lbs. to 12 lbs. price 9d. per lb. 

N.B. It will be seen above that we have greatly reduced the 
prices of our Grass Seeds this season, especially the fine Lawn 
Seeds and ''Sutton's Renovating Mixture" (or improving 
Meadows and Pastures ; and we doubt not that our liberal charges 
will induce a more general practice of sowing our superior kinds 
of Grass Seeds. 

Sutton & Sons, Seed Growers, Reading, Berks. 



SUPERB LATE WHITE BROCCOLI-" EMPEROR." 

EP. DIXON having purchased the entire stock 
• of the above Broccoli of Messrs. Elletsons, Market Gar- 
deners, Thorngumbald, near Hull, begs to announce that be is 
prepared to send it out in sealed packets at 2s. Gd. each. This 
Broccoli has been raised by the Messrs. Elletsons, the raisers of 
the Mammoth, sent out some time ago, who state that the 
EMPEROR, if sown at the same time, will come into use before 
it. Is of very dwarf growth, perfectly hardy, with heads from 
15 lbs. to 20 lbs. weight; keeps its colour, and stands firm three 
weeks after it is ready to cut. A noble flower, and commands the 
best price of any other in the Hull market, where it is well 
known, and will be a great acquisition to the market gardeners 
around London, as well as those who wish for a first-rate 
Broccoli. 

PURE MAMMOTH BROCCOLI.— Numerous applications 
having been made to Messrs. Elletsons last season for Seed of the 
Pure Mammoth Broccoli, they determined to allow a fiat to stand 
for Seed, carefully selected from the original 6tock, producing 
heads from IS lbs. to 25 lbs. each. E. P. D, having purchased the 
stock of this celebrated Broccoli, is prepared to send it out in 
kets at 2s. Gd. each. 

Each may be had of Messrs. Noble, Coopee, & Bolton, 152, 
Fleet Street ; and Messrs. Hurst & M'Mttllen, 6, Leadenhall 
Street, London. Also of the Advertiser, 57, Queen Street, Hull. 



LANDSCAPE GARDENER AND GARDEN ARCHITECT.' 

ft/I R. W. DAVIDSON is about concluding his 
E engagement with Sir Wm. F. F. Middleton, Bart., of 
Shrubland Park, in consequence of the completion of extensive 
alterations on which he has been tin- re employed ; and respect- 
fully tenders his services in the above capacities to noblemen 
and gentlemen, and the public generally, in Laying-out or Im- 
proving Gardens, Grounds, Parks, Cemeteries, Arboretnms, &c. * 

Mr. D. feels strongly the importance of the opportunities he 
has had of maturing his taste for natural arrangement and 
artistic design under Sir William and Lady Middleton, and 
appeals with confidence to Shrubland for examples of bis practical 
and scientific knowledge as a civil engineer in directing the 
satisfactory and economical execution of the various works. He 
begs to mention further that his practical experience enables him 
to offer advice upon all matters connected with a garden, both 
structural and cultural. 

Mr. D. is kindly permitted to refer to Sir Wm. Middleton, 
Bart., of Shrubland Park, Ipswich; Sir Charles Barry, West- 
minster; Dr. Lindley, and many others who are pleased to 
consider him worthy of their patronage and recommendation. 

Shrubland Park, Ipswich. — Jan. 13. 

TENTS, MARQUEES, and RICK CLOTHS.— 
Now on Sale, several second-hand Rick Cloths, Marquees, 
and Tents, of various sizes. Some of the Mnrquees are well 
adapted for Horticultural Societies. One 50 feet bv 30, price 35Z.; 
one 70 feet by 30, 50?. ; and one 100 feet by 30, 65". These are 
almost new, and quite ready for use. Small tents for the Wars 
or Emigrants, weighing 12 lbs., price 25s. each, new and waterproof. 
Small Tents for Gardens, 301. each. — K- Richardson, 21,' 
Tonbridge Place, New Road, London. 



HOLCUS SACCHARATUS, 

OR CHINESE SUGAR CANE. 

(See Gardeners' Chronicle, Dec. 30th, 1854.) 

MR. JOHN HENDERSON, formerly of the firm 
of John A. Henderson & Co., Pine Apple Place, London, 
has the hononr to announce that he is prepared to supply Gentle- 
men, Amateurs, and Professionals, with seed of this most valuable 
and estimable plant. 

As the Dioscorea Batatas seems well adapted to make good any 
deficiency arising from failure in the Potato crops, so thi3 appears 
admirably calculated tomeeimany wants of the present day. That 
it may be used for the purposes of distillation, and -may therefore 
preserve the grain of the country, is not less certain than that 
the leaf and stem (after the saccharine matter has been extracted) 
contain a large amount of fibre, of such a nature aa can be em- 
ployed in the manufacture of every kind of paper. In both these 
points, as well as in many others, this plant demands the atten- 
tion of every Gardener and Amateur throughout the country; 
the more so as from the necessity that at present exists for the 
production of fibres that may be used in pap^r manufacture a due 
remuneration may be fairly expected by growers, even after the 
plant has, so to speak, paid itself by the saccharine matter 
extracted from it. . 

Mr. Henderson hopes, in a few days, to have ready for the 
press a more lengthened account of this plant, as well as a com- 
plete statement of the latest experiments in connection with the 
Dioscorea Batatas. As there are many varieties of the Holcua 
W. J. H. can only be responsible for seed forwarded by himself, 
which he is prepared to do in sealed packets, at Is., 2s. Gd., bs., 
and 10s., according to quantity. 

Orders to be accompanied with a remittance to Mr. John 
Henderson, Kingskerswell, Newton Abbot, South Devon. 
P.S. Price to the Trade can be had on application, 



BLOSSOM of FRUIT TREES. — WORSTED 
NET to effectually protect the blossom of wall fruit trees 
from frost and blight, and the ripe, fruit afterwards from wasps 
and flies. Id. per square yard, in various widths. All kinds of 
garden, fishing, and sheep nets, made by machinery, and at very 
low prices.— R. Richardson, 21, Tonbridge Place, New Road, 
King's Cross, London. 



TO PARENTS AND GUARDIANS.— The return 
of youth to the respective boarding-schools induces a 
solicitude for their personal comfort and attraction. Now it is 
that ROWLANDS' MACASSAR OIL, for accelerating the 
growth and for improving and beautifying the hair, ROWLANDS' 
KALYDOR, for improving the skin and complexion, and 
removing cutaneous eruptions, and ROWLANDS' ODONTO, or 
Pearl Dentrifice, for rendering the teeth beautifully white and 
preserving the gums, are considered indispensable accompani- 
ments for the attainment of those personal advantages so 
universally sought for and admired. Beware of Spurious 
Imitations. The only Genuine of each bears the name of Row- 
lands' preceding that of the article on the wrapper or label. — 
Sold by A. Rowland and Sons, 20, Hatton Garden, London, and 
by Chemists and Perfumers. 

DO YOU WANT LUXURIANT HAIR, 
WHISKERS, &c? If so, ELLEN GRAHAM'S NIOU- 
K.RENE is unfailing in its efficacy. It reproduces the hair when 
lost by disease or decay, prevents its falling off, effectually checks 
greyness, strengthens weak hair, and is guaranteed to produce 
Whiskers, Moustachios, &c, in three or four weeks. For 1 beauti- 
fying the hair, and sustaining its curling powers, it has no 
equal. Sent post free on receipt of 24 penny post stamps, by 
Miss Graham, 10, Chichester Place, King's Cross, London. ''My 
whiskers are greatly improved." J. Short, Dudley. — "It has 
produced hair where I was bald." W. Morgan, Milford. — "My 
hair has thickened since using it." Miss Cowie, Bridgewater.— 
'I have a full pair of whiskers." H. Robb, Hertford. — "It has 
'effectually checked the greyness." Mrs. Hood, Dorking. 



DO YOU WANT LUXURIANT HAIR, 
WHISKERS, &c.? — No other compound for the Hair 
has maintained such an enduring celebrity as Emily Dean's 
CRINILENE. It is guaranteed to produce Whiskers, Mous- 
tachios, Eyebrows, &c, in a few weeks, and restore the Hair in 
Baldness, from whatever cause, strengthen it when weak,prevent 
its falling off, and effectually check Greyness in all its stages. 
For the nursery, Dr. Wilson says it is unrivalled. — Price 2s. per 
Package (elegantly perfumed) ; sent post free, on receipt of 
24 penny postage stamps, by Miss Dean, 37 a, Manchester 
Street, Gray's Inn Road, London, Sold by every Chemist in 
the Kingdom. — "In one fortnight it produced a beautiful set of 
moustachios." H.Adams.— "It has prevented my hair falling 
off." J. Hickson. — "It has quite checked the greyness that waa 
coming on." Mrs. Elder. 



DO YOU WANT BEAUTIFUL HAIR, 
WHISKERS, &c? — COUPELLE'S CRINUTRIAR, 
though extensively imitated, is universally acknowledged as the 
only preparation to be really depended upon for the unfailing pro- 
duction of Hair and Whiskers in two or three weeks; as also 
checking Greyness, Baldness, &c, and rendering the Hair 
beautifully luxuriant, curly and glossy. Mr. Williams, 8, 
Lowther Street, Liverpool. — "I can now show as fine a head of 
hair as any person, solely from using your Crinutriar." Sergeant 
Craven, Longford Barracks, Ireland. — "Through using your 
Crinutriar, I have an excellent Moustache, which I had before 
despaired of." Mrs. Carter, Pangbourne, Beiks. — "My head, 
which was quite bald, is now covered with new hair." Price 2s. 
per package, through all Druggists and Perfumers, or sent post 
free on receipt of 24 penny stamps by Ro3alib Coutellb, 
69, Castle Street, Newman Street, Oxford Street, London. 

DO YOU WANT BEAUTIFUL HAIR, 
WHISKERS, &c.?— If so, use PALMAPILLA, declared 
by thousands of testimonials to be magical in its effects. In all 
cases of baldness it is a certain remedy, causing a thick and 
luxuriant growth, strengthening weak hair, preventingits falling 
off, and checking greyness in all its stages. For the production 
of Whiskers and Moustaches in two or three weeks, it has never 
been known to fail. Price 2s., sent post free (anywhere) on 
receipt of 24 penny postage stamps by Miss Alice Melville, 25, 
Argyle Square, King's Cross, London. — "I was quite bald, but 
have now a good bead of hair." Wm. Bopton. — "My whiskers 
are growing very thick." It. Mede, Esq. — " It restored my hair, 
which I had lost in patches." IF. Sturt.—" It has quite checked 
the greyness." MisaSUis. — "My moustache is greatly improved." 
Copt. £0S3. 



2—1855.] 



Til E AGRICULTURE L GAZ KTTi;. 



3] 



NOTICE. 

OVER-COATS, CAPES, &c.— One of the largeet 
HtocltH In London of ovory description, flrst-cln.nn garmontu, 
at lowest cbargos; also of youth's ditto, all made thoroughly [m- 
norvioN'i to rafii, without, extra charge, or made to ordorul a davit' 

nntlr.i< VV. ItKiti.-uc, IHI, New HuimI HlrwW, mid li'.t, Coinhlll fonly), 

FOKh'S EUREKA COLOURED KMIKTJNO in 
novr ready, In 200 different patterns, Bpoclmcns in varied 

colon )7i (lent, pout frrn on receipt of nix MlampH. 

FORD'S COLOURED EUREKA SHIRTS, Six for 27*. 

FORD'S WHITE EUREKAS, boHt oualUy, Six for 40*.; 
socowl quality, Hix for Biff. ; If waMhod ready for use, 2a, extra. 

Caution. — Ford's Eureka Shirts are stamped, "88, Poi i rnv, 
London," without which none are genuine. 

*, y Catalogues with particulars post frno. 

Riohaiii) Food, 08, Poultry, London. 

FURNISH YOUR HOUSE with tub BEST 
ARTICLES at DEANE'S [RONMONaanY and Font*] in a 
WAiii'iM»iii,i.;i(. Established a.o, 1700. A Priced Furnishing 
List, free by post, jmcanjc, Diiav & Co. (Oponlng to Mm Monu- 

m.mf.l London ltrldr<\ 

AT Mil. MKCI1I/S ESTABLISHMENT, I, l.emlen 
hall Street, London, are exhibited the finest spoclmonn of 
Hrltlsli Manufactures in DnsMslnj: <!»noti, Work-box t'B, Writing 
CaBOB, I tremdiiK H»K h p and other articles of ill ill ty or luxury nil 

able (or presentation. A separate department for Papier Madid 
Manufiictincn and Bagatollo Tables. Table Cutlury, Razors, 
Scissors, Penknives, Strops, Pasto. &c, as usual. (Shipping 
orders azeontod for meronants and captains, An extensive 

HllKiU'hlH-lll. nl' Mil pi Tl« il' II n I r mill ntlior I '.II I Ml 1 1 "1 I'm' Mil' Tnilt'l. 

OT-AIR, GAS, VESTA, JOYCE'S STOVES. 
STOVES for the economical and Bafo boating of hallo, 
shopH, wandioiiKOH, paNHiiRcH, basements, and the llko, being at 
this season demanded, WILLIAM S. BURTON Invites attention 

to his unrivalled assortment, adapted (oneortl ther)to eveiy 

concoivablo requirement, at prloos IVom 10*. to 80 guineas. His 
■varloty of register and other stoves Is tho largest in existence. 

THE PERFECT SUBSTITUTE for SILVER.— 
Tho real NICKEL SILVER, Introduced 20 years ago by 
William S. Buhton, when Plated by the patent process of Messrs. 
Blklngton & Co., Is beyond all comparison the very best, article 

next to Hli'i'lini; silver that can he employed hh such, elthi-r use- 
fully or elementally, as by no possible test can It bo distinguished 
from real silver, Thrond or 

Fiddle Brunswick 
Pattern. Pattern. 

Tea Spoons, per dozen 18s. ... 2Gs. 

Dossort Forks „ 30s. ... 40s. 

Dem-ert SpoonB ,, 30s. ... 42s. 

Tab lo Forks „ 40s. ... 56s. 

Table Spoons „ 40s. ... 58s. 

Tea and Coffeo Sets, Waiters, Candlesticks, &c, at proportionate 
prices. All kinds of replating done by the patent process. 

CHEMICALLY PURE NICKEL, NOT PLATED. . 
Fiddle. Thread. King's. 
Table Spoons and Forks, full size, per doz. 12s. . 

Dessert ditto and ditto 10s. 

Tea ditto 5s. , 

CUTLERY WARRANTED.— The 
assortment of TABLE CUTLERY in 
warranted, is on Sale at William S. Burton's, at prices 
that are remunerative only because of the largeness of the sales ; 
3^-inch tvory-handled tablo knives, with high shoulders, lis. 
per dozen; desserts to match, 10s. ; if to balance, Is. per doaen 
extra ; carvers, 4s. per pair ; larger sizes, from 14s. Gd. to 26s. per 
dozen; extra fine, ivory, 32s.; if with silver ferrules, 37s. to 50s. ; 
white bone tablo knives, 7s. Gd. per dozen; desserts, 5s. 6rf.; 
carvers, 2s. 3d. per pair; black horn table knives, 7s. 4d. per 
dozen; desserts, 6s.; carvers, 2s. Gd. ; black wood-handled table 
knives and forks, 6s. per dozen ; table steels, from Is. each. The 
largest stock in existence of plated dessert knives and forks, in 
cases and otherwise, and of the new plated fish carvers. Also a 
large assortment of Razors, Penknives, Scissors, &c, of the 
best Quality. 

William S. Burton has TEN LARGE SHOW ROOMS 
devoted to the show of GENERAL FURNISHING IRON- 
MONGERY (including Cutlery, Nickel Silver, Plated and 
Japanned Wares, Iron and Brass Bedsteads and Bedding), so 
arranged and classified that purchasers may easily and at ouce 
make their selections. 

Catalogues, with engravings, sent (per post) free. The money 
returned for every article not approved of. 

No. 39, Oxford Street (corner of Newmnn Street); Nos. 1, 2, 
and 8. Newman Street; and 4 & 5, Perry's Place. 

T"~HE COMFORT of a FIXED WATER-CLOSET 
FOR 11. — Places in gardens converted into comfortable water- 
closets by the PATENT HERMETICALLY SEALED PAN, 
with it^ self-acting valve, entirely preventing the return of cold 
air or effluvia. Any carpenter can fix it in two hours. Price 11. 
Hermetically-sealed Inodorous Chamber Commodes, IL, 21. 4s., 
and St.; also Improved Portable Water-closets, with pump, 
cistern, and self-acting valve. A prospectus, with engravings, 
forwarded by enclosing two postage stamps. — At Fyfk & Co.'s 
Sanatorium, 46. Leicester Square, London. 



King's 
Pattern. 
.. S2s. 
.. 4.6a. 
, 48s. 
,. 64s. 
66s. 



. 28s. 

. 2U. 

Us. 


... 80s. 
... 25s. 
... 12s. 


roost 
the w 


varied 
arid , nil 



1\/1 ETCALFE and CO'S NEW PATTERN TOOTH 
I" BRUSH, PENETRATING HAIR BRUSHES, AND 
SMYRNA SPONGES.— The Tooth Brush performs the highly- 
important office of searching thoroughly into the divisions and 
cleansing in the most extraordinary manner— hairs never come 
loose. Peculiarly penetrating Hair Brushes, with durable un- 
bleached Russian bristles, which will not soften like common 
hair, and immense stock of genuine unbleached Smyrna Sponge, 
with every description of British and Foreign Perfumery, at 
Metcalfe, Bingley, & Co.'s only Establishment, 130 b and 131, 
Oxford Street, second and third doors west from Holies Street. 

Caution. — Bewtfre of the word " from " Metcalfe's, adopted by 
eome houses. Metcalfe's Alkaline Tooth Powder, 2s. per box. 

rpHE CONSERVATIVE LAND SOCIETY.— The 
J- OLD FORD ESTATE, in the Parish of St. Mary, 
STRATFORD-LE-BOW, Middlesex, within the Boroueh of the 
Tower Hamlets.— This valuable Estate will be ALLOTTED at 
the Offices, No. 33, Norfolk Street, Strand, London, on WED- 
NESDAY, the 24th of January. The Old Ford Estate has a 
frontage on the Old Ford and Bethnal Green Roads, a frontage 
to a new road on one side, and a footpath called the Old Roman 
Road on the other. It is within 200 yards of Victoria Park, and 
not far from Sir George Duckett's Canal, It is about one quarter 
of a mile from the station of tho Eastern Counties Railroad, and 
three quarters of a mile from Bow Church. Building operations 
have been going on for some time in the vicinity of the Estate, 
and as fast as the houses are built they are inhabited. The 
Chelsea and Bethnal Green omnibuses run 12 times per day as 
far as the Estate, at 4d. fare to the Bank. The allotment of tho 
land is divided into one plot of 1000/.; four of 150?. each; one of 
200/.; three of 100/. each; three of 90/. each ; 15 at 75/ each; and 
160 plots of 30/. each. For information as to Rights of Choice on 
the Estate npply to Cn.Mii.F.s Lewis Qrusetsen, Secretary. 

to gentlemen gardeners. 

TO BE LET, with immediate possession, a FLORIST, 
FRUITERER'S, and GREENGROCER'S BUSINESS, 
situated by a main road, and in a business neighbourhood, where 
a good jobbing business might be done, and within five miles of 
Covi-nt harden Market.— Apply to S. II., No, 4, Westcroft Place. 
Hammersmith, 



A MOST DESIRABLE FARM. 

TO BE LET, tub FARM on BUDL15, in tl.« 
* Pari fib of Ban Imrgl 
Ai rod or tin reaboul . 'J ithc fn ". fo in li a Ton 
may bo agreed on, with or wlthoul an >■ collenl and < 
Maimlou Houno, and I and »lth Undid Ifarboui 

from which duofi nro t'ueoived, and al o Clranarli ll 
Nantly ftltuatod In tho richest pari ol the County: tin ■ 
Land and pari ol tho Old Cfm i* are of nuporior anility, then li 
nl o ii portion 'i u mi ini . i a »ld< Gmi L ind LI 
quality may ba burned al D mall co il on tin I arm, 1 o an Indo 
pondont Qcntloman, winning to farm, ihi 
n bio, the 1 1 on i bi Ida pit i antly ultu iUtd 
"i Hoi ford l tatlon and Hamburgh Church; tnoreoi li i Shooting 
can alflo bo had, 

1 iffor ■ will bo roi ' Ivod till ■'• ry 18th, III i, by O. 

Kiiq., of Mlllluld inn, VVoolcr, from whom further Infoi 

i had. A plan will bo round with Mr. Jon I 
donor, who will show tin Form >ftlflo] 11111,13 

'B'O BE I.KT, A PLOT OF LAND, ivitii - 
*■ fool lit I cm and advantagOH for converting Into 
Qrounds, encloflod with long trlch wallfi. pari well planted 
trees. Baautlful watt r for I rort I cultural p 
also Meadow Land with Farm Buildings, and a good re idence 
'. allngthi III ii road, Situate near a fli il i In 1 1 i ill i i 
in Horls the county of Roses and Orchid*.— Apply, it by (otter, 
posl paid, to J . Hindma! n, 7, Jew In Crescent, London. 

TO GARDENERS, FLORISTS, NURSERYMEN Z> OTHERS. 

r |M> BE LET, on Lease or otherwise, and entered 
i upon at Lady-Day next, a PARCEL of lank, containing 
about nine acres, adjoining tho Railway Station, Ath 
Warwickshire) Bltuatod In the Township of Whlttlngton, in tho 
parish i >i Grendon, and having thereon a LARG i. ;-;r.\ "; ROOl 
iPROP m; A PING HOI SE, lOd reol long h> 84 feci br< 
also a SPAN ROOF PINERY, planted with well-select) 
over live comfortable COTTAGES and OTHER BUILD] IG 
on tho ground floor, being 121 feet long by 21 feet broad. The 

Land i:< I oimilr.l <>u 1 1 1«- nnn side by a Constantly rnnnin 

into ono part, ol' which tin ■ vn l.f a nact ol' the town o| A tber- 

atone discharges Itself, and when required in conveyed by pipes to 
tho propngating bouse. The situation presents a deslrabli 
tunity to a scientific and well informed Gardener, the roinminiira- 
tion being easy with London, Liverpool, and all the provincial 
towns. Tho price of coals moderate, and which tire within ayery 
short distance, tf desired the buildings will be let with a part 
only of the Lund.— Applications to be made to the Rev. I 
POWER, Grammar School, Atherstone, or to Mr. John Baebb, 
Land A gent, Ac. of the sam e glace -Athe rstono, Jan. 1855. 

r j "O I'.r. SOLD, al aboul hall price, a f A TENT 
-L CONSERVATORY — a Great Bargain — on account of 
making alterations; now standing in front of E. Dcnch's Patent 
Hothouse Works, King's Road, Chelsea. 

jV| li. JOHN FAIKLIK, Cheveley Park, Newmarket, 
-LtX is prepared to supply EGGS from his various Stocks of 
Prize Poultry, at 15s. per Dozen , includin g Box. 

DORKINGS.— A few BIRDS from the stockof an 
Amateur, whose Birds have this year taken prizes at 
Lincoln, Nelson, Birmingham, Kendal and Manchester. — Also 
during the season, a few SETTINGS of EGGS from the Prize 
Birds, at 10s. Qd. per dozen, including package. — Apply to R. 
Atkinson, Singleton Park, Kendal. 



LAND DRAINACK. 

MK. BAILEY DENT' ( c T 

Ma. i:Aii,L. A ■ , ' AfL . 

J/. JO*. ■ 't VTW* 



i 



IIOBTK i i. 'I i i:.'. I. TB IDI <■ i ■!■■;■ , 

■ 11.(1. 

ivu* Mill II 
COMPLETION Or 

DEN. 

* ' ' Tim . . ".(,0 hi-.-, 
I :■'., . now | 

compiled 

U. I7« ' 
'•'■ 
TABLES ON CATTLE, HAY, 



' - ' Thoft 



A 



I 
NKW SE1 0\ 



■ 
i ■ 

no* addi l 
■ ' 

i price Qd, 

■ . 
OTKACMAiWS TABLES o D ,, with 



*• mputing the 
iUy la 

■ 






Bdlnbn 
and l o. 



;,. London: Bmncnr, Mauhaix, 



HpO BE SOLD, BUFF COCHIN CHICKENS, from 

-■- first class Prize Birds, BrahmaPootraChickens.fromimported 
American Prize Birds, and Spanish Chickens. Also some very 
good one-year-old Birds of the above descriptions. Wire, Game, 
and Poultry Netting, Poultry Hurdles, lien-houses, Chicken 
Coops, Flower Stands, and Trainers, Garden Arches, and every 
kind of Wire "Work, useful and ornamental. — T. H. Fox's, City 
of London "Wire Works,*!-!, Skinner Street, and 6&8, Snow Hill. 
Illustrated Catalogues forwarded post free. 



■Saig g fag Suct ion, 

FANCY POULTRY.— PERIODICAL SALE. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS will Sell by Auction, at his 
Great Room, 3S, King Street, Covent Garden, on 
TUESDAY, 16th January, at 12 o'clock precisely, DORKING 
FOWLS, of the choicest quality, which have taken prizes at 
Colchester, Bury, Winchester, Surrey Gardens, &c, &c, from the 
yards of T. Dutton, Esq., of Streatham, and the Rev. F. Thursby, 
of Abingdon; Pure Aylesbury Ducks. White Embden Geese, 
Coloured and White Dorkings and Brabmas, from Mr. W. K. 
Breavington, of Hounslow; and many capital Cochins, Spangled 
Hamburgh^, Polands, and Bantams, from Mr. Eason.'Mrs. Fookes, 
and others.— Catalogues by enclosing a stamped directed envelope 
to Mr. J. C. Stevens, 3S, King Street, Covent Garden. 



« pORTY-FIVE VK.M rHK I LOV. 

* by <r. C; ,.;;.. Sfo, \"lll RTERLY EC- 

VIEW op DORTH i L*l l RE Unow publUliiDK, with 16p4CCi 
of the al • ■■. nid Id other ai .Tip*. 

GLENN! 'ti I '>Mi'A »IO - lBDEN 

ALMA NACES will appear as Boon a* the Portrait 1% completed, 
price I*.,or by Poit : 

G. Cox, 18, King Street, Covent Garden , an d all BoolaieUerf. 
PLACE OR W A ■ 
Bee this Qoeatiox aj 

ZADKIEL'S ALMANAC i rice Sd. ; the 

42d thonsand now • . 
N.B. The Companion to Zadkfel'fl Ainu 56, li'.hs 

Portrait of the Author, price Gd. ; pnbliibed by l'i?zz&Co., 
23, Paternoster Row. 

GEORGE MILLS' TREATISE on the CULTURE 
of the CUCUMBER, MELON, BE UCAXE . *D ASPA- 
RAGUS, will be sent free by post on the receipt ol Zt.Oi.in 
postage stamps. 

"The details are given with accuracy, and the language used 
is clear and intelligible to all; a person ignorant of gardening - 
may grow either Melons or Cucumbers with the assistance of ill. 
Mills' Book." — Part of Dr. LindUy'$ Hevvnc. 

Gbobge Mills, Uxbridge Road, Ealinp, Middlesex. 

GEORGE MILLS' TREATISE on the CULTURE 
of the PINE will be sent free by post on the receipt of 
25. Qd. in postage stamps. 

" There is no mystery here, no preposterous mixture of oil 
manner of unmentionable substances called a compost; no 
crotchety schemes for rendering the building dear or unmonage.- 
able ; no ignorant recommendation of operations to which 
reason in the first instance and experience afterward* ore alike 
opposed. The foundation of the author's succe-s is common 
sense." — Part of Dr. Dudley's Rtvicv:. 

George Mills, Uxbridge Road, Ealing, Sliddlesex. 



L 'ILLUSTRATION HORTICULE ; Published by 
A. VERSCHAFFELT, Nuesebtmas, Ghent (Belgium). 
A. Veisschattelt begs to announce that t''.? Fij-tt Xuailer of 
the Second Volume of his work is just out, and contains : — 



Souerila Margaritacea 
Achimenes Ambroise 

schaflfelt 
Tydaea Warscewiczi 



Fuchsia Queen 

., Prince Albert 
I 
Maximilians Regis. 



COCHIN CHINA FOWLS. 
jV/jj R. J. C. STEVENS begs to notify that he has 
i *-« received instructions from Thomas Sturgeon, Esq., of 
Grays, to announce for Sale by Auction, at his Great Room, SS, 
King Street, Covent Garden, on TUESDAY, 23d Manuary, at 
12 o'clock precisely, a selection of COCHIN CHINA FOWLS 
consisting entirely of first-class birds. •»• This is the only old 
and known strain of Buffs now in the hands of the original 
breeder. Mr. Sturgeon has bred them with rare care and judg- 
ment for many years, no second-rate bird has been bred from, 
and they are unrivalled in their combination of form, size, and 
colour. Up to 1S52 they were the winners of all the best prizes 
at Birmingham, Cheltenham, Winchester, &c, and were never 
beaten, since which they have nut been shown till within the last 
few weeks, when they took the Silver Vase and 1st Prize at Man- 
chester, — May be viewed the morning of sale, Catalogues, by 
enclosing a stamped directed envelope, to Mr. J. C. Stevens, 
38, King Street, Covent Garden. 



Consignment ehusi Ghent for Absolute Sale. 
TO GENTLEMEN, NURS£RYI\UN, AND OTHERS. 

MESSRS. PKOTHEKOK and MORRIS are in- 
structed by Mons. A. VanGeert, of Ghent, to sell by Auction, 
at the Mart, Bartholomew Lane, on FRIDAY, January 26th. 1S55, 
at 12 o'clock, about 500 fine Double Camellias, and 500 Indian and 
Ghent Azaleas, consisting of all the approved kinds, well setwith 
bloom buds ; also new Ghent hardy free-blooming Rhododendrons, 
of the finest colours, from the deepest red to the purest white; 
about 400 Standard Roses, including aU the leading kinds; with 
four magnificent Sweet Bays. i£c— May be viewed the morning of 
Sale; Catalogues had at the Mart, and of the Auctioneers, 
American Nursery, Leytonstone, Essex. 

""bromptom PARK NURSERY. 
To Gentlemen, Nurserymen, Builders, and Others. 
]\/J ESSRS. PROTHELOE and MORRIS will submit 
*■* * to an unreserved Sale by Auction, on the premises, the 
Brompton Park Nursery, Brompton, near the* 1 Hoop and Toy," 
on MONDAY, January 22d, at 11 o'clock, by order of the Royal 
Commissioners for the Exhibition of 1S51, in consequence of the 
land being required for the formation of new roads, a portion of 
the valuable S'ock growing on the above celebrated Nursery, 
consisting of FRUIT TREES and EVERGREENS, comprising 
Standard and Dwarf trained and untrained Apple, Pear. Plum, 
Peach, Nectarine, Apricot, Cherry, a quantity of Tines, Clematis, 
and Ivies in pots, Rhubarb, &c— May bo viewed three cays prior 
to the Sale, Catnl f*m s may be had of the principal Seedsmen 
in London, and of the Auctioneers, American Nursery, Leyton- 
stone, Essex. 



LILLUSTRATION HORTICOLE can be obtained and is 
to be seen at Mr. R. Silberrai/?, 5, Harp Lane, Great Tcwer 
Street, London. Price Ticdvc Shillings a Tear. 

RENDLE'S PRICE CURRENT and GARDEX 
i DIRECTORY for 18.55, ici'h Newspaper Stump 

to go Free by Post, is note pubiulud. 

The proprietors of this well-known Pubhcation have endea- 
voured, in the present edition, to render it even more complete 
than the last; and have again obtained the valuable assistance 
of Mr. Robert Errington, Gardener to Sir P. Egerton, Oulton 
Park, who is acknowledged to be one of the best practical writers 
on Horticulture of the day. 

It will contain a very valuable descriptive list of KITCHXK 
GARDEN SEEDS, with prices afSxed to every article, and ia 
addition to the descriptions, there will be short and concise cultural 
remarks for every kind of Vegetable, pointing out the best 
varieties for earlv. medium, and teueral c: 

The List of FLOWER SEEDS has been much improved, and 
contains descriptions of aU the leac- 
sowing seeds, and other useful practical remark - 
department Mr. ErrinErton has written expresslv for G 
an original article on ANNUAL Ayr> OTHER FLOWER 
SEEDS, which will be read with much interest. 

» I .lendab of Opebattons for the whole of the year has 
also been revised, and wiU be found even more useful than tie 
one in the last edition. 

There will be a good Garden ALMANACK as usual, and the 
detailed quantities of seeds contained in their nsefal CO ELEC- 
TIONS OF SEEDS are given in full. 

A valuable report of the experiments in their i eiax GBtKnsT e 
is also siven, and descriptions of the NEWLY INV 
CLOCHE, or Hand Glass, and of the new CHINESE POTATO 
[DIOSOOBEA Batata?;. The foil - : r.r -^s hxve 

also been written expresslv bv Mr. Errington— >n v^GETAELE 
FORCING. LIGHT AND" AIR. LIQUID 3£ANUR1 
ROTATION OF CROPS. And i:: 

proprietors have been favoured with - | -per by J . E. 

Lawes. Esq., of Rothamstead Park:— "On the Ait 
Mantres host Suttakle foe tee lt ~ 

At the request of severed correspondents the Publishers 

ha ve printed thepra: ' te ^ of the u Gardeners' 

Chronicle," so that U -'"' it can hind il vrith the 

volume of thai valuable Paper. It contains 

32 folio Pages, u Ckrovti . : . 

Copies can" be procured, price Sd. each, or free to purchasers of 
seeds; and can be obtained through the medium of any book- 
seller in the United Kingdom, from the 

LONDON PUBLISHING OFFICE. 294, STBAXD; 
Or from the Proprietors William E. Bfisuu & Co, Seed 
Merchant?. Plymouth. 



3.2 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE AND AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE. [Jan. 13. 



HORTICULTURAL BUILDING 



HEATING BY HOT WATER, 



AT THE LOWEST PRICES 

CONSISTENT, WITH .GOOD 

MATERIALS &&WORKMANSHIP. 




GRAY & ORMSON, DANVERS STREET, CHELSEA, 



("1 RAY and ORMSOM, Danvers Street, Chelsea, having had considerable ex- 
X perience in the construction of Horticultural Erections, which, for elegance of 
design, good materials, and workmanship, combined with economy and practical 
adaptation, cannot be surpassed by anything of the kind in the country, are in a 
position to execute orders on the lowest possible terms. 



G. & 0. have been extensively employed by the Nobility, Gentry, and London 
Nurserymen ; and they can with the greatest confidence give the most satisfactory 
references to all by whom they have been favoured with orders. Their Hot-water 
Apparatus is also constructed on the most approved and scientific principles, for all 
purposes to which the application of Heating by Hot Water can be made available. 



COTTAM'S NEW PATENT FOR STABLE REQUISITES. 




COTTAM and HALLEN, the original projectors 
of the above arrangement of MANGER, RACK, and 
WATER-TROUGH, as one Fixture, which obtained the Great 
Exhibition Prize Medal, and universally approved of, have added 
all the latest improvements to their invention (secured by patent), 
which includes an entirely new method of attaching the halter, 
ball, and rein, giving to the horse greater freedom, and being 
noiseless in their operation, add much to its comfort whilst feed- 
ing and convenience when at rest. 

COTTAM'S ENAMELLED MAUGESS 

are constructed in the best possible manner, both as to form and 
utility, are clcaolv in appearance, durable and impervious to 
infection; manufactured PLAIN, GALVAKISED, or ENA- 
MELLED. 



Improved 
Harness 



Stable Guttering, with moveable safety covers, Sanitary Traps, Stable Pumps, Double Comer Mangers, 
room Appendages, and every article in Stable Furniture. Chaff Cutters and Cat Bruisers, kept on sho2v, 

A STALL fitted up, complete, exhibited at tlie Crystal Palace, Sydenham, Stand No. IB, Agricultural Department ; and at 



IMPROVED PUMPS, 

OF. THE BEST WOBKMANSHJP AND WARRANTED. 

The VALVES and SUCKERS of these Pumps 
are constructed upon an entirely new and 
SIMPLE principle ; they are not likely to 
get out of order ; should they do so, can easily 
be repaired, as the Pump is so contrived that 
the valves can readily be got at. 

An Improved CAST IRON TRAP, strongly 
recommended by the Sanitary Commissioners, 
and suitable for Sugar Bakers, Slaughter 
Houses, &c. &c. It is so formed that the 
Trap-plate will pass any matter the top grating 
will let through, and therefore is not liable 
to stoppages; and well adapted to Stables and 
Stable-yards, for saving the best part of Liquid 
Manure. 




COTTAM & HALLEN'S WORKS, 2, Winsley Street, Oxford Street, London. 

WARMING and VENTILATING.— Descriptive Catalogues and Estimates on application. 



BAYIB FERGUSON, landscape Gardener and Contracting" Planter, 

TN FORMS the public that he grows a LARGE STOCK of TREES and SHRUBS for the purpose of enabling bim to Charge Low, and give at once Present Effect, 
-*- when carrying out his plans, which is of consequence to those who prefer having the Benefit of Shady Walks, Glades, and Recesses of their own planting, in place of the mixed Milk and 
"Wateh System of planting frequently met with for the benefit of Grandchildren - . 

As D. F. has More LAURELS than would crown the Heads of all the Heroes and Cowards in Europe, be will be happv to part with them on Low Terms for Cash; also NEW DOUBLE 
PINK and SINGLE CRIMSON THORNS, YEWS, PORTUGAL LAURELS, BERBERIS AQUIFOLIUM, &c, &c. AUCUBAS, CEDltUS DEODARA, Standard and Dn-arf Budded GEANT 
T>E3 BATAILLES, and dther ROSES, &c. If the LAURELS are taken by the Ten, Treaty, Fifty, or Oxe Hundred Thousand, they will be sold at a price that will soon Save their Cost in 
Labour. My Plan is to lav them in very close together as under cover, giving at once a good ground ouiliire, and something for the eye to repose on, in place of the Hoeing, Scraping, and>- 
always wanting unsatisfactobv System generally practised. 

Plans of I2ou$es and Pits, &c. } furnished on the Dutch and English Systems. Plans and Estimates Furnished. 

D. F. will feel much pleasure in recommending a worthy gardener to any Lady or Geutleman in want of one. — Stowe, Buckingham. 



OUTTON'S PRICED SEED AND PLANT LIST, 
*^ with Instructions on Cultivation, Calendar of Opera- 
tions, and other Useful Information is now published, price Six- 
pence; and being entered at Stationers' Hall is copyright. 

As this publication is compiled principally for the use of 
Messrs. Sutton's Customers, it is requested that those who have 
not yet received it will forward their Address, when a copy will 
be sent gratis, and post free. Other persons will receive it post 
free in return for six postage or receipt stamps. 

Address Joh n Sutton & Suns, Seed Growers, Reading, Berks. 

AMERIC A~N NURSERY. 

GEORGE BAKER'S DESCRIPTIVE CATA- 
LOGUE of AMERICAN PLANTS, &c, as exhibited by 
him in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Regents Park, may be bad 
by inclosing two postage stamps. 

G. B. begs to call attention to his fine stock of Weeping 
Hollies, Coniferous Plants, Ornamental Shrubs, &c— American 
Nursery, Windlesham, near Bagshot, Surrey, near Staines 
Station, South-Western Railway, where conveyances may be 
obtained. 



AMERICAN PLANTS. 
TOHN WATERER begs to announce that he has 
" published a new Catalogue of his Rhododendrons, &c, as 
exhibited by bim in the Gardens of the Royal Botanic Society, 
Regent's Park, London. It describes the colours of all the 
Rhododendrons considered worthy of cultivation, with a Treatise 
on their successful management, and may be had by enclosing 
two postage stamps. 

The American Nursery. Bagshot, Surrey, near Farnborougb 
Station, South- Weste rn Railway. 

AMERICAN PLANTS. — A Descriptive Priced 
i 1 CATALOGUE of HARDY AMERICAN PLANTS for 
the coming season is just published, and may be had by enclosing 
two stamps for postage. As everything in the wav of American 
Hants is grown to an unequalled extent at this Nursery, intending 
purchaserswould do well toprovidethemselves with thisCatalogue. 
WA1ERER and GODFREY, Nephews and Successors to the 
late Hosea \\ aterer, Knap Hill Nursery, Woking, Surrey. 



EXOTIC NURSERY, CHELSEA. 

TAMES VEITCH, Jun., will be happy to forward 

" his new Retail VEGETABLE, AGRICULTURAL, and 

FLOWER SEED LISTS on application, and desires to assure 

those who may kindly favour him with their orders, that he has 

spared no pains in procuring his supplies from the first growers 

on the Continent as well as in this country, and that he will use 

his best endeavours to give bis customers entire satisfaction. 

OBERT KENNEDY, Agent for Messrs. Platz and 

Son, Seed Growers, Erfurt, has much pleasure in announcing 

he has received their Catalogue of Flower and Vegetable Seeds 

for the trade for 1855, which abounds with new articles of great 

interest, and will be forwarded, per po.st, on application to 

R. Kennedy, Bedford Conservatory, Covent Garden, London. 

F.S. Also, R. Kennedy's General Catalogue of British and. 

Fo reign Ferns f orwarded on receip t of six p osta ge stam ps. 

RHODODENDRONS. 

JR. and A. PEARSON will send eight of the 
• following for 25s., including package. 



1. Album elegans, white 

2. Blandyanum, dark crimson 

3. Coriacea, white 

4. Caucasicum pictum, rose 
spotted 

5. Catawbiense alba 

6. Eversestianum, rosy lilac 



7. Elizabeth, white claret spots 

8. Jacksoni, crimson spotted 

9. Leopardi, purple dark spots 

10. Towardi, bright rose 

11. Victoria, Pince's, crimson 
purple 

12. Venus, pale blush 



The above are some of the best in cultivation. A descriptive 
1 ist sent on a pplication . — Chilwe l l Nurseries, near Nottingham. 
SPECIMEN IRISH YEWS. 

THOMAS JACKSON and SON, having a large 
Stock of fine specimens of this very ornamental tree, beg to 
offer them at the undernamed low prices. 

8 to 9 feet high, and 8 feet in circumference 

8 „ and 4 to 5 feet „ 

7 to S „ and 4 feet „ 

6 to 7 „ and 3 to 4 feet „ 

6 „ and 3 feet „ 

Handsome entailer specimens at proportionately lower prices, 

Kingston, Surrey. 



63s. Od*. each. 
21 „ 
15 „ 
10 6 „ 
7 6,. 



J YNCIPS STAR OF THE WEST CUCUMBER, 

. l_j the best frame variety in cultivation. For descrip- 
tion, see Rendle's " Price Current and Garden Directory"' 
for 1854. 

Price Is. 6d. and 2s. Qd. per packet.— Apply to William E. 
Rendle & Co., Seed Merchants, .Plymouth. 

RANUNCULUSES, ANEMONES, LILIUM LANCIFOLIUJM,. 
CALOCHORTUS LUTEUS, CALLIPRORA FLAVA, 
GLADIOLUS. TRITONEA AUREA, DIELYTRA SPEC- 
TABILIS. VALLOTA PURPUREA, ANOSIATHECA. 
CRUENTA, AND AURICULAS «3&gk! 

HENRY GROOM, Clapham Rise, near London,' 
by Appointment Florist to Her Majesty*, begs to say 
that he has a fine Selection of the above BULBS, &c, which he 
can supply at Moderate Prices. His Catalogue will be forwarded- 

on application. 

SUPERB HOLLYHOCKS, ROCKETS, SEEDS, ETC. 
O/ILLIAM CHATER'S descriptive list of his superb 

* * HOLLYHOCKS, containing hints on their culture and ob-' 
serrations on exhibiting, &c, may he bad on application by 
enclosing a postnge stamp. Packets of seed, consisting of 20 
varieties, selected from the best show flowers, 5s. ; 12 varieties,. 
2s 6d. ; and from gond double sorts, Is. 

Very superior Quilled German Asters, 12 distinct varieties, 
separate, 2s., mixed Is. per packet. Also Choice French Asters, I 
12 varieties, separate, 3s., mixed, Is. Gd. Fine Quilled African 
Marigolds, lemon and orange, 6d. per packet. 

New Double Crimson ROCKET, excellent bedding plant for 
spring flowering, 6s. per dozen, or 2Z. per 100. Double French 
White, 4s. per dozen, or 30s. per 100. 

Saffron Walden Nursery, January 6. 

Printed by William B had hub y, of No. 13, Upper Woburu Place, in the Parish 
of St. Pancras. anil 1'uf.derick Mullktt Evans, of No. "27, Victoria 
Street, in the Parieh of St. Margaret and St. John, Westminster, both in 
the County of Middlesex, Printers, at their Office in bombard Street, in 
the Precinct of Vf hitefriais, in the City of London ; nnd published by them 
at the Utfice, No. 6. Charles Street, in the Parish of St. Paul's, Covent 
Garden, in the Baid County, where all Advertisements and Coin muni rations 
are to lie Addbessed to tub LDiioa.- Satobdat, January 13, 1S5&. 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE 



AND 




LTURAL GAZETTL 



A Stamped Newspaper of Rural Economy and General News.— The Horticultural Part Edited by Professor Lindley. 



No. 3.-1855.] 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 20. 



[ i'ur 



a in. the 

Ilriiiin, 1'rnirli, nml reil n|)litnr. 


INIJ 

86 a 

■til a 
•M b 
'M a 
M r 
•10 n 
■\\ 1, 
■Hi a 
■16 c 
Hfi ,i 
37 b 


EX. 
Manure, unnicn rofttao nn 

Nice, cllmiitii <>f 


. 40 


Botanical 8oc 

(Inlcmlrir, Iwrl-iculfurnt 

Clttl irki't, now 

— — — pliin of ... 

Climate, Crl menu 


Ox, l.oni 1 'iiver»liiiui'n 

L'AlltlOl ill ]»i»1 h 

Pathology, vegetable 

Poor, cultui ' 

Marta Loulta 

riiiimrttin pulcborrlma 


M t 

Hd t> 

. 87 b 

. 8fl b 

m b 

tit <t 

3d b 

■VI n 
88 '• 
3H b 

39 b 
80 it 
4. a 
It b 
42 6 
41 b 

-33 c 

ti c 
37 c 

40 e 

44 6 
87J 
86 ft 

45 ft 
40 a 




Hhiii tn Dumfrlciflhlro 

Kn|ie cuUr, polaonoui 

ItCil Ktnttrr nml l'rrucli Uc/um. 

Itovlcwcrft' dlicovorloi 

llmilo, Bookion,«v 

Snoop, niiiniitniii 

— Sliro|)nliiri! 




89 (i 
•AC, a 
-38 r 
S3 l> 
30 b 


Cr.mon, climate of 

DIkkIuk. lirlceof 37 a 

Dlicovarloa, llevlcwpr*' 




an c 

•li. b 
45 e 
Hi b 
40 e 
40 c 
4(1 a 
4fi 
3fl c 
-3S c 

40 a 

41 a 


Iflulilniul n nil Ajcrl. SoC 

HoIcuh sncchnrnt us 

Holly hriUr, lo renew 


— new 

Spnile liunlmmlry 1(7 a 

Statistics, nKrleiilturnl 

'IVuiiinrntiinr, itniuml 

Tit lie commutation 

Vegetation of Nice 

Veirtlflblo imthoioKy 

AVIienl, Pujnc'a 

Y.irdn, covered 


Xnnmeii niiow 

Lnw expemcj 

LoddlMi' (Mr.WpUnU 

LoU'Weodon cultlvntlon.,87 " 

London ['nrni<Tn' Club 

MmiRold Wum-1 



SCOTTISH ARUORICULTUKAL SOCIETY.— 
Tho First General Meeting will bo liold nt the Institution 
Rooms, 8, York Pluce, Edinburgh, on WEDNESDAY, 31st 
.PiiiiiuuT, at One o'clock, p.m., for the Election of Ollice Bearers, 
the Keading of Papers, hihI other Business. 

Mr. James Brown, President, in the Chair. 
All interested in tho advancement of Arboriculture are in- 
vited to attend. James Alexander, Secretary. 
Edinburgh, 20th January, 1S55. 

JAMES LAKE, Nurseryman, Seedsman, and Florist, 
Brldgowater, begs to return thanks for the very liberal 
support ho has for many years received in the above business, 
and to inform the Public that the Firm LAKE and DYEK is 
this day dissolved, and that the business will be henceforth con- 
tinued by him as heretofore on bis own account. 
_Seed E stablishment, No. 3, High Street. Dated J an. 12. 1855. 

CONQUEROR OF THE WEST CUCUMBER.— 
A Packet containing 12 good seeds of this first-rate Frame 
Cucumber, which (or productiveness is' second to none, will be 
sent, post free, on receipt of 13 postage stamps, addressed to 
JAMES LAKE, Nurseryman. &c Bridgewater. 

H"<0 BE SOLD, at Prices that will be sure to give 
-L satisfaction, 10,000 STRONG CURRANTS of the following 
sorts, viz. :— Red and White Dutch, common Black and Black 
Naples, Wilmot's Superb Red, Champaign and Rahy Castle. 
Also a quantity of strong dwarf trained Pears and Plums of the 
best sorts, FalstorT and other Raspberries, strong standard Pears, 
and a quantity of .prime Seed Potatoes well kept of the best sorts. 
—For further particulars apply to JAMES LAKE, Nurseryman, 
Bridgcwater. 



SUTTON'S SHORT SEED LIST. 

£ rjTTON'S SHORT SEED LIST, containing only 
t ) tlic most derivable 8orU t will f >': tr.nl pott frcc t in 
return for one penny pottage draft or , i c< ipt ''imp. 
S utto n ■'■- H<>m ' < ,<■ ' ■ . ' 

RENDLE'S PRICE CURRENT • r, '. ■.i:M.\ 
MltMTOKY for 1855 it nou pulliilicd, price 6i. 
To be had of all Booksellers, and 
William E. Rendlk oc Co., Seed Merchant . /'ii/mouth. 

TO THE SEED TRADE. 

YI7ir,LIAM JO. RENDLE, Seed Mchcimnts, 

V, J'lymoutll, have to i,(h:r :;',„,,■ f> ,-,j <!,>.',, , Stocl Oj 

SEEDS to the Trade. Wholesale Catalogues can he had 
on application, to 

William I'.. J.'i -.Tii i; & Co., ITnlon Horn!. Plymoiilh. 

11/ JUTE BELGIAN CARROT, MANGOLD 
V> WURZjEL, &.C— Several Tons to he disposed of 
at the lowest market prices. — Apply to 
WILLIAM E. ItENDLE & CO, BEEP .Meiuiiants, Plymouth. 

NEW SEEDS JUST HARVESTED cannot* be 
obtained of the most genuine description, from, 
Wii.uam E. Rf.ndi.e & Co., Seed Merchants, Plymouth. 







MANCOLD WURZEL SEED. 






T 


BE 


SOLD, 


LONG liED and 


YELLOW 


GLOBE 


growth 


of 1851, from superior stock. — Apply 


to 


K.S 


Hews, Kelvedon, 


Essex. 







FRUIT TREES, SURPLUS STOCK. 
Apples, Pears, Plums, Cherries, Gooseberries, & Currants. 
'"pO BE SOLD, at any reasonable offer, for the purpose 
J- of clearing some ground, several hundred Pear trees, com- 
prising Winter Nelis, Gracilis, Williams' Bon Chretien, Hazel, 
Summer, Portugal, Beurr<5 Capiaumonts, and other varieties. 
400 Wellington and Quarriut'on Apples, 200 Prince of Wales and 
Magnum Bonum Plums, 50 Duke Circassian and Morello 
Cherries. All the above of about 10 years' growth, and coming 
into full bearing. 10,000 Rifleman Gooseberry Plants, from 1 to 
4 years old, and 2000 large Red Grape Currants, 2 years old. 

To view, apply to Mr. Mitton, Lampton, 1 mile from either the 
Isleworlh or Hounslow stations of the So uth Western Railway. 

W ANTED > DWARF COMMON MOSS ROSES. 
» ' —Any party having the above to dispose of can address a 
line, naming lowest price and quantity, to Wn. Wood & Sox, 
Maresfield. The Pla nts must be strong and well r ooted. 

TXTANTED, OLD WALNUT TREES.— Lowest 
» » price, cash, with size, by letter only, to E. S., 41, Fellows 
Strcrt, ^outh Pearson Shvet. Kin^'slaiul Road. London. 
YEWS To R HEDCES, 

EDWARD SANG and SONS, Kirkaldy, have for 
sale, at a low price, a large quantity of fine healthy YEWS, 
once, twice, arid three limes transplanted, iu various sizes, from 
12 to 30 inches high. 



PEARS, STANDARDS AND DWARF TRAINED. 
TJ BIGLAND and CO., Nurserymen, Whalley 
-*--» • Range, Manchester (in consequence of their giving up 
the business), have a quantity of the above to dispose of at very 
reduced p ri ces. • 

PYRAMIDAL PEAR TRE e¥. 

Grafted on the Quince Stocks. 
I" and J. FKASER have still to offer strong trees of 
" • the above PEARS; a Descriptive Catalogue of the sorts 
maybe had on application. To prevent disappointment early 
orders are requested, as the Stock of some of the varieties is 
getting low.— The Nurseries, Lea Bridge Road , Essex. 

TO THE TRADE. 
ROY, Jim., Seedsman, Aberdeen, has got to hand 
Y • a consignment of 35 bales of very superior CUBA BAST. 
The bales weigh about 1-^ cwt. each. Price forwarded on applicat ion. 

OHUBARB ROOTS for FORCING or PLANTING. 
l ^ —Strong one-vear planted roots of MYATT'S VICTORIA 
and LINN.-EUS, .MITCHELL'S ROYAL ALBERT, at 6s. per 
doz.; HOWARD'S PRINCE ALBERT, 12s. per dozen. This is 
a larger variety than the Victoria, and is extensively cultivated 
"J*! 11 Manchester. Prico to the trade of the above, per 100 or 
1000, on application to Messrs. J. M YATT and SONS. 
Manor Farm, Deptford, Jan. 20. 



| YNCH'S STAR OF THE WEST CUCUMBER, 
I_i the hest frame variety in cultivation. For descrip- 
tion, sec Rendle's " Price Current and Garden Directory" 
for 1854. 

Price Is. 6U and 2s. 6d. per packet.— Apply to William E. 
Renple &Co., Seed Merchants, Plymouth. 

PARLY WHITE FIELD PEA.— NEW EARLY 
*—t RACEHORSE— comes off early in July in time for Turnips 
and is a good cropper, price 12s. per bushel. 
Sutton & Sons, Seed Growers, Reading . ^^ 

AJEW DWARF FIELD PEA. — "BISHOP'S 

-L^ LAST AND BEST," a large grey Pea, only 1 foot in 
height, very prolific, and comes off very early. Adapted for 
growing between the rows of Mangold "Wurzel and Swedes. To 
he dibbled in rows 3 feet apart, and the root crop to be subse- 
quently drilled between them. One bushel of Peas sufficient for 
an acre. Price 16s. per bushel. 

Sutton- & Sons. Se ed Growe rs. Reading, Berks. 

HOLCUS SACCHARATUS, OR CHINESE SUCAR CANE. 

SUTTON \nd SONS can sivpphj this Seed genuine 
as imported iv sealed pacleU at J s. or 2s. 6d. each. 
Post Free. 

For description and uses, see Gardeners' Clironicte, Dec. 30tb. 
1S54, p. 835.— Suttox & Soxs, Seed Growers, Reading . 



NEW CAULIFLOWER. 

WAl'JT. - « ALMA," fur lupcrior "- Wtl 

rattler qumntli • 

qtuntltlej tj : ,. 

■ i 

DILCOC/'S BRIDE BROCCOLI. 
Hjxj 

BAINBRIDGE >■ i, in..'. I iON (Proprietor* of 
r frtendi »;.') 
cnMfmier* that th« y »r. 
elected ■tock of On 
application, and <-arlv ■ 



GOLULiJ 



I 
DROP 



CHOICE CALCEOLARIAS. 

J COLE begs to offer a few dozen of his un- 
• bloomed Seedling HERBACEOUS CALCEOLARIAS 
from his choice stock; they were the admiration of all who saw 
them last summer. They are not potted off, though strong 
enough for large 60-sized pots. The Seed was saved from selected 
stock, carefully impregnated. J. C. offers them at 4s. per dozen, 
or 25s. per hundred. A remittance solicited from unknown cor- 
respondents. — Kcyfiehl Nursery. St. AlbaiVs, Herts. 

GAKAWAY, MAYES, and CO., having a large 
Stock of LIL1UM GIGANTEUJI Seed, can supply full 
picked seed at 10s. Gd. per 100. 

G. M. and Co. can supply DIOSCOREA BATATAS at the 
advertised prices. Early application is requested, as the stock 
is limited. 

Catalogues of Kitchen Garden , Flowers, and Agricultural Seeds, 
may be had on application. Prices if desired. For prices of 
Cucumber and Melon Seeds see Advertisement of Dec. 30, 1S54. 
Durdham Down Nurseries, Bristol, Jan. 20. 



GREEN fUL&H MELON, 
Hix i 

WILLIAM WO >D 
parcel of flwdd of the arV.v- PiplrniHd M«-''.n from a ft I 
whom they i witly relr, here mod 

it fbrsmle. The following .M-!'.n» a: . ■ 

and may I*- per pack*-' 

Br»mharn Hal! • 
Greer Pleab, Hybrid Scarlet Pleeb, Deechrood I 

\\'<^A I ■ 
COLE'S CRYSTAL WHITE, I COLE'S UWARF 
RED CELERY. 

T THORNELEY,< 01 I .■■ I o., I i-wsehtmej*, Seed*- 

'■' • mrs', and 1 r Jtfancbe»1«T, btg tw 

announce that ' ' ''• *ell- 

known ■. rd). 

i A I. \'. U1TE, ioz pack«ti!,Ir«sbvpo«t,fc,rl2iUmp» 
SUPERB DWARF BED, J 02 | ■>• itampe. 

Price p^-r lb. to the Trade on Application. 



JOHN" HOLLAND can supply, in strong pbu 
heaviest Lancashire Su»w GOOSEBERRIES u\: 
excellent flavour, and large • . 

Post-office order, payable to Jonx Holland, Bradahaw Gardens 
Middleton, near Manchester. 



GODFREY'S BLACK SPINE. 
BPLBSDID AND PBOLIFIG FfcAJffC Crci'v 

TT7'OOD a.nd INGHAM bee to offer «ede of the 

»» above beautiful variety. Colour, magnificent dark green, 
with a very fine bloom; average length, bet, aod 

produces in great abundance through an entire tea*on. Packets, 
containing 12 seeds, 2*. 6d. ; 6 ditto, U. 6rf. 

W. & I. will be happy to ref<*r any pertoni wiihlng farther 
information respecting the variety to three or four Noblemen and 
Gentlemens' Gardeners who hare ^rown it, and prefer it to any 
other. 

London Agents : Messn. Uutsr & U'McLunr, 6, Leadenbau 
Street. _ 

"W. & I. have also the following esteemed v»riet 
packets. Is. each, containing 12 seeds;— 



teiou n« 

Barnes's Fearnonght 
"Walkers Prolific 
Constantine's Incomparable. 



Sagg's Royal Exhibition 
Conn'> ffeat 

Improved Sicn House 
Manches-er Hero. 



Huntioed^n Nurseries. January 20. 



DIOSCOKEA BATATAS— THE NEW CHINESE 
POTATO.— This new esculent was fully described by 
Professor Lindley in the Chronicle of December 23, 1S5L 

The Subscribers arc now importing a cJwice lot of 
Hoots, and can supply them on the following terms: — 

Four Tubers £0 10 I Fifty Tubers £5 5 

Ten , 1 2 6 ( Hundred „ 10 

First Orders will have the hest Roots. -Applv to 
"WILLIAM E. RENDLE & CO., Seed Merchants. PIvmouth. 



JOSEPH WILSuN, Sfedsman, Ipswich, offers the 
following EARLY SEED POTATOES: — The Early 
Champion Ashleaf seedlings, 12s ; Jackson's improved Askleaf, 
9s.; the celebrated short top Ashleaf, 75. 6rf.; Nonpariel Kidneys, 
Gs. Gd. ; Lapstone do., 6s. 6d. ; and the British Queen, 7s. Gd. per 
bushel. The whole of the above varieties have been grown 
especially (or seed ; they are quite free from disease, and will be 
guaranteed true stocks; and for quality and yield they cannot be 
surpassed. Orders to any extent can be executed, free to London 
and no charge for sacks ; and must be accompanied with a 
remittance. 



T^HE FLUKE KIDNEY POTATO.— This excellent 

-*- variety is now planted here as the principal crop, being 
more free from disease and more prolific than any other in culti- 
vation. It was raised in Middleton, and may be had genuine in 
any quantity at 5s. per rnishelof561bs. — Apply to Johx Hollasd. 
Bradbhaw Gardens, Middleton, near Manchester. 

Post Office Orders to be marie nayable at Middleton, Lancashire. 



SUPERB HOLLYHOCKS, ROCKETS. SEEDS. ETC. 
TVILLIAM CHATER'S descriptive l : ?t of hissnperb 
* * HOLLYHOCKS, containing fatnts *-n their colrore and ob- 
servations on exhibiting, &c. may be had on application by 
enclosing a postage stamp. Packets of seed, oonsistir _ 
varieties, selected from the best show flowers, 5*.: 12 varieties, 
2s 6d. ; and from good doable sorts, Is. 

Very superior Quilled German Asters, 12 distinct varieties 
separate, 2*., mixed Is. per packet. Also Choice French 
12 varieties, separate, 3s., mixed, Is. 6£ Fine Quilled African 
Marigolds, lemon and orange, Gd. per packet. 

New Double Crimson ROCKET, excellent bedding plant for 
spring flowering, 6s. per dozen, or 2i. per 10;'. Double French 
White, 4s. per dozen, or 30s. per 100. 

Saffron Walden Nursery, Janu^r 

SNOWS SUPERB BROCCOLI.— Every seed new 
and true. Sealed packet, Is.; per oz^ 3s. ; pound bag! 
the trade on liberal terms. 

GLENNY'S IMPROVED BALSAM.— Unequalled :' - 
donbleness, and colour : 6 classes, 3/. : mixed. Is. : sealed pickets 
with culture. 

DOUBLE HOLLYHOCKS from noble flowers. Sealed 
packet, lr. 

Stamps or P.O. orders to Geoegs Glexst. Horticultural agert. 
Dungannon House. Fulham. Sale- " 

Ground Laid Oat, Rockwork, Ornamental Water, &c, planned 
and executed. 

R PARKER begs to offer the foUowicg : — 
• CINERARIAS (Seedlings^ from all the fii 

carefollyselected,inclndingthenewvarietiessent I 
Strong "established plants, in 4-inch pots, a: 4s. per dr^en. A 
choice collection of named Cinerarias in Etxocg tsiiblxslBsd 
plants, purchasers selection, a: £i. t>:7 dozen. 

ROSES, consisting of the best varieties of Hytria Perpeuials, 
Teas, Bourbons, &cu weB established in pots. Purchasers selec- 
tion, at 12s. per dozen. List of names forwarded upon application. 

A remittance or reference to acccispaBy all orders frcan 
unknown correspec dents. 

Paradise Nurserv, Homsey Rrac. I-'.-Lzrvn- 



I HE FLUKE POTATO.— A new second early 

« variety, surpassing every other in its capability cf resisting 

the Potato disease, and without exception the finest and most 

prolific Poiato in cultivation. Price per cwt., 15s., bags included. 

To be had genuine of THORNHILL & DICKSON, Lawrence 

Hill Nurseries; and No, 1, "Wine Street. Bristol. 



K J 



EGENT and JEKSEY BLUE POTATOES, 
of the finest flavour, direct from the grower. Delivered 
carriage free within three miles of King's Cross Station, at 14s. 6d. 
the imperial sack of 2*24 lbs., for cash on delivery. Choice Se^ds 
from the best growers. Orders executed by C. Fltxtok, Factor. 
21, York Road, King's Cross. 



TWO new CUCUMBERS— "SIR COLIN CAMP- 
1 BELL " avd "GENERAL C-'. 

Description of the above two nee: - ambers, and the 

List of EDWARD TILEY "- ^acrambers -~i 

Melon?, which have all beer. : - .' proved, see Ai- 

ment and Cut in the Gardener^ Chratddt od 

Sir Colin Campbell 3s. r 

General Canrobert 3 6 .. 

A packet of either cf the Melons mentioned in the former 
Advertisement will be given to the Purchaser of the above rwo 
Cncumbers, A remittance in cash or penny postage stamps 
must accompany every order, scd the whole or any part as Jh : 
; .mmediate]v forwarded. 
EDWARD TILEY. Nt:- - - -Jsraan, and Tl.z'-t: 

14. Abh^y Church Yard, Bat". ^ :_::;; t=hire. 



J.X1 Mi 



vjakDJSNERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 20, 



BARTER'S PROLIFIC RASPBERRY.— In con- 
V^ sequence of J. Carter seeing his Raspberry quoted in a 
Nurseryman's Catalogue, who J. C. has reasons for knowing 
does not possess the true variety, and wishing to prevent impo- 
sition, begs to announce that the undermentioned are the only 
Nurserymen who have been supplied by J.C., or his agents, 
Messrs. Hurst & M'Mulleu. Should other Nurserymen favour 
with their orders their names will be added to the list ; the stock 
is very limited. Price may be had on application to Messrs. 
Veitch& Sox, Exeter; Rendle& Co., Plymouth; Wood & Son, 
Maresfield; Low & Co., Clapton; Rivers, Sawbridgeworth; 
Palmer, Annan; Turner, Slough; Afpleby, York; DowlinOi 
Southampton; A. Sstrni, Sydnope; Fisher & Holmes, Sheffield ; 
George Glenny, FuUiam; Urquuart & Son, Dundee; T. Bun- 
yabd, Maidstone ; Hurst & M'Mullen, London; or 

JOHN CAKTER, Jix.. Nurseryman, Keighley. 



BANKS' NEW SEEDLING FUCHSIAS FOR 1855. 
Wf J. EPPS begs to state that he has purchased 
V \ • the following Seedling Fuchsias, raised by that celebrated 
grower, E. Basks, Esq.. of Sholden Lodge, Deal ; they were the 
first selection from his splendid batch of Seedlings of 1S54, and 
have been thoroughly proved. They are distinct, rich, and the 
greatest advance upon any of the kinds known, and cannot fail to 
give the highest satisfaction. 

CLIMAX.- (named by Mr. Banks).— Tube stout, sepals very 
broad reflex, with a prettv curve or half circle, the points of the 
petals touching the seed vessel; colour, rich velvety crimson— 
the corolla is verv large, of a splendid violet blue and great sub- 
stance : habit, robust, and blooms particularly free. 75. Gd. 

FAIRY QUEEN. — Very distinct and striking, immense 
bloomer, beautiful waxy white tube and sepal?, tinged with 
lemon; long well-proportioned flower; corolla large, and of a 
very rich plum colour puce. 7s. Gd. 

GRAND SULTAN. — A very noble flower, and will be many 
years before it is equalled; beautiful foliage, and first-rate for 
exhibiting; flowers large, very stout, sepals reflex, similar to 
the Turn Cap Lily, and of a very rich crimson colour ; corolla 
large, and very dark velvety purple. 75. Gd. 

MAID OF KENT.— This Fuchsia is pronounced by the fol- 
lowing judges, viz., Mr. Edwards, Secretary to the Floricultural 
Society; Mr. Barnes, of Camden Nursery; Mr. Todd, of Sutton, 
to be the prettiest and most distinct Fuchsia yet raised; habit, 
dense and bushy, producing great clusters of pretty reflexed 
blooms, of great substance, veiy clear waxy white, with a rich 
plum-coloured puce corolla, and exceedingly striking. 105. Gd. 

BEAUTY OF THE BOWER.— A very rich and perfect 
formed flower, scarlet tube and sepals, which reflex .over the 
tube, displaying a beautiful dark purple corolla of great sub- 
stance: habit, perfect. 7s. Gd. 

OMER PACHA.— A larse and well-proportioned flower, with 
dark crimson tube and sepals : corolla, intensely dark velvety 
purple : habit, excellent and very graceful. 75. Gd. 

The Set will he sent out in April. — Strong Plants, at 42s. 
The usual discount to the Trade where three of each are taken. 

Agent:— Hurst and M'Mullen, Seed Merchants, Leadenhall 
Street, London. — Bower Nurseries, Maidstone. 



SEED GROWERS' SOCIETY.— The Members of 
this Society, being at all times desirous to meet any altera- 
tion in the markets, are prepared to supply GENUINE SEEDS 
according to the following scale of prices, comprising Mangold 
Wurzel, per cwt., Long Red, 40s.; Yellow Globe, 45s.; Long 
Yellow, 50s.; Red Globe, [50s. Carrot, per cwt, Altringham, 
9/. 9s.; Early Scarlet Horn, 92.; James' Green Topped, 82.8s.; 
Long Surrey, 71.; "White Belgian, 62.10s.; Yellow Belgian, 62. 
Swedes, 55s. per bushel; other Turnips, 22s. to 30s. per bushel. 
Scarlet Runners, 24s. per bushel. Mignonette, per lb., Is. 9t2. ; 
Giant do., Is. 6d. Lettuces, per lb., Drumhead, 6s- ; Bath Cos, 65.; 
Brown Dutch, 3s. Gd. Other Lettuces, Cabbages, Broccoli, 
Parsnips, Beet, Celery, &c, and Flower Seeds, a list of which 
may be had by applying to the Secretary, Feering, Kelvedon, 
E ssex. By order, John Moss, Jan., Secre tary. 

RPARKERTbegs to offer the following CHOICE 
• SEEDS, all of which are warranted new and true to name: 
GODFREY'S (BLACK SPINE) CUCUMBER, the finest 
variety in cultivation, packets containing 12 seeds Is. Gd. 

Also the following esteemed varieties of CUCUMBERS and 
MELONS, in packets containing 12 seeds, at Is. each:— 



CUCUMBERS. 

Henderson's Black Spine. 

Improved Patrick. 

"Walker's Long Rambler. 

Manchester Prize. 

Hunter's Prolific. 

Superlative Improved. 

Cuthill's Black Spine. 

Ohio Squasha Custard Gourd, Gd 

Antirrhinum, from named flowers, Gd. 
Calceolaria, from fine varieties, Is. Gd. and 2s. Gd. „ 

Hollyhock, from fine named varieties, Is. Gd. and 2s.Gd. „ 
Lilium giganteum, the most distinct and noble species of the 

genus, packets containing 20 seeds, 2s. Gd. 
»#• A remittance or reference to accompany all orders from 

unknown correspondents. 

Paradise Nursery, Hornsey Road, Islington. 



MELONS. 
"Victory of Bath. 
Beechwood. 
Bromham Hall. 
Canteloupe. 
Duke of Bedford. 
Golden Perfection (extra fine). 
Scarlet Flesh (Anderson's). 

per packet. 



S 



ELECT PEAR TREE S.— 

The following extract from the " Miniature Fruit Garden" 
is a list of 24 fine varieties of PEARS that succeed well on the 
Quince Stock, and form handsome pyramids and bushes, ripening 
in succession from July till April and May. 

Pears for Pyramids, 2s. each 



Doyen ne* d'Ete" 
Colmar d'Ete 
Baronne de Mello 
Louise Bonne of Jersey 
Alexandre Larobre" 
BeurriS d'Aremberg 



BeurrO Sterkman 
Zepbirin Gregoire 
Winter Nelis 
Bergamotte d'Esperen 
Beurre d'Anjou 
Prevost 



The above form very handsome pyramids, tbey have been 
carefully pinched in, so that they are well furnished with young 
branches down their stems, most of them have blossom buds, and 
will bear this season. 

Pears for bushes, 2s. each 



MESSRS. E. G. HENDERSON and SON, of the 
"Wellington Nursery, St. John's Wood, London, will com- 
mence sending out plants in April next of their NEW SEEDLING 
FUCHSIAS WITH WHITE COROLLAS, BOTH DOUBLE 
AND SINGLE, also TWO STRIPED OR VARIEGATED 
COROLLA'D FUCHSIAS, and TWO UNIQUE FUCHSIAS 
with VIOLET AND BLUE COROLLAS. The last two 
were purchased of E. Banks, Esq., after having been flowered, 
the second season, and proved as flowers possessing un- 
questionable merits, and unequalled by other red varieties pre- 
viously sent out. All the other varieties were purchased of 
W. Story, Esq., of Newton, in the county of Devon, who succeeded 
in introducing a Scarlet Fuchsia with White Corolla, which new 
feature in this tribe gives one of the greatest novelties that they 
have had the pleasure of seeing for many year-s. Mr. Story, 
being the raiser of this new Class, offered them to Messrs. Hender- 
son for One Hundred Guineas, which offer they accepted. A 
faithful drawing of three of the varieties here offered has been 
taktn by Mr. James Andrews, the well-known floricultural and 
horticultural artist; sketches from which have appeared m Van 
Houtte's " Flore des Serres," Verschaffelt's " Illustration 
Horticole," and will also appear in Turner's "Florist," for 
February. The dwarf, compact, and free flowering habits of the 
plants will be sure to please every grower of this tribe. 

QUEEN VICTORIA (Story's;.— Splendid wide sepals, beau- 
tifully reflexed, of a bright scarlet crimson, and a lovely clear 
white corolla. Price 10s. Gd. 

PRIN'CE ALBERT (Banks's).— Scarlet crimson sepals re- 
flexed, and rich violet corolla. This flower we consider unequalled 
by any, its reflexing properties being such that either more or 
less would be a fault; indeed the flower is perfection itself, 
10s. Gd. 

MRS. STORY (Story's).— Fine large scarlet tube, long wide 
sepals reflexed ; corolla fine substance, and clear white. 10s. Gd. 

RANUNCUL^EFLORA (Story's).— Scarlet sepals and tube, 
with double white corolla, a flower not having that confused 
appearance as many of the double varieties are known to possess. 
This was considered the best of the only two double white 
varieties flowered by Mr. Story. 21s. The other double variety 
we do not appear to have received. 

PERUGINO (Story's).— Fine large scarlet sepals and tube, 
with a conspicuous striped corolla of rose and purple flakes, 
handsomely reflexed and free flowering. 10s. Gd. 

EMPRESS EUGENIE (Story's).— Wide reflexed petals of a 
rosy crimson, the inside of petals having a violet shading; 
corolla fine white. 10s. Gd. 

RAFFAELLE (Story's).— A beautiful variegated corolla with 
crimson sepals well reflexed, and of good substance ; the colour of 
the corolla is a rich chocolate flaked with rose, free flowerine 
10s, Gd. 6 " 

LADY OF THF LAKE (Story's).— Fine deep crimson, with 
a blush white corolla, very pretty. 10s. Gd. 

WATER NYMPH (Story's).— Bright scarlet crimson globe 
stout wide petal, corolla fine clear white; an elegant flower 
10s. Gd. 

Or if the set of nine be taken, the price, 42. 4s.— January 20. 

FUCHSIA (Banks Favourite).— Fine handsome scarlet sepals 

and tube; large and conspicuous flowers, with sepals finely 

reflexed; and a splendid blue-violet corolla of great substance. 

The s'ock plant being small the number of plants will be limited. 

'-" Price 10s. Gd. 

MESSRS. E. G. HENDERSON and SON were 
surprised to see an advertisement a (evr weeks back in the 
Gardeners' Chronicle, from Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, and Co., of 
Exeter, offering two new Fuchsias, similar in character to those 
described above, and after a written communication with Mr. 
Story, it was thought necessary for one of the Firm to make 
further inquiries about tbem, and in consequence Mr. Andrew 
Henderson went to Exeter and Newton, where be was informed 
by a jobbing gardener at Newton that he had received SEVEN 
POUNDS for them after (as the said jobbing gardener stated) 
he had been offered 202. for them by a Nurseryman in London, 
but whose name or address be did not know, 

Messrs. E. G. H. & Son think the above explanations neces- 
sary, in consequence of a great number of their customers having 
ordered them at higher prices than are quoted above. This 
reduction is made in consequence of information which they have 
received, that leaves no doubt on their minds but that those to 
be sent out by Messrs. Lucombe, Pince, & Co.. are similar in 
Character to the above.— Wellington Nursery, St, John's Wood. 



Alexandre Bivort 

Beurre d'Amanlis 

„ Diel 

„ Langelier 

„ Wetteren 

Marechal de la Cour 



Melon de Namur 

Onondaga 

Nouveau Poiteau 

Grosse Calebasse(C. Carafou) 

Doyenne" Boussoch 

Rousselon (Esperen) 



The above nearly all bear large fruit, and when grown as 
bushes are well adapted for gardens exposed to the wind ; they 
bear profusely and require scarcely any care in pruning ; the 
trees offered are mostly full of blossom buds, and will bear this 
season. A Descriptive Catalogue of Fruits sent for four stamps, 
the cost of postage. Carriage paid to London. 

THOMAS RIVERS, Nurseries, Saw bridge worth. 



IRISH YEWS. 

a>'d SON, having a large 



SPECIMEN 

THOMAS JACKSON 
Stock of fine specimens of this very ornamental tree, beg to 
offer them at the undernamed low prices. 

8 to 9 feet high, and Sfeet in circumference... 63s. Qd. each. 

8 „ and 4 to 5 feet „ '.'■ ...21 „ 

7 to 8 „ and 4 feet „ ... 15 „ 

6 to 7 „ and 3 to 4 feet „ ... 10 6 „ 

6 „ and 3 feet „ ... 7 6 „ 

Handsome smaller specimens at proportionately lower prices. 

Kingston, Surrey 



FRUIT TREES.— SURPLUS STOCK. 
WILLIAM JACKSON and CO., Bedale, Yorkshire, 
* » having a portion of their Nursery Ground to clear, beg to 
offer the following FRUIT TREES of the most useful and 
approved sorts, strong and well grown, in a bearing state, at 
annexed cheap rates : — Per dozen.— s. d. 

Apples and Pears, good strong Standards 8 

Do. do. do., Dwarfs 6 

Do. do. do., Dwarfs, trained \Qs. to 24 O 

Cberries, good strong Standards 10s. to 12 

Do. do. do., Dwarfs, trained 24s. to 30 

Plums, good strong Standards 9s. to 10 

Do. do. do., Dwarfs trained 24s. to 30 

Apricots, Peaches, and Nectarines, trained 42s. to 48 

A reference or remittance is respectfully solicited from un- 
known correspondents — Jan. 20. 



TO CENTLEMEN ENCAGED IN PLANTING. 

WATERER and GODFREY respectfully invite 
attention to their stock of the following very desirable 
HARDY PLANTS. 



Araucaria imbricata, from 2 to 
7 feet high; as handsome as 
plants can be. 
Cedms Deodara, in any quan- 
tity, from 1 to 3 feet high 
Do. do., 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 
feet high ; splendid plants 
Cedars of Lebanon, 3, 4, 6, and 

10 feet high 
Pinus Douglasi, 3 to 10 feet 
„ insignis, 2 to 7 feet 
„ Menziesi, 3 to 7 feet 
„ Pinsapo, fine plants, 3 to 

6 feet 
„ Nordraanniana, 1$ to 3 ft., 
all from seed and remark- 
ably handsome 
„ nobilis, 1^ to 2 feet; a few 
larger, 5 and 6 feet high, on 
their own roots, and with 
perfect leaders 
„ Montezuma?, 2 to 4 feet 



EARLY DANIEL O'ROURKE PEAS. 

JG. AVAITE begs to inform the Trade that he is now 
• ready to execute orders for this valuable early Pea. Price 
can be had on application. 

Soed Establishment, 1S1, Dish Holbom, London. 



Pinus canadensis, 3 to 8 feet 
Cupressus macrocarpa or Lam- 
bertiana, 4 to 7 feet 
„ thyoides variegata, 3 to 
4 feet (the variegated white 
Cedar) 
Jnniperus, Upright Irish,perfect 
columns, 3 to 7 feet 
„ chinensis, 2 to 8 feet 
Yew, common English,3 to 8 feet 
„ Irish, 4 to 10 feet 
„ gold-striped, IjJ to 3 feet 
„ do., tall standards, 4 to 7 ft. 
„ Dovaston, or Weeping, 
worked on tall straight 
stems 
Thuja aurea, the finest plants in 

the country 
Libocedrus chilensis, the finest 

plants in the country 
Large variegated Hollies 
Standard Bays 



NEW PEA. 

WJ. EPPS, Seed Merchant and Grower, 
• Maidstone, has much pleasure in offering the following 
Peaj feeling assured it will give the highest satisfaction. 

"LORD RAGLAN, OR IMPROVED MAMMOTH. 

This Pea was selected from Hair's dwarf Mammoth two years 
since, and is unquestionably the best and finest in cultivation, 
and will prove to be the standard Pea of the day. It is a dwarf 
green wrinkled marrow of very large size, and an immense 
cropper. Habit dwarf, branching 3 to 4 feet high, producing 
immense clusters of large bright green pods from the base of the 
haulm to the top, and similar in shape to the Scimitar, but of 
greater size, well filled with seven to ten Peas, which are larger 
than the British Queen, and equal, if not superior in its flavour. 

Price, 5s. per Quart. Wholesale Prices to be had on application. 

Agent: Messrs. Hurst and M'Mullen, Seed Merchants, 
Leadenhall Street, London. 



Also an immense stock of large Evergreens, Standard Orna- 
mental Trees, &c. 

All the plants here offered may be seen growing in our 
Nursery; they are removed every year, and will travel any 
distance with perfect safety. Of some, such as Araucarias, 
Deodaras, Golden Yews, Thuja aurea, Pinus nobilis, Nord- 
manniana, we have any quantity; and the plants, for root and 
branch, are not to be surpassed. Priced Catalogues will be for- 
warded on application, enclosing two postage stamps, to Waterer 
and Godfrey, nephews and successors of the late Hosea Waterer, 
Knap Hill Nursery, Woking, Surrey, near the Woking Station, 
South- Western Railway, where all trains stop, and where capital 
conveyances can be obtained. 

The 2d. stamp will also include a descriptive Catalogue of their 
American Plants, Roses, and Nursery Stock in general. 



NEW SORTS OF PEAS. 

Carriage Free, except Parcels under, 20s. value. 

SUTTON and SONS have much confidence in recom- 
mending the undermentioned PEAS, as being not 
only new and distinct from others, out also as possessing 
superior properties. 

Prices per peck or bushel may be had on application. 
PRIZETAKER. — New, fine long green pods, which hang 5. d. 
so closely as almost to cover the haulm from top to bot- 
tom. Numerous prizes were awarded to the Prizetaker 
last summer. This is the first season we have offered it 

for sale. Height 5 feet 

BECK'S EARLY GEM.— New, prolific, and fine flavour; 
particularly adapted for narrow borders and for small 

gardens. Height 1£ foot 

FAIRBEARD'S NONPAREIL.— New wrinkled marrow- 
fat, very sweet, juicy, and prolific; 9 or 10 will be found 
ineverypod, and the pods extremely numerous; 4ft. high. 
Sutton & Sons have a large stock of good old kinds at low 
prices, as see their Priced List, just published. 

Sutton & Sons, Seed Growers, Reading ! ^^^ 



2 6 



1 6 



2 



DICKSON'S EARLY FAVOURITE PEA (NEW). 

FRANCIS and ARTHUR DICKSON and SONS, 
Seed Merchants, &c, Chester, have much satisfaction in 
introducing the above new Pea, which they believe they are per- 
fectly justified in saying is the best and most prolific Early Pea 
in cultivation. 

It has been tried side by side with all the best early and second 
early Peas of the day, and has been pronounced by many 
eminent gardeners who saw it under the circumstances to he much 
superior to any variety of its season hitherto introduced. 

It comes in about a week later than the " Early Emperor" 
(sown at the same time), grows about ,4 feet high, and produces 
a wonderful profusion of pods, which contains on an average 10 
Peas of excellent quality and flavour. It has been grown the 
last two seasons in the Gardens of the Horticultural Society, and 
Mr. Thompson, in reporting upon it, writes as follows : — 

"Horticultural Society's Gardens, Dec. 20th, 1853. 

"In reply to your inquiry respecting Diceson's Early 
Favourite Pea, I beg to state that I consider it a new and very 
desirable variety. It is very prolific in pods, and also as regards 
the number of Peas in the pods, and the quality is excellent. It 
most resembles the 'Auvergne/ but is earlier than that excellent 
sort, and the pod is not so much hooked. R. Thompson." 

" Horticultural Society's Gardens, June 28th, 1854. 

" I beg to hand you a copy of the memorandum which I made 
respecting your Early Favourite Pea, amongst others, again 
this season. About four feet high, very prolific; pods long, 
roundish, slightly curved, containing on an average nine to ten 
Peas of excellent quality. Bears some resemblance to the 
' Auvergne,' hut differs in having straighter pods, and it is much 
earlier than the 'Auvergne.' An excellent prolific Early Pea. 

" R. Thompson." 

In July last a dish was sent to the Horticultural Society's 
Room, London, and Dr. Lindley reports upon it as follows [see 
Gardeners 1 Chronicle of July 29th, Notice to Correspondents, 
" F. & A. D. & Sons."] " Having made the necessary inquiries, 
we are able to state that your 'Early Favourite Pea' is a 
distinct and very useful variety among the class of second earlies 
to which it belongs. The pods are unusually full." 

Price 3s. Gd. per Quart; per Pint, 2s. Messrs. Huest and 
M'Mullen, Seedsmen. &c, 6, Leadenhall Street, wholesale London 
Agents.— N. B. The Trade supplied on liberal terms.— 106, East- 
gate Street, Chester; (and 14, Corporation Street, Manchester). 
Ja n. 20. ' 

THE NEW CHINESE POTATO (DIOSCOREA BATATAS). 

MR. JOHN HENDERSON has the pleasure of 
informing the Nobility, Gentry, and Clergy, that the 
opinions already expressed by him (in the columns of this journal) 
respecting the excellent qualities of the above new esculent 
(which he has had the honour of introducing into this country) 
are fully borne out by the most eminent Horticulturists and 
Botanists of the day, among whom he may mention Dr. Lindley, 
Professor Decaisne, of the Museum of Natural History, Paris ; 
M. Louis Vilmorin, the well-known and scientific horticulturist; 
and M. P(5pin, of the Jardin des Plantes, Paris. 

Mr. J. Henderson also begs to call attention to the leading 
article in the Gardeners' Chronicle of the 13th inst., giving a full 
description of experiments made last year in order to test the 
value of this new vegetable; and which proves that in produce 
it is greater than the ordinary Potato, of hardier growth, and iu 
its eating, cooking, and keeping qualities far its superior. 

Tubers, with description of the Chinese mode of culture, to he 
obtained of Mr. John Henderson, Kingskerswell, South Devon, 
at the following prices for cash : — 

Four tubers, 10*.; ten do., It. 2s. Gd.; fifty do., 51. 5s. 

Post-office orders are requested to be made payable at Newton 
Abbot t , So uth Devon. ______^^_^^_ 

NEW SEEDLING POTATO— THE CHAMPION 
KIDNEY. 

This Potato hears a great resemblance to that fine old Potato, 
the Ashleaf Kidney; it possesses the following good qualities 
over the Ashleaf. If planted at the same time it will be ten days 
earlier, all the sets always vegetate well, and do not die off in the 
ground as the Ashleaf does; 2 pecks of seed will produce a 
greater weight of Potatoes than 3 pecks of the Ashleaf. It is 
quite equal to that in flavour, and is eatable during the whole 
winter. Sets that have had the shoots broken off five or six 
times during the spring will vegetate again as if it had been the 
first shoot. About twenty Gentlemen and Gardeners who had 
seed to plant hist season have assured me that they never before 
grew any Potato to equal it, and should continue to grow it as a 
first early Potato. Numerous orders have been already received 
from persons who saw it growing during the last summer. It 
has been grown and thoroughly proved for the last four years, 
and found to be less liable to disease than any other Potato that 
has been grown. Out of 25 sacks grown this season there was 
not a single diseased Potato among them. 

Sold iu quantities of not less than 1 peck ; they will be sent 
Hamper and Package free, at 5s. Gd. per peck, or 4 pecks for 11., 
hamper free. A remittance in cash must accompany all orders, 
or small amounts in penny postage stamps. Purchasers would 
do well to 11 time the nearest railway station to their residence. 
EDWARD TILEY, Nurseryman, Seedsman, & Florist* 
14, Abbey Church Yard, Bath, Somerset. 



8—1855.] 



Til B GA RDE \ ERS' CHRONICLE 



85 



WHEELER AND SON'S 

SHORT SELECT SEE D LIST. 

OUR PRICED DTST OF SEEDS for thia eeasoD, containing Dcicviptione and P*Ic«i ol the bi GABD] 
mid FLOWER SEEDS, will be forwarded free by poHfc, it. I., out earned I i odeavoui I ■ i nd all 

Garden or Farm, of tba very best quality and true to name : and an n y of tin Bccd uro our owi 

eon ding mil., w«', ifiirininlly muxm-d in giving ontlft) miijiiinciion to our cufttomorfl. We o.r& in daily receipt of m prat 
and renewed orders from IAom um /<"</ the honour of serving last yearf and tu in dollver oui I I 

roHpectfully noUolt the uonoui of an order from those n ho liavo nol yd glvon un a trial. 

J. C. WHEELER & SON, GLOUCESTER. 
SEEDSMEN TO THE GLOUCESTERSHIRE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



To Farmers, Potato Growers, and Others. 

JACKSON'S PATENT PREPARATION 

PRESERVING POTATOES, WHEAT, AND OTHER SEEDS 

From DISEASE. I In' RAVAGES ol' the Sl.ic, diji II, and WIEEWOKM, In addition to whloli tbo CROP 

forward in n EALTI1 and VIGODR, mid the yli'Ul 1h groatl; Inoroaaed, In propf of wilcli the following oxtraolfl urr glYon 

from numerous lottern recolvod liy Mr. Jackbon. 

EXTRACTS:- 



**Ono of tho ficldH of thin farm, tho property of Mmt. STANDUttY, 
wftH planted with Regonta Potatoes In April laBt, some of which 
wore prepared by you. Tho result now U, that tho whole of the 
crop from tho unprepared m<ih im thoroughly diseased, and hardly 
worth the trouble of taking up; whllo those ralHud by tho :ddr <•[ 

them from tho prepared sols urn nut. only in ft beautiful State ol 
preservation from tho diwoase, but the produce In much greater,— 
the Potatoes are more numerous than tbo others; Indeed, If thoro 
woro no ouch thing uh thu diseaso to ho foarod, il wool.) )io wurih 
the tronhlo ami expense of preparing the sets by your process, 
even for tho sake of tbo Improved crops. 1 shall certainly, for 
the future, prepare all my Potatoes for seed by your process ; and 
I intend to adopt it for preserving my Wheat from tbo Smut. 

"G. B. BAXTBB. 

"Belmont Farm, Ktilmin, Kent, August 28, 1854." 
" Admiral Sir J. A. Gordon, K.C.B., Marloe House, Blairgowrie. 

"Sir,— 1 have received your note of the Kith. The Potatoes 
that came here from England, prepared hy Mr. Jackson, 
were planted in a piece of new ground, and according to the 
directions sent by him along with them as to distance between 
the plants, &c. They came up well, with strong healthy stems; 
I havo now taken the whole crop up, aud there is not the 



light* i appearance of any disease amongst them. They are of 
large equal stao and very prolific. There were long black unpre- 
pared Kidneys planted In the same patch, and a great deal ol 
them are nol lit for use, at least a third part ai disease I 
Iiope Mr. Ja< khon'h process may be widely known, anil I a 
great boon.— I am, &c, John Shanks, 

"Forester, KUdmmmy Castle. 
" Kildrummy Castlo, Aberdeenshire, November 17, 1854." 

" I nin very much ploased with the result, of tho cxpci 1] 
have made with your Prepared Potatoes; for I planted them, 
without any manure. In ground where for several years I have 
hardly hud a sound Potato, and I now find the crop perfectly free 
from disease, and in a very fine condition; while those of the 
same sort, unprepared, which were planted at the same time, and 
next to them, are diseased and eaten by worms. 

" The Potatoes from the Prepared Seed were so remarkably 
good that I was induced to weigh them, and I found, to my great 
astonishment, that they were as 200 to 150 of thu others, or about 
25 per cent, in favour of your preparation. 

" T. Austen, Nurseryman and Seedsman. 

" Blackheath, Kent, 24th August, 1851." 



Sold by Messrs. CnARtwoon & Cummins, Seedsmen, Covent Garden; and John Kernan, Seedsman, 4, Great Russell Street, 
Covent Garden; all Seedsmen and Chemists; and at the Patentee's, 18, Cannon Street, London Bridge, in Packets of One, Two 
Three or Four Pounds, or in Bulk for the use of Farmers aud Potato Growers. 



TO THE SEED TRADE AND OTHERS. 

THE SUBSCRIBER offers the following SEEDS, 
which have been grown aud selected from the best stockB 
possible. Prices forwarded on application, 



BROCCOLI. 
Early "White. 
Miller's Dwarf 
Brimstone 
Chappell's Cream 
Imperial White 
Dwarf Danish 
Dilcock's Bride 

CURLED PARSLEY. 

PEAS. 

Victoria Marrow 
Fairbeard's Nonpareil 
British Queen 

(Very flue samples.) 
Lord Raglau 



TURNIP. 
Laing's Swede (very true) 
Red Tankard 
Early Stone 
Red American Stone 
American Strap or Lettuce- 
leaved Stoue. 
White Globe 
Green Globe 

WURZEL. 
Long Red 
Yellow Globe 

CELERY. 
Cole's Crystal White 
Cole's Red 



ARTHUR HENDERSON and CO. beg leave to 
inform their patrons and friends that their Stock of VEGE- 
TABLE and FLOWER SEEDS (containing many choice and 
new kinds) is now ready for sending out. 

Their Seeds may be fully relied on as being in every respect 
of first-rate quality, and true to their sorts. Catalogues may be 
had on application. — Pine Apple Place, Edgeware Road, London. 



Cite Sattreims' Cftrmtfclr, 

SATURDAY, JANUARY 20, 1855. 



to tliin cirewnatance u attrib , with 

large amount of alcohol it affordi 

iIk: quantity <,[ tugai directly . Lb) the 

1 at tllf; 

: 

wholly available in the i ogai i 

i of ii in lout. ' I < »ute 

in which that one-third axial* . . i ti,<: 

rourable for the d i U.r prepa 

: 

that the Ho 

ible tngar produce in tha north ai 
Franc* ; tm in the tonth of France and 
indeed i a/here the 

ceasei to : the 44th • 

IIoIciik in.,', be prof 
Elaewhere M. Vumqbui ■ 
bin experimt ni be I 

cultivated for it* nJi ] ..'>e in 

pect may be estimated by the r<»ult oi 
experiment which he I 

He obtained from ttenu, from which the peel had 
been stripped, at the rate of i 

of juice. The upper joinii and ttpiken were only 
cut off ; but by cutting off mi Dg tli«; 

steniM to a better process of crushing, be think* that 
70 per cent, of juice could be obta 
quantity of stem* employed, large and umall 
together, was 552 lbs., which g odk of 

juice, of the density of 1.052 ; and &r, the prewiing 
was done in a common ci'ier j .:■ 
that upwards of 3 gallons were lo-l in mo. 
the large surfaces of the apparatus. The proportion 
of sugar which the juice contained, as indicated by 
the saccharometer, was as follows, from plants grown 
at Verrieres, and taken at different periods : — 

October 23d, 1853 ... 10.04 per cent, of juice 
18th, 1853 



Nov. 

2d trial 

October 13th, 1854 ... 

Nov. 14th. 1654 ... 



EPPS, Seed Grower and Merchant, Maidstone. 
HOLCUS SACCHARATUS, 

OR CHINESE SUGAR CANE. 
(See Gardeners' Chronicle, Dec. 30th, 1S34.) 

MR. JOHN HENDERSON, formerly of the firm 
of John A. Henderson & Co., Pine Apple Place, London, 
has the honour to announce that lie is prepared to supply Gentle- 
men, Amateurs, and Professionals, with seed of this most valuable 
and estimable plant. 

As the Dioscorea Batatas seems well adapted to make good any 
deficiency arising from failure in the Potato crops, so this appears 
admirably calculated to meet many wants of the present day. That 
it may be used for the purposes of distillation, and may therefore 
preserve the grain of the country, is not less certain than that 
the leaf and stem (after the saccharine matter has been extracted) 
contain a large amount of fibre, of such a nature as can be em- 
ployed in the manufacture of every kind of paper. In both these 
points, as well as in many others, this plant demands the atten- 
tion of every Gardener and Amateur throughout the country ; 
the more so as from the necessity that at present exists for tile 
production of fibres that may be used in paper manufacture a due 
remuneration may be fairly expected by growers, even after the 
plant has, so to speak, paid itself by the saccharine matter 
extracted from it. 

Mr. Henderson hopes, in a few days, to have ready for the 
press a more lengthened account of this plant, as well as a com- 
plete statement of the latest experiments in connection with the 
Dioscorea Batatas. As there are many varieties of the Holcus 
"W. J. H. can only he responsible for seed forwarded by himself, 
which he is prepared to do in sealed packets, at Is., 2.*. Gd., 5s., 
and 10^., according to quantity. 

Orders to be accompanied with a remittance to Mr. John 
Henderson, Kingskerswell, Newton Abbot, South Devon. 
P.S. Price to the Trade can be had on application, 

SUTTON'S GRASS SEEDS (Carriage Free). 
J NATURAL GRASS SEEDS FOR PERMANENT 
PASTURES, separate or mixed, expressly to suit the soil. 
— Messrs. Sutton and Sons having for many v^ars paid 
especial attention to the examination of Natural Pastures, and 
the collecting of the Grasses which thrive in the various soils of 
Great Britain and Ireland, are enabled to supply the sorts and 
quantities of Seeds, varied to suit the soil for which they are 
intended, The cost will vary from 24s. to 30s. per acre, 
according to the sorts and quantities the soil requires. * 

FINE LAWN GRASS SEEDS, for making New or improving 
Old Lawns, price Is. per pound, 2s. 6d. per gallon, or 205. 
per bushel. For forming new Lawns, 2i bushels, or 50 lbs., is 
the quantity required par acre. 

PINE GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS FOR IMPROVING 
OLD PASTURES (Sutton's Renovating Mixture). Quantitv 
required per acre, 8 lbs. to 12 lbs. price 9d. per lb. 

N.B. It will be seen above that we have greatly reduced the 
prices of our Grass Seeds this season, especially the fine Lawn 
beeds and "Sutton's Renovating Mixture" for improving 
Meadows and Pastures ; and we doubt not that our liberal charges 

* i. in e a more general practice of sowing our superior kinds 
of Grass Seeds, 

Scttoh & Sons, Seed Growers, Reading, Berks. 



S 



At page 835 of the volume for last year some 
account was given of a so-called " Sugar Cane," 
from the North of China {Holcus saccharatus), and 
of experiments made in France with the view- of 
ascertaining its value for the manufacture of sugar. 
In that article the exaggerated accounts which had 
appeared respecting it in foreign journals were cor- 
rected on the high authority of M. Louis Vilmoiu.v, 
who has paid much attention to the cultivation and 
properties of the plant in question. In some of the 
English newspapers erroneous statements have also 
appeared, and so recently that they are probably 
even now in circulation. According to some of 
these, the plant yields 80 per cent, of sugar ; whereas 
that is only the amount of juice which may be ob- 
tained, the greater part of which is water. The 
nature and proportions of the substances that the 
plant contains will, however, be best understood 
from an analysis which has recently been made, the 
results of which are as follows : — 

Per cent. 

Water 63.SS 

Sugar, crystallisable and not erystallisable ... 18.64 

Nitrogenous substances ... ... ... 1.06 

Resinous, fatty and colouring matters ... 0.50 

Woody fibre 15.41 

Salts soluble in water (sulphates and chlorides) 0.27 

Insoluble salts (of lime and oxide of iron) ... 0.23 

Silica 0.01 



100.00 
The above analysis was made from the middle 
portion of a stem : but, in consequence of the plants 
having been injured by carriage, it was found 
impossible to separate the crystallisable part of the 
sugar from the un crystallisable. At all events, it 
appears that the richness of the plant in sugar is very 
remarkable. 

The juice of the Holcus furnishes. M. Vilmorin 
observes, three important products : — Sugar, alcohol, 
and a fermented liquor analogous to cider. When 
the juice is obtained from peeled caDes it is almost 
colourless, and may be said to consist of merely 
i-ucar and water. Its density varies from 1.050 to 
1.075, and the proportion of its sugar fr, m 10 to 16 
per cent. Sometimes, however, as much as a third 
of the total amount of sugar is not crystallisable, and 



1 1.06 „ 

10.14 „ 

lC > >; » 

which 11J were crystallisable, and 4^ not 
crystallisable. 

The quantity of pure alcohol was determined by 
the direct mode of fermentation, and the amounts 
are given in the order in which they were 
ascertained. 

Juice from plants grown at Verrieres : — 
Sept 2Sth. 1854 ... 4.1 per cent, of pore alcohol. 
Oct. 4th, 1854 ... 5.4 ditto ditto. 

Juice from plants grown in Algeria : — 

Fir.ST FERMENTATION", OCT. 17TD, ISM. 

7.0 i by Sallep.on"s appa- 
Second trial ... 7.4) ratus. 

7.0 to 7.2 by distillation. 

SECOND FERMENTATION. Ol T.18TH 1854 3 IBS . E2 Cest. 

Juice from plants grown at Verrieres : — 

Oct. 20 7.251 by distillation. 

Nov. 16 6.326 panicles cut. 

Nov. 17 6.467 panicles not cut. 

Omitting the results of the trial made on ti.- - 
of September, when the plants were evidently too 
young, and those with plants grown in 
appears that the average quantity of alcohol for the 
climate of Paris is about 6.3 per cent., or at the 
rate of 6^ gallons of pure alcohol from 100 gallocs 
of juice. 

This per centage is considered very sa'.isfactory. 
especially M. Vilmof.in observes, when the ex 
quality of the spirit is taken into account. The 
best idea of the value of the plant will, however, be 
obtained by calculating from the results of the expe- 
riments the produce per acre, according to which 
the yield is as follows : — 

Stems and leaves 68.93Slbs., or upwards of 30 tons. 
Stems only ... 43,984 .. ,, 19 ., 

Juice, at 5-5 per cent, of weight ^ g^- ^^ 

ot stems y ~ 

Sugar caVulated at S per cent, i „,. ,, 

of juice i 

Pure alcohol, at 63 per cent, of ? . -, „,ii ons ^ 

juice ) " 

For comparison with the above, the average pro- 
duce of Beet-root is per acre : — 

Roots 40.147 lbs., or nearly IS tons. 

Juice, at SO per") 

cent.of weight > 32,118 lbs., or upwards of 14 tans. 

of roots ...J 
Sugar at 6 per ) 192ylbs . 

cent, of juice ) 
Pure alcohol, atl 

3 per cent.' of > 120 gallons. 

Beet ) 

It will be observed that the quantity of sugar from 
the Holcus is estimated hicher than .that from the 
Beet-root : but the small difference would not com- 
pensate for the extra labour required for preparing 
ihe canes, and for the greater diScnliy in extracting. 
The quantity of spirit, however, far exceeds that 



36 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 20, 



derived from Beet-root, the difference being upwards 
of 60 gallons on the produce of an acre. 

A liquor resembling cider can also be made from 
the Holcus, and is said to be very good when pro- 
perly prepared. The quantity of juice, according to 
the above figures, would be 1207 gallons from the 
produce of an acre. For making this liqudr, the 
canes require to be either exposed to the sun for 
several davs, in order to concentrate the juices by 
evaporation, or to be placed in a slow oven ; or the 
juice after being pressed out must be boiled down to 
the required density, along with about 7 oz. of fresh 
Oak chips for every 22 gallons of juice. The juice 
readily ferments with the addition of a little yeast, 
or with a bunch of Grapes squeezed into it. 

These statements, which are entirely taken from 
M. Louis Vilmorin's ample reports, appear to 
show that the Holcus may be profitably grown in 
this country for distillation, provided the Excise 
makes no objection. But we learn from Mr. John 
Henderson that the refuse, which has not been at 
all considered in France, consists to a very great 
extent of excellent fibre easily extracted and easily 
bleached. We have ourselves ascertained that such 
a fibre is worth at least 101. a ton to the paper 
makers, and probably half as much more. This 
very important fact seems to remove all doubt as to 
the value of the Holcus to cultivators. 

It may, indeed, be an exhausting plant, like Maize 
and other white crops ; but deep cultivation will 
meet this difficulty, if it be one, and at all events 
the value of its sugar and its fibre, taken together, 
ought to leave a handsome profit, even although an 
unusual quantity of manure should be necessary to 
replace what it may take out 'of the ground, sup- 
posing always, that the refuse left after distillation 
and the extraction of its fibre should not of itself 
represent as much as the crop has taken off. 

For further information upon this interesting 
subject, the reader is referred to M. Louis Vil- 
morin's report in the new volume of the Bon 
Jardinier, and to a detailed account of the Holcus 
cultivation which we understand Mr. Henderson is 
about to publish. 

• The Dorset Reporter contains the following state- 
ment, entirely confirming the oftfenjms we have 
always expressed concerning the CnijwJjjN., climate ; 
as does all the intelligence receive"d_ in this country 
from the seat of war up to the present times-*. The 
information was furnished by Mr. James Sinclair 
who from 1838 to 1852 resided in the Crimea, as 
gardener to Prince Woronzow, and may there- 
fore be relied upon. He says : — " The open-air 
calendar of gardening for that, the south coast of the 
Crimea, with the exception of some few sowings in 
April, would suit to a nicety the whole south coast 
of England, from Cardigan to Harwich. If you 
place Eupatoria in Cardigan Bay ; contract the Bristol 
Channel to the dimensions of the inlet before Sebas- 
topol, and put Torquay at the head of the bay, to 
represent Inkermann ; make the Land's End, Cape 
Khersonese, and the Isle of Wight, Balaklava, 
and so on down to Harwich, which represents 
Kaffa ; then add our south-coast climate to that 
of the Crimea, and we are not far short of the mark. 
The winters are just as variable in the Crimea as 
they are in London or Edinburgh, but not so long. 
The summers are much warmer and longer than 
with us ; the spring is earlier and the autumn is 
later there than here. Occasionally, but at long 
intervals, the frost is harder there than in England, 
by a few degrees, but does not last so long : for 
several winters in succession the snow never lies 
long on the coast, and the same kinds of plants do 
not require the same amount of protection in hard 
■winters there as they do on the coast of Devonshire, 
because they ripen better by the hot summers in 
this part of the Crimea. The climate, however, is 
more relaxing than with us, and low bilious fevers 
creep on more and more on our people, after the 
first few years ; my friend was seven years in 
the Crimea before he felt the effects of this climate ; 
but at last he was reluctantly obliged to come 
Lome to recruit his strength, ' on leave of absence,' 
with a promise to return after a year or so, with new 
and improved breeds of plants and animals. He 
is now safe, and so will our soldiers be, for anything 
of a winter they may meet with there." 

Some leaves or Araucaria were lately sub- 
mitted to us (as noticed in our answers to corre- 
spondents, Nov. 18, 1854), affected by some malady 
which causes a spotted appearance, and materially 
injures the beauty and symmetry of the leaves, on 
which the ornamental effect of the tree depends. 
The disease was evidently independent of the growth 
of parasites, though a minute fungus had been 
developed after incipient decay. The remarkable 
tendency exhibited of late in many parts of Ger- 
many by Conifers to cast their leaves prematurely, 



was at first supposed by Goppert to arise from 
Hysterium Pini. But Dr. Stein has carefully 
followed up the phases presented by the leaves, and 
was convinced, like ourselves in the instance of 
Araucaria, that the parasite was developed after 
their fall, in which case, and not before, the myce- 
lium was found penetrating the tissues. There is, 
however, another disease which has been prevalent 
on the leaves of Conifers, causing them to assume a 
yellow tint, which has been prevalent since 1831, 
and which was examined by Walluoth three 
years later, in consequence of its extreme prevalence. 
Two fungi, as Wallroth supposed, accompanied the 
malady, which, according to Dr. Stein's observations, 
are really states of one single species. It germinates 
on the upper surface of the leaves, into which its 
mycelium soon penetrates, affecting especially the 
tissue beneath the stomates, and producing a con- 
version of the Chlorophyll into starch, which either 
vanishes entirely, or is multiplied to such a degree 
as to completely gorge the cells, forming large con- 
fluent solid masses of fecula. The cell walls soon 
assume a yellow tint, which passes into brown, and 
as a consequence the mycelium itself perishes. The 
yellow tint appears on the leaves in bands or spots 
of very different sizes, according to the strength and 
prevalence of the fungus, which belongs to the 
Cytisporous tribe, whose species are remarkable for 
naked hyaline spores discharged in the form of 
gelatinous masses or tendrils. Dr. Stein does not 
state what is the exact genus or species to which it 
belongs ; but the elongated constricted spores show 
that is not the common Cytispora which occurs so 
frequently on Pine leaves in England.* M. J. B. 



New Plants. 

110. Escallonia pterocladon, Hooker, Bot. Mag., 

t. 4827. 
A plant of this pretty shrub was exhibited some 
months ago by Messrs. Veitch as an evergreen which 
might be expected to prove hardy ; but we delayed 
publishing it till more certain information upon that 
point should have been gained. We now learn from 
the " Botanical Magazine," where Sir William Hooker 




has named it, that it is "a decidedly hardy shrub, 4 to 
5 feet high, an abundant bloomer, and fragrant ; " 
recommendations, he observes, for a bushy plaut, with 
leaves like a smail-leaved Myrtle, and very pretty 
almost Epaeris-like flowers, white tinged with red. 
Our own wild specimens, for which we are indebted to 
Messrs. Veitch, were found by Mr. W. Lobb on the 
coast of Patagonia, and fully bear out the expectations 
thus expressed. We thought, indeed, when the live 
plant was before us, that in beauty of foliage it was 
quite equal to a Pernettya. It derives its name from 
certain wavy wings which stand out from the young 
wood, and of which traces are for a long time visible 
on the old branches, although they eventually disappear 
there. 



VEGETABLE PATHOLOGY.— Xo. LV. 

215. Sterilitt. — Constitutional and Organic, — It was 
stated above (241), that functional sterility is not so com- 
pletely uncontrollable in the vegetable as in the animal 
kingdom, because in the latter there is no renewal of 

* We are arqnainted with Dr. Stein's memoir, which is con- 
tained in the " Tharander Jahrbuch," from the notice of it in 
"Botanische Zeitung," Feb. 17, 1854. 



the organs which supply the ovules, or by which they 
are impregnated, whereas in the vegetable world there 
is a constant reproduction of those parts from a meta- 
morphosis of which the organs of fructification are 
produced. If, however, the peculiar tendency of the 
individual or variety be to produce organic change in 
those parts, we have no means, comparatively speaking, 
by which we can control that tendency. 

246. Sterility may be induced by organic change of 
various kinds, both in the general envelopes, and the 
male and female parts of fructification. In the Wheat 
ear carnation, for instance, the sepals, though retaining 
to a great extent their natural appearance, are multiplied 
to such a degree as to prevent the formation even of 
petals, much more of the interior organs ; and similar 
conditions exist in varieties of many other plants, as in 
the Sweet William, Foxglove, Lupine, &c. In a few 
instances the interior organs are more or less perfected, 
and impregnation may occasionally take place, or a few 
seeds be matured, but the general effect is comparative 
sterility. Where such abnormal tendencies exist, even 
should the pistil be formed and perfect pollen generated, 
there is often a concurrent tendency in the ovules or 
ovaries themselves to sport, in consequence of which 
they frequently afford most favourable opportunities of 
studying the morphology of the organs, a branch of 
botany which has so much weight in the elucidation of 
natural affinity.* 

247. The unnatural multiplication of the petals, or 
any great hypertrophic change in the structure of the 
sepals may be equally productive of sterility, as is noto- 

i rious in the varieties of ornamental plants which are 
due to the skill of the florist. Experience shows that 
efforts to overcome this sterility for the production of 
new varieties are seldom successful, the best results 
arising from those stray seeds which are produced with 
difficulty by highly metamorphosed flowers. A plump, 
well nourished seed, is almost sure to give rise to some 
form entirely worthless to the florist. In such cases 
artificial efforts are directed, in the first instance, to 
produce such changes as are conducive to sterility, and 
then to keep up as much as possible that abnormal con»- 
dition, both for the preservation of the variety itself 
and for the production of new forms possessing valuable 
qualities. 

248. The total suppression of the petals is seldom cf 
much consequence. Varieties occur, as for instance in 
the Sweet William, where not a trace of petal exists, 
and yet every ovary is impregnated ; but the contrary 
condition is not infrequent. In several species of Violet 
the early petaliferous flowers are often barren, while 
those which appear later in the season are productive. 
Iu Ajii<>a Iva,f fertile flowers occur indifferently with or 
without a corolla. In Ononis minutissima, in contra- 
distinction to the Violets, the earlier flowers are apeta- 
lous, and equally fertile with the petaliferous flowers 
which are produced later in the season, and the same 
equal fertility belongs to both kinds of flowers in Helian- 
themum, J in which genus, Lespedeza, &c. (as mentioned in 
a note to the translation of Re's treatise), they are gene- 
rally simultaneous. In some of these cases the stamens 
seem very imperfect, and I am inclined to think that 
seeds are often produced in such flowers, as in Coele- 
bogyneywithout impregnation ; a very limited number, 
however, of pollen grains may sometimes be found, as 
we are assured by Brongniart, though the great fertility 
of such flowers, if entirely dependent on impregnation, 
could scarcely be insured by such a precarious supply, 
judging at least by the experience afforded by hybridisttr 
tion of the quantity of pollen necessary for success. 

249. Sterility may arise, again, from some malor- 
ganisation of the pistil and its component parts, as 
where the carpels or ovules are transformed into leaves, 
or where the ovules put on the guise of carpels. la 
such cases, however, sterility is not always absolute, 
though the normal tendencies of the fructifying organs 
may be frustrated, as for instance where a little bud or 
bulb is formed at the expense of the true fruit, as in 
proliferous Grasses. In the genus Crinum and some 
others the seed is apparently replaced by an enormous 
mass of cellular tissue. Accurate search, however, will 
detect a perfect embryo in the midst of the tissue, as 
originally described in Brown's Prodromus.§ 

250. Though all the parts of a plant may be perfect, 
and impregnation may take place, and an embryo be 
formed, the plant may still be sterile from constant 
abortion. This is especially the case where the walls of 
the ovary are highly developed, insomuch that in some 
of the finer varieties of Pears, &c, perfect seed is of 
comparatively rare occurrence; while, on the contrary, 
in Grapes attacked by mildew the seeds are in general 
multiplied. In such cases, as the properties which 
make the fruit valuable are altogether independent of 

» One or two curious instances have lately been examined, 
one of which, that of a monstrous Foxglove, has already been 
reported in this Journal (1854, p. 660), and another of a Sweet, 
William, at present unpublished, which throws much light on 
the nature of the placentation of the natural order to which it 
belongs. 

t I cultivated this species at Margate two or three years in 
succession, and never obtained a flower with a corolla, though the 
seeds were all perfect. 

X Cistus surrejanus, L., figured in Eng. Bot., t.2207, is a nearly 
apetalous form of the common wild Helianthemum. 

§ I have been informed by a very accurate botanist and close 
observer that the seeds of Crinum sometimes appear to germi- 
nate indifferently from any point in which they may be placed in 
contact with the surface of the soil, as if germination in certain 
cases might take place without the intervention of the embryo 
or in its absence. The matter is well worth attention. I have 
no observations of my own to offer on the subject, but I can bear 
ocular testimony to the fact that it was the habit of the botanist 
in question to raise seedlings from the large cellular bodies placed 
merely on the surface of the soil, and not covered with it. 



3—1855.] 



ttti<: r; a it d kn e EtS'H c HRONIC u:. 



87 



t-inj seed, it is sufficient lor tho purpose of the cultivator 
if impregnation have taken place to auch an extent mh to 
insure tho swelling of tho Hiircoearp. It ifl to thm abor- 
tion that many cases of Bterility are duo. The process 
of impregnation iH no far successful jih to stimulate the 
contents of tho embryo sac, ami tho fleshy walla of the 
fruit ; lint after a time tho embryo 003968 to grow, ami 
tho sarcocarp withers. This in especially the case in 
stono fruit, an is well known, at least practically, to 
overy cultivator, wIiobo fruit ho frequently deceives his 
lippcs jiiHt when it iH undergoing the process of stoning. 
Moyon haw studu d the matter in tlio cano of forced 
chorrioa. From a very early st'igo of growth it ct.uld 
bo prodictod certainly, in consequence of a eliango of 
oxtomal form, and Hometimos a peculiar intensity of 
colour, what fruit would ultimately prove abortive. 
Tho shrivelling of the omhryo takes place; however, 

{>roviously to the peculiar elongation of tho fruit. This 
lappoim HomoliinoH beforo tho indication of cotyledons, 
sometimes at tho commencement of their formation, and 
somotinies when two-thirds of the embryonic sac are 
Occupied by the embryo. The sterility is by no means 
duo to deficient impregnation, but apparently to a 
greater degree of heat than its growth requires, which 
stimulates other parts at tho oxponso of tho embryo. 
M. JT. B. 

LOIS-WEIiDON CULTIVATION. 

I usic tho term " double-digging " advisedly, because 
it is really the only compound word that will suit my 
case. For what is my practice ? At the outset I 
plough tho whole field early in autumn an inch deeper 
than tho staple, barrow, and roll, and harrow again — 
pulverising ami preparing it, in short, as for Barley. I 
then got in my Wheat, leaving yard-wide fallow 
intervals between the rows. When the Wheat is up 
I begin to dig, which is done thus : — At the end of the 
interval I first throw out on the headland about 3 feet 
of soil to the entire depth I intend to go the first year, 
and, supposing the staple to be 6 inches, and the 4 inches 
of subsoil to be clay, this depth altogether will be 
10 inches. The spadesman now, with a shallow spit, 
casts the 6 inches of staple to the bottom of the trench 
of this yard length of interval ; and then, with another 
spit still shallower, throws the 4 inches of the Bubsoil 
lightly on the top, and so on all over the field. This 
process is clearly accomplished at two diggings ; and so, 
■as I think, may strictly be called " doubie-digging." 
i My object in thus keeping the pure subsoil separate 
and unmingled on the surface, which no single digging 
to the same depth could do so effectually, is to enable 
the atmosphere during winter to have its full and un- 
obstructed influence on the clay ; and when this effect 
bas been, produced, as it will be found to be in spring, 
these important results will have ensued :— The clay 
will have crumbled down to dust, a portion of its known 
mineral constituents will have been rendered soluble, 
and it will be brought into a condition to receive aud 
retain the organic elements of fertility contained in the 
atmosphere. It is only after this that the horse-hoe in 
the summer well mixes the now pulverised clay with a 
portion of the staple below, and fits the land for the 
following crop. 

In the third and fourth years (the other moiety of the 
field having gone through a similar process the second 
year) an inch more of the subsoil is brought to the 
surface ; and so on year after year till a depth be 
attained by inch degrees, of 20 or 24 inches, " beyond 
which it is neither needful nor convenient to go." The 
principle of the practice being that no more of the sub- 
soil be brought to light than can be wholly pulverised 
before it be mixed with the staple, it is evident that, 
in the end, after many years of gradual deepening, and 
repeated stirrings throughout each year, the entire depth 
of these two full spits will have become friable as garden 
mould, and therefore easy and inexpensive to dig, the 
cost of the half acre amounting on an average to the 
stated sum of 30s. or thereabouts. 

This explanation, which I very willingly give in reply 
to your courteous correspondent, is not an after thought, 
but the same statement runs through the whole of my 
pamphlet, though in order to avoid prolixity I have not 
before gone so deeply into detail ; and if any one has 
been misled by the term " double-digging," which I have 
applied to my own case, it is not owing, I humbly 
suggest, to any want of warning on my part. For at 
pp. 10, 24, 29, 49, 53 (last edition), I have spokeu on 
this point with equal decision if not with equal clearness. 
* In digging the intervals, did I," the operator is to ask 
himself, « bring up only so much of the sabsoil as could 
be thoroughly pulverised and mellowed for the succeed- 
ing crop ; of clay only a few inches ; of any subsoil, 
just so much as would lose its rawness during the twelve 
months' lallow V < 10.) " I have just sent in my spades- 
men to trench the fallow intervals two shallow spits 
deep." (24.) " At the commencement of my trenching 
a field, I bring up only so much of the subsoil, say 4, 5, 
or 6 inches, as can be penetrated by the atmosphere and 
prepared for use by the one year's fallow, increasing the 
quantity year after year, till the staple has become two 
good spits deep. And when all has once been loosened 
»n this way and become light, the calculations I have 
•quoted may, 1 think, be considered correct." (29.) " Bv 
means of the deep-stirring up-lifting fork, in. lieu of the 
glazing and level plough, I bring up these mineral 
treasures, inch by inch, to be disintegrated and 
decomposed by summer fallow, exposing them 
gradually year after year, till I reach the" limited 
depth of 2 feet, beyond which it is neither need- 
ful nor convenient to go." (49.) Aud, finally, in the 



directions for cultivation, " Hie plnnl befog now dis- 
tinctly vfsib)o,dfg the Intervals two spits deep ; fncreai 
ing the depth year alter year till they oome to "' '■< 
2-1 inches. Ilring up at first only 4, or .'., or- '. Inches, 
according to the nature ol the subsoil, whether tenacious 
or loamy or light. To bring up more at the outset would 

be n wasteful and injurious expense." (83.) 

In my own caw, experience hna combined witb theory 

and science in showing the extreme advantage, in pro. 
ductiveness aH well hh outlay, of this accuracy of culti- 
vation over the ordinary method of double-digging ; for, 

10 ycort tig", " portion of my clay field, devoted In rOOl 
and green crops, wan. by Oversight, double dug two full 
Bpftsdeep at the outset, and this loot been tin- result : it 
still remains heavy anil impracticable, and dofrH not ap- 
pear likely to recover for years ; the clay clods>mingli <i 
witb the Htaplo, come only partially under tbo influence 

of the frost and wind and rain, and make mo mourn 
over the unintended disregard of my own rule. 8'Smith, 
/,o/.; HVrr/im, Jan. Hi. [It ih quite evident that the 
term ''double-digging" is understood by different per- 
sons in different senses. We shall have a word to say 
next week upon this point.] 

VEGETATION AND CLIMATES OF FOREIGN 
COUNTRIES. 

Undkr this head it is proposed to collect facts and 
information which will doubtless be interesting to many 
of our readers ; for most persons who trace the progress 
of vegetation in our own country are also fond of com- 
paring it with that of other lands. A correspondent, 
resident at Nice, will supply us with observations from 
that quarter during the present season, and we shall add 
from other places such as may offer to us. 

Nice, Jan. \2th t 1(155. — The situation of Nice is on! 
the southern coast, of Europe, in tho front of a large 
bay of tho blue Mediterranean, and surrounded by a 
triple chain of mountains which afford considerable 
shelter from tho cold winds of winter. The climate is, 
consequently, very favourable to vegetation, the average 
temperature being about 10° higher than that of London. 
Owing to the mildness of its winters a considerable 
number of English, as well as natives of other countries, 
resort there. Upwards of 600 families have arrived 
for this season, including 220 English, 216 French, 
20 German, 15 American, and 24 Russian. It is nearly 
1000 miles from London, but may be easily reached in 
five days. The railway from Paris to Marseilles is 
expected to be opened throughout next month, and will 
then offer still greater facility. 

Very little frost is seen at Nice in ordinary seasons. 
This year there has been some in the valleys. In 
exposed places Heliotropes, Tomatoes, and young 
Potatoes have been cut, but Peas (the pods of which are 
still sold in the markets) look well, and many are in full 
flower. Alpine Strawberries are also purchaseable, 
5 oz. for id., grown in the vicinity. Greenhouses are 
quite rare, even with nurserymen, and very poor 
erections they are, hardly excluding the wind, with 
seldom any provision for artificial warmth. The 
gardens are certainly not well kept, and their general 
condition would not be tolerated in England. In fact, 
Nature seems to have done so much that the cultivators 
are careless in doing the rest. Cauliflowers are be- 
coming plentiful, those of a very large size are about 
6d. each ; smaller ones, 2d. The Oranges, of wiiich 
there is a good crop, are now getting ripe, their golden 
colour contrasting well with the deep green shade of the 
foliage. They are sold at \d. to 2d. per dozen, or about 
4 francs per 1000. The weather for the last month has 
been splendidly fine, only a few drops of rain since the 
10th of December — like the best of our May weather in 
England. The sun has great power ; the thermometer 
exposed to its rays often exceeds 120°. Potatoes are 
rather dearer than in England ; and so is bread. 

The principal flowers now used in the bouquets (all 
grown in the open air) are Roses, of various sorts, and 
very numerous ; Ageratum mexicanum ; a kind of large 
Candytuft called aspique ; Violets, Acacia, Mignonette, 
&e. 

The wild flowers in bloom are : — Erica multiflora 
(very abundant and pretty), Coronilla, Mignonette, 
Valerian, Anemones of various colours, Rosemary, 
Narcissus, and Mountain Pinks. In the valleys are 
also various sorts of Cistus, Arbutus. Bay, Box, Phyllires, 
Privet, and much Myrtle. The American Aloe 
flourishes, and several have flower-stalks 20 feet high. 
State of the Thermometer in the Shade at Xice. 



Jaouary 1 



S 

9 

10 

11 



7 AJI. 


12 P.M. 


104 r jl 


43 


53 


41 


63 


66 


49 


43 


62 


44 


41 


63 


44 


44 


57 


44 


41 


57 


43 


40 


59 


43 


41 


53 


42 


40 


57 


42 


42 


55 


41 


41 


56 


46 



— £. 0. 



CULTURE OF THE PEAR TREE. 
Although the subject to which I have directed atten- 
tion for the last eight months may be interesting to those 
who are more immediately engaged in the cultivation of 
Pear trees, yet it may not be so to many of your 
readers ; I, however, feel it necessary to reply to certain 
objections made to my remarks by my friend Mr. 
Rivers, not with the view of convincing him of his error 
» With a hot wind from the Jiorth. 



01 \ 1 I i now tt. at to he HOJ I 

hot to place the question ai i- fa it» right position, 

Without further apology, I shall therefore cone at 

on- ' to the point. 

i ii true or fi it not thai for many yean 'i a crop of 
Pears, in a great number ol gardens in England, hu 

been deft cUvS ' I" it true, or not, that iii ;■* i. oral tlio 

trees cultivated in tho ope,, ground, whether an Pysta* 
mlds, Qnenouilh >•, or {Standards, bars 

pruning, thinning, 
fost 
It ia Impossible to reply to these questions otherwise 

than in the allirmative, and it ha:, he.,, v.ith a view to 

remedy the . -,ii that my eonti i peered fn 

your pages. Id voted to the culture of fro t trees in a 
climate and situation analogous to those of various 
localities in England, and hav ng succeeded fn 
culture by i ' rsevei ■ of cruin 

•eii ntific principles, I nave Motored u> make roj 
rience known in a Horien of articles in the ; 
Qardt <<< - ' ( / — <• '■ , and your readers »iil have bei 
best judges of their utility, in these, however, 1 es*- 

tainly have had no intention of forcing 091 
any one, hut rather of inducing Home to lake them op 
and put them into practice, offering, attheeame I 
exhibit the good result* I have obtained from tho kytlcrm 
I have pursued. 

Instead of resorting to all corta of Mrange allegations, 
to which it is needless to reply in detail, ami which can 
only tend to confirm portions in a bad system of culture, 
would it not have been better to have made a fair trial 
of the application of tho principles I have laid down, 
just by way of experiment ! A careful trial made for 
two or three years would have shown which of u '-Jr. 
Rivers or myself; is wrong ; or whether want of racceas 
is to be exclusively attributed to difference of climate. 

Tho advantages of growing as pyramids certain varie- 
ties adapted for standards have, 1 believe, beenatated 
in a previous article. 1 doubt, however, whether my 
opponent knows them sufficiently to be able to judge of 
their merits. It is not on paper, but in a quarter of 
100 of these fruit trees, four or five years from the 
graft, that, in the months of July and Au.ust, the utility 
of the system can be successfully shown, and yet the 
winds from the north sea or from the west are not less 
violent in the neighbourhood of Brussels than in Here- 
fordshire [Hertfordshire !] or in any other county in 
England. 

If I had not resorted to those standard trees for 
grafting upon them the new sorts sent out, from 1847 
to 1851, by the successors of the late Van Mons, I 
should have had to wait three or four years longer 
before I could have seen the fruits and have ascertained 
their qualities. I even doubt whether the young plants 
sent out during the above-mentioned period, and sub- 
jected to artificial cultivation, would have been able to 
show for fruit last spring in the nurseries of Sawbridge- 
worth. 

I have not hitherto adverted to the advantages and 
disadvantages of artificial cultivation, but I hope to 
notice them at the proper time and place, after having 
treated of that which is more substantial, durable, and 
of general application. 

I hope my opponent, Mr. Rivers, will not be in too 
great haste to criticise our new pomological acquisitions, 
which he only knows by name ! They are more im- 
portant than he appears to imagine. Believe me they 
are the results of efforts which have cost too much lime 
and money to be lightly judged of. I have tasted all 
these fruits, either from the seedlings on their fruiting 
for the first or second time, or from my own trees or 
those of my friends, and I hope next year to be able to 
submit good specimens of them to the judgment of the 
pomological committee, and thus be able to convince all 
as to their merits. 

English cultivators mil not have to wait so long to 
appreciate and possess these valuable varieties under 
their right names as they did in the case of the Beurre 
d'Hardenpont, Beurre Ranee, Marie Louise, and Beurre 
Diel. It is very probable from their vigour and hardi- 
ness that most of these new sorts will succeed perfectly 
well in the climate and soil of England. It is also very 
probable that, in point of delicacy and long keep ng, a 
large number of these varieties, of which the mean 
period of ripening is not yet completely established, will 
surpass all others at present in cultivation ; and that 
this will be the case as long as they are not subjected 
to the influence of artificial culture, and as long as in 
propagating them the preference is given to scions taken 
at the proper time from trees cultivated on the Pear 
stock, and which themselves have been propagated from 
trees continued from Pear stock to Pear stock. 

In conclusion, let me mention that the raisers of new 
varieties of Pears are not responsible for changes which 
may have been made in the lames originally given them. 
Such changes ought to be attributed either to ignorance 
or fraud, and a prudent man ought only to deal with 
persons whom he knows well, and who have a reputation 
for honesty in business transactions. If then you will 
purchase in the cheapest market and get deceived, you 
have only yourself to blame. /. De Jmghe, Broads, 
Jan. 1. 



SWAINSONIA GALEGIFOLIA. 

This is a plant which is well worthy of a place in 
every greenhouse, for, under proper treatment, it pro- 
duces a profusion of pretty blossoms for some two or 
three months in succession. 

It is easily propagated either by means of seed?, 
which are produced in abundance, or by cuttings of 



3S 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 20, 



the half-ripe wood. The shortest jointed firmest bits 
which can be obtained should be selected, and planted 
in a light saudy, peaty soil, covered with a glass, and 
placed in a shady part of a cool house for three weeks 
or so, and then removed to a slight bottom-heat, where 
they will soon emit roots. It will be found, however, 
that the cuttings are impatient of too much damp, — 
henee water should be applied carefully, leaving the 
glass off until the foliage gets dry, and removing it 
occasionally, to wipe out damp. As soon as the 
cuttings are sufficiently rooted to bear handling, pot 
them singly in 4-inch pots, and place them in a nice 
moist growing atmosphere till well established in their 
pots. Supposing the cuttings to be potted off and esta- 
blished by the end of May, which, if a plant is started 
early in spring to supply cuttings, may easily be the 
case, remove them to a cold frame, which can be kept 
rather close and moist and shaded from the inid-day sun. 
Attend to watering as may be required, and sprinkle 
the plants over-head on the afternoons of bright days, 
shutting up the frame rather early in the afternoon with 
a moist atmosphere, but give air before night. When 
the pots are found to be moderately well filled with 
roots, give a liberal shift, say into 7-inch pots, and water 
cautiously until the roots get hold of the fresh soil. Tie 
out the shoots, and stop any over-luxuriant ones, so as to 
keep the plants dwarf and well furnished, for they are 
of a somewhat straggling habit, and unless stopping and 
tying out are persevered in, compact specimens will not 
be obtained. Expose the plants freely to sunshine and 
air after the middle of August, in order to get the wood 
well ripened before winter, and if this cannot be conve- 
niently done in the frame, remove the plants to a shel- 
tered sunny situation out of doors. During winter 
they will require merely protection from frost, and a 
Teyy spare supply of water, provided the wood has 
been well ripened, and they may be placed in any 
cold frame where they can be guarded from frost. As 
soon as they show sigas of growth in spring remove 
them to a close part of the greenhouse, and cut back 
the shoots rather freely, in order to cause them to break | 
close; and when free growth commences shift into 12- { 
inch pots, and maintain as close and moist an atmosphere ! 
as can be conveniently done, until the roots lay hold of 
the fresh soil. When this is the case the plants will 
grow vigorously and will require attention to train the 
shoots so as to secure handsome specimens. Persevere 
in bending down strong shoots, and tie them so as to , 
equalise the flow of the sap, and preserve compact 
specimens. Expose the plants freely to light and air, i 
giving a liberal supply of water at the root, and syringing 
over-head on the evenings of fine days. By the middle ! 
of July the plants should be nice-sized specimens, and ! 
covered with blossoms, and they may now be removed j 
to any light airy part of the greenhouse or conservatory, 
where they will be objects of considerable beauty till 
late in the autumn. After their beauty for the season 
is over, cut the shoots back to the well ripened wood, 
thinning them out pretty severely, and water very 
sparingly during winter. In spring, when they show I 
indications of growth, turn them out of their pots and j 
reduce the ball, taking care to injure the roots as little : 
as possible, and repot in the same sized pots. By annual j 
disrooting, and a free use of the knife to keep them 
dwarf, the specimens will last many years. Manure 
water in a weak state, given two or three times a week, 
when the pots are full of roots, will be of service. 

Good sandy, turfy loam, and rich, fibry peat, broken 
up into small pieces, adding a liberal quantity of sharp 
clean sand, and some small lumpy charcoal or potsherds, 
will be found the most suitable compost in which to grow 
Swainsonias. Alpha. 



plenty of pot room, plenty of water, with as much 
light as possible, and plenty of room between the plants 
in the bed. Any one who carries out these directions 
fully may make certain of being rewarded with plants 
that will do him credit. 

Poinsettiapidchcrrhia. — As this is universally admired 
for its gay crimson or rather scarlet bracts, which may 
frequently be seen enlivening the windows of the flower 
shops in Coveut Garden market, the following hint on 
its treatment may be useful. The plants are best raised 
from single eyes (like Vines) taken from the hard 
ripened wood of last year, and they should be repotted 
into sandy loam and leaf-mould ; keeping them in a 
Cucumber frame, and then in a low stove, as near the 
glass as possible. They do pretty well in a greenhouse 
or pit in July and August, if kept near the glass, and 
not drawn, and then put into the stove in September, 
watering them freely when in flower. Old plants which 
have been cut down never have the floral leaves so 
large as a young plant raised from eyes or cuttings. 



Home Correspondence. 

The Marie Louise Pear. — The name of " Nouvelle," 
recently applied to the name of this favourite variety in 
your columns (see p. 21), is I think calculated to mislead 
the public. In the catalogues of some of the Belgian 
nurserymen may be found the following names — Marie 
Louise (Duquesne), Marie Louise (Delcourt), Marie 
Louise (Van Mons), Marie Louise Nouvelle, Marie 
Louise de Jersey. These all resolve themselves into 
one, the Marie Louise, now universally cultivated in 
England, which was introduced about 30 years since, 
and at that time called by Mr. Braddick, from the free 
growing and hardy nature of the tree, " Braddick's 
Field Standard." M. de Jonghe in p. 21 alludes to the 
Eyewood Pear as a slender growing variety, requiring 
support while iu a young state to form a pyramid. He 
has most probably not received the true sort, for of all 
the Pears under cultivation the Eyewood is the most 
robust in its habit, forming most rapidly a strong thorny 
tree, with a constitution adapted for all soils. We must 
not rest till we have a race of Pears raised from seed in 
this country equally hardy and robust. T. R. 

Red Spider and French Beans. — I have to thank you 
for your advice as to the destruction of red spider (see 
p. 24). In your " Calendar of Operations " of the 
6th inst., under the head of " Hardy Fruit and Kitchen 
Garden," the following passage occurs : — " Also see to 
providing a supply of French Beans. These are 
frequently grown in the early vineries or in plant houses, 
but their liability to the attacks of red spider renders 
them dangerous inmates of such structures." It so 
happens that in the house where my Peaches were 
attacked with this insect last autumn a crop of French 
Beans was grown ; but I am unable to say whether it 
first appeared on the Beans or on the Peach trees. 
Since, however, this is the first instance of my ever 
having been troubled with red spider the circumstance 
is rather confirmatory of the correctness of your 
Calendar writer's remark. The practice of growing 
French Beans in vineries being very prevalent, if this 
vegetable has so strong a tendency to the production of 
the nuisance alluded to, many of your readers will 
doubtless be able more fully to corroborate the necessity 
of the caution than myself. S.B., January 17. 

Rain, at Carlesgill, Westerlcirlc, Dumfriesshire, in 
1854:— 



COMMON THINGS. 



Culture of the Cockscomb. — As a few well grown 
Cockscombs, stiff and formal though they be, are found 
to be very useful for decorating our greenhouses in 
summer, a word or two on their culture may not be 
uninteresting. About the beginning of next month 
make up a strong hot-bed for them, the same in every 
respect as is made up for Cucumbers. The mould in 
which Cockscombs have been grown to a large size, is 
half good strong loam and half good rich rotten dung 
and leaf-mould, but the greatest proportion dung. As 
soon as the plants are about 2 inches above ground, 
pot them off into 3-inch pots; and when they have nearly 
filled the pots with roots, shift them into some a size 
larger, A sharp heat should be kept up iu the bed, 
and when the plants are wanted to be dwarf they 
should be kept very near the glass. The atmospheric 
heat should be 60° at night, and in clear sunshiny 
weather, with plenty of air, 70° in the day time ; but a 
high temperature, without sun heat or bright light, 
would cause the plants to " draw," which would not only 
detract from their fine appearance, but likewise prevent 
the combs from attaining their proper size. Whenever it is 
found that the bed is too cold at the bottom of the pots, 
which should be plunged in sawdust or tan, recourse should 
be had toanew one, as it will be found thatmakinganew 
bed will, in the end, be attended with less trouble than 
the continually applying linings to an old one. Care 
should also be taken, at the repotting, to have the pots 
perfectly clean; in fact, the newer the pots are the 
better. The mould in the pots should never be allowed 
to get very dry. Pots 8 inches in diameter will be 
sufficiently large for the last shifting. To sum up in a 
few words, the success of growing Cockscombs well 
depends principally upon paying attention to giving 
them a good mild bottom-heat, plenty of air, 





[n. Cts. Wetdavs. 


In. Cts. Wet days 


January ... 


5.66 20 


August ... 6.60 16 


February ... 


5.38 16 


September 3.10 .. . 1C 


March 


3.49 13 


October ... 7.62 .. . 17 


April 


1.35 7 


November... 2.6S IS 


May 


3.33 25 


December ... 6.60 19 


June 


6.1S 16 


— 


July 


3.45 18 


55.44 195 




Average for 12 years, 57.79 


2d January 


... Therm. 5" 


22d October ... Therm. 22° 


3d January 


4 


28th December 15 


24th April 


22 





1 1th June, 2.50 of rain fell in 24 hours ; 2d August, 2.25 
of rain fell in 1 8 hours. J. Little. 

Bcriewers' Discoveries. — Good news for you, Mr. 
Editor. I can communicate to you two facts which are 
probably as new to yourself as they were to me. 
Pray do not dispute or question their authenticity, for 
they may both be found recorded in the September 
number of the "Quarterly." The first is (p. 300) 
that Mr. Myatt obtained the British Queen Strawberry 
by "judiciously grafting the old stock." The second is 
(p. 302) that lovers of Mangoes can purchase them in 
" luscious luxuriance" at the frequent auctions held in 
Monument Yard. When, Mr. Editor, will your jogtrot 
publication give us such new, true, and interesting 
matter as we can thus obtain from the. leading literary 
journal of Great Britain ? /. S. B. [These are curious 
instances of the little that clever men know of " com- 
mon things." Our correspondent will, however, we 
doubt not, agree with us in thinking that the article, 
notwithstanding the blemishes he points out, and others, 
is very interesting, and worthy the great periodical in 
which it appeared.] 

drafted Rhododendrons. — "J. R.'s " explanations of 
the principles on which he founds his objections to 
grafted Rhododendrons (see p. 821, 1854) do not, in 
my opinion, strengthen or establish his theory relative 
to the employment of layering instead of grafting ; he 
has not given sufficient proof that the stocks generally 
used are inferior in strength or luxuriance to the finer 
hybrids, which is necessary before it can be considered 
expedient to discontinue the practice of grafting. Hy- 
brids between arboreum and catawbiense or maximum 
(the seed being saved from either of the two last, other- 



wise the hybrids are not hardy) have the most robust 
habits of the crimson class, aud plants raised from seed 
always assume a bushy habit, it being an almost inva- 
riable rule that hybrids adopt the habit of the female 
parent, and it is found that seedlings from ponticum or 
maximum will from the first be far more luxuriant than 
any of their hybrids; this fact will be apparent on a careful 
examination of any large or at least varied collection. 
Your correspondent, moreover, does not do justice to 
the fact stated in my last communication regarding the 
scions of grafted plants emitting roots and becoming ulti- 
mately independent of the stocks by being planted deep, 
a circumstance which ought to have removed his doubts, 
even allowing his premises to be correct. In his remarks 
at p. 6, 1855, he himself completely upsets his own 
theory, for he there complains of the over luxuriance of 
the stocks, which cause annoyance by throwing up 
suckers. This of course could be easily got over by even 
common management, and the gardener or amateur who 
neglects or grudges to pay that attention to this truly 
splendid family of plants fully deserves to get all his fine 
hybrids starved. To prune and remove them is part 
of his routine of business, and as necessary as his 
annual rose or fruit tree pruning. This evil is certainly 
not of so great magnitude as to warrant a total cessation 
of the good and very often expedient practice of grafting. 
The evil, if at all worth speaking of, is seen most in 
Azaleas, wdiich during the first two or three years 
after being grafted, are apt to throw up suckers. 
These are, however, easily kept down, and as the scion 
gathers strength they gradually disappear. I could 
show " J. R." an extensive collection of Ghent varieties 
in this establishment, many of them grafted 14 years, 
which grow and thrive and flower every year to the 
admiration of all who see them, with none of the " broken 
off branch" appearance described by your correspondent. 
As regards the striking of Rhododendrons by cuttings, 
" J. R." will find by experience that though it is 
possible in some cases, it is as tedious and troublesome 
as in the case of Firs, if not more so, as it will take a 
great many years before they are fit to be planted out. 
Hugh Fraser, Stanwell Nurseries, Leith. 

Spade or Fork Husbandry. — Since the publication of 
the " Word in Season," this mode of cultivation has 
been rapidly spreading. Any well ascertained facts 
as to the cost may be useful. One of your corre- 
spondents, in a recent number of your Journal, seems to 
question the accuracy of Mr. Smith's statements as to 
this matter. I have had from 8 to 14 men at work on 
my farm for the last four or five weeks in double trench- 
ing with Parkes's forks, the depth of the soil brought 
up varying somewhat according to its quality (which 
also determines the price of the work), being in no case 
less than 15 inches, and in one full 18 inches. lam 
just now finishing a field of 5 acres, which from the 
great dryness of the last year works heavily ; the subsoil 
or under spit, which is placed uppermost in this enclosure, 
is principally a compact stony loam, but in one part a 
chalky marl. Probably the work is as difficult as would 
be found in most mixed soils. The stirred land as left by 
the men is 16 inches deep. The average of a day's 
work is between 5 and 6 rods each man, and the price 
I give for it is 6d. per rod. Two years ago, when the 
price of labour was lower, I had the same work done 
for 4£d, but in that case the under soil being mild brick 
earth it worked easier, and to the depth of 18 inches. For 
some of the men I purchase the forks, they paying me 
6d. per week for the use of them. Others purchase 
their own. I use Parkes's four-tined fork, the 
tiues of which are 13 inches long. I have to-day 
measured several of these forks, which have been 
daily in use for five weeks, aud the wear of the 
tines is from 3 to 4^ inches. In a less stony soil 
they would, of course, last much longer ; on an average 
I think the expense of the tool may be put down at 6d. 
per week. The fork thus shortened is probably a better 
implement for stirring the soil iu the summer, as recom- 
mended by Mr. Smith, than a new one, or for breaking 
up some 4 or 5 inches of strong clay where it is not 
desirable to go deeper. Mr. Parkes also engages to 
renew the worn-out forks if sent to his agents Messrs, 
Burgess and Key, of Newgate Street, at a cost of 3s. 6d. 
each. Occasionally, if carelessly used, a tine will break 
off at its junction with the cross bar, and I think they 
should be cast with more strength at that part, and the 
manufacturer would lose no credit if he was careful 
not to send out damaged work, which I have sometimes 
noticed. It is a costly tool for a labourer. None of my 
men earn less than 1 5s. per week, and some of them 
considerably more. I shall confine myself in this note 
to the cost of labour ; hereafter I shall hope to send 
you the results of this system of cultivation, when the 
facts are clearly realised. Henry Dixon, Dorwards Hall, 
Witham, Essex, Jan. 1 3. 



^ecu-ties?. 

Botanical, Dec. 14. — Prof. Balfour in the chair. — 
Dr. Balfour exhibited the following donations recently 
made to the Museum of Economic Botany at the Roya! 
Botanic Gardens : from Wm. Murray, Esq., sample of 
sugar obtained from the Sugar Pine (Pinus Lam- 
bertiana) ; from Chevalier Clausseu, specimens of 
paper-pulp and papers made from Corchorus olitorius, 
Tilia, Urtica dioica, Juncus, Pinus, Calluna vulgaris 
and Yaccinium Myrtillus ; and Tannate of Soda ex- 
tracted from the last mentioned. Dr. Balfour exhibited 
a peculiar concrete substance, called Pietra fungaia or' 
Mushroom Stone, receivedj from Naples by the Hon. 



3—1855.] 



Til B G A B l) i: N i. i:s' C II l:o\ [CL B. 






Lord Murray. Dr. Balfour road an extract from a 
letter he had received from Dr. W. A. Whito, Assistant 
Surgeon, 47th Regiment, dated "Camp bofore Sobas- 
topol, Nov. 17, I05i," accompanying seeds of a supeiior 
Melon lie had gathered in th« orchards on the banks of 
the KatBcha. "All who visited those orcliarde wore 
surprised at tho extraordinary abundance and variety 
of tho fruit-trees, Very many different varietieB of the 
.Apple and Pear, Peaches, Apricots, Nectarines, Quinces, 
tho I'lum, tho Cherry, tho Walnut, llio Almond, iho Fig, 
wore growing in the greatoBt profusion within the space 
of mi aorej whilst the eurrounding vineyards wt re laden 
with the finest Grapes. Vegetables too, were in great 
abundance, the enormous sizo of which excited our 
surprise, considering tho little apparent amount of 
labour oxpomlod on their cultivation. The garden 
implements woro rude and simple, a rich noil and a 
warm southern mm rendering any artificial operations 
unnecessary. Tho country after passing iho Belboo is 
thickly wooded with dwarf Oak for tho distance of about 
four miles, when a rapid descent lakes place into the 
valley of lnkermann, at tho south-western extremity of 
which Sebastopol is situated, which is surrounded with 
bare rocky hills nearly destitute of vegetation." Mr. 
W. Murray exhibited fresh specimens of the leaves, 
cones, and timber of numerous (Jonifeno, brought by 
him from California, anion;; which were Piuus Monti- 
cola, Jeffreyi, tuboreulata, Uonthaniiana, Lambertiana, 
Abies grandis, nobilis, Douglasii, with species of Thuja, 
Taxus, and Cupressus, and Cono of Wellingtonia 
gigantoa. lie stated that ho had likewise brought largo 
quantities of the seeds of most of them. Among the 
papers read were: — ]. Sketch of the Life of the late 
Prof. I',. Forbes. By Prof. Halfour. 2. On Hypericum 
angUoum. By Charles C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. In 
this paper the author states that he is disposed to look 
upon tho Hypericum found by Dr. Balfour on the banks 
of tho Glanmiro river, Ireland, as identical with II. 
hircinum. He also mentioned that Mr. Isaac Carrol, of 
Cork, looked upon the plant as having been introduced 
in the locality mentioned. Mr. B. is disposed to think 
that the true H. anglicum of Bertoloui exists in Britain. 
A specimen agreeing with it in character was found by 
Mr. T. R. Folwhele above Falmouth harbour, Cornwall, 
and specimens of the same kind exist in Dr. Balfour's 
Herbarium, gathered by him on the banks of the Crinau 
Canal, in Galway, Ireland, and near Culross. H. 
anglicum is represented in English Botany, t. 1225, 
under the uamo of II. Androsfomutn. It is distinguished 
chiefly by its much branched stem, two-winged pedun- 
cles, sub-cordate-ovate rather acute leaves, few-flowered 
cymes, ovate rather acute and unequal sepals, and by 
the styles exceeding the stamens. The paper will 
appear in the Annals of Natural History and in the 
Society's Transactions. 3. On the Structure of the 
Anthers of Erica. By John Lowe, Esq. The author 
remarked, " I have to bring before the Society's notice 
this evening a short sketch of two peculiar features 
occurring in the anthers of the Erica. The anthers of 
this genus are usually described in botanical works as 
consisting of two loculi, which open and discharge their 
pollen by means of lateral pores. So far this is true, 
for if we examine a fully expanded flower, the anthers 
will be seen to be free, aud to have a pore or rather 
slit on each side ; but if a young unexpanded flower be 
examined, the anthers instead of being free will be 
found to be connected together into the form of a circle, 
and no pores will now be seen. Their future discon- 
nection appears to be caused by the increase of the 
pollen in the same manner that valves are separated in 
valvular dehiscence. The first who noticed the pecu- 
liarity above mentioned was, I believe, that very accu- 
rate observer, Mr. Robert Brown. 4. Summary of the 
Flora of the Lake district of England. By Mr. James 
B. Davies. 



Notices of 23ooft$ t 

The Englishwoman in Russia; Impressions of the 

Society and Manners of the Russians at Home. By 

a Lady. 8vo. Murray. (10s. 6a!.) 
Russian Life in the Interior, or the Experiences of a 

Sportsman. By Ivan Tourghenieff, of Moscow. 

12mo. Black. (6s.) 
These two works convey a clear idea of the present 
state of society in Russia ; in the first we have a vivid 
picture of the habits of the higher orders, in the latter 
we find a copious illustration of couutry life and of the 
condition of the peasantry. Both appear to be the pro- 
ductions of persons intimately aequaiuted with the 
nation. The Englishwoman is a lady who resided in 
the country for 1 years, and only quitted it when the 
present war broke out ; the sportsman professes and 
seems to be a native country gentleman. The impression 
which our authors produce is unfavourable to the 
Russian character, and cannot fail to lower it in the 
eyes of strangers. Each tells the same story, although 
in different terms ; the Englishwoman with infinite 
grace and vivacity, the sportsman in a somewhat tedious 
but sufficiently graphic way. From both we gather the 
general fact that all classes of society are utterly lost to 
what in the western world constitutes high feeling— bru- 
tality characterises the government ; immorality society ; 
misery the peasantry ; venality everybody. There 
are many exceptions to this general charge, and it is 
right to state that among them is especially included the 
present Emperor, who is painted like an augel enthroned 
imong fiends. To give a notion of the state of 



lln ian high society as descrlbi d by the Englishwoman, 
ive i ike a h w of the very striking am cdo 
her pages arc crowded, 

A lady bud imprudi ntly tout I imo foi bidden 

Bubjeot at a masquerade : — 

" Tho next morning she wo dl igi il 

by a villi from mi ollicor of the secret police, who 
politely requested her to accompany him '-- l 
Orloff'i ohioo. Such an invitation we e, not to 

bo rof'ui ' il l be w< "I Lliltii" libit, ly. 'I ! I IB 

received hoc was uima.'biUie' Itself j he kindly pointed to 
a Beat that Btood near, and l>hui<ily procet di ! to 
a low questions concerning the previous evi 
amusement, to all of which the terrified lady tremblingly 
replied ' the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth,' for no equivocation would have availed bet En 
that place. When the interrogation was finished, the 
chair Buddenly Batik through the floor, and I am ashamed 
to sny that from the band of some unseen person below 
she received a correction such as little boys used for- 
merly to bo subjected to from the birch of old-fashioned 
schoolmasters." 

" The :;: • mixl'nrtunc ii rai'l to have owiirn 'I about 

four months ago to a certain noble princess from the 
south, who expressed some sympathy with the cause of 
the Western Powers. I have often asked Russians, 
when they were boasting of their great civilisation, if 
this wore a proof of it. Once the reply was that 'a 
great many of tho Russian ladies deserved to be beaten, 
and that it would do them a great deal of good.' At 
another time, iu speaking of the peasant-women being 

so treated, a certain Prince A replied that ' they 

were not worthy of tho title of women ; they were no 
better than cattle!'" 

" When abroad, the Russians invariably deny that 
such a state of things exists ; they will even sometimes 
attempt to hide it in their own country, which shows 
that at the least they have the grace to be ashamed of it." 

Money is the subject nearest to a Russian's heart : — 

'■ In no country is more avidity displayed in the pur- 
suit of gain ; only speak of a piece of silver, and a 
Russian's eyes sparkle at the sound, and he is ready to 
do anything in order to obtain it. Copecks and whisky 
are the two greatest temptations of his heart. M. 

P ski, a gentleman of education, assured me, only 

the morning I left St. Petersburg, that they were in 
much more danger from the pillage of the lower classes 
than from any exterior enemy ; and he expressed the 
greatest fears for the consequences of bringing so many 
thousands of wild savages of soldiers into the town, for, 
if they rose, it would be en masse, and he was fearful 
that the great temptation offered by the sight of a 
civilised capital for the first time would shortly prove an 
irresistible one ; if they did have an outbreak, it would 
sweep the upper classes away like a torrent." 

The treatment of serf's makes us shudder as we write : 

" One of the trials that took place before raj' friend's 
husband was that of a proprietress who had amused 
herself with shamefully cutting and maiming several 
children on her estates ; when asked what could have 
induced her to commit acts of such demoniacal cruelty, 
her reply was, ' C'etait pour me distraire ! ' She was 
exiled to Siberia." 

" During our stay in Jaroslaf a commission was sent 
from St. Petersburg to inquire into the manner in which 
the slaves of a neighbouring estate had been treated by 
their proprietress. Her shameful conduct had driven the 
unhappy serfs to such desperation that some of them had 
found the means to escape, and had fled to the capital ; 
they threw themselves at the feet of the Emperor, and 
implored him, in the name of God their common Father, 
to be their friend aud protector, and to do them justice, 
as they had none other that would help them. His 
Majesty (wdio, if unbiassed by evil counsellors and inte- 
rested landowners, is always ready to listen to the 
prayers of his poor peasants) promised that, if he found 
that they were guiltless, and had spoken truly, he would 
see that they received justice, and immediately gave 
orders that the strictest inquiries should be made con- 
cerning them. The result was that the estate was taken 
from the lady wdio had so ill-treated the peasants ; she 
was allowed a small pension, enough to keep her from 
actual want, out of the rents, aud the property was put 
uuder the care of trustees, that she should uo longer 
have the power in her hands which she had so disgrace- 
fully abused. Even her daughters were removed from 
her guardianship, lest her example should have a bad 
influence on them. 

" Many other instances have been mentioned to me 
in which the Emperor has displayed as much humanity 
as justice ; undoubtedly there would be fewer abuses 
were it possible that the knowledge of them could reach 
him ; but thousands of vile and unjust actions are com- 
mitted that 'are hushed up aud escape the punishment 
they deserve. The Russians staud infinitely more in 
fear of the Emperor than they do of their Creator. The 
common saying, ' The Czar is near, but God is far off," 
gives a good idea of their feeling on the subject." 

After reading such anecdotes as these we suspect that 
the reader will be tempted to ask with us — what then 
is the difference between Russian civilisation and 
Turkish barbarism I It is some consolation to find that 
so well-informed a person as our very clever and enter- 
taining authoress is of opinion that this present state of 
things cannot last, but that some tremendous political 
hurrieaue is about to sweep over the country and purify 
the atmosphere ; that in fact the Russians have already 
arrived at the reign of their Louis XV. 



Garden Memoranda. 
Lonn ii 

Mr, Loddlgi : 

• »« fell 

; 

building r proposed new sin 

■ ■ 
numcroo remains. Mr. Loddiges has, 

in< 1 bin unrivalled ■ 
Orchids and I 

., | 

on the outh •■ ol the old nursery, snd 
behind his • , boOM 

(tho old Heath-hoi ofed Louses, 

together with a small show ho 
colli etion or i 
those in bloom in thi 
Bictonii nsc, 
several Zygonetalun 

of Lycastc Skinneri, and, what often found 

in i 'in, Dendrobium Bpceiosum. There w»« also 
in this house, though not in flower, a iir^-e compact 
mass of Lo-lia superbiens, which promises raaj 
two more to be a noble specimen. In one of the span- 
roofed houses Sopbronitis grandiflora was in Hi 
blocks suspended from thi roof, and on a shelf below 
them were several plants of Brougbtonia sanguines, the 
bright crimson flowers of which have a cheerful 
ance at this season of the year. This plant requires 
little moisture, but it likes plenty of light and beat, and 
therefore it is found to do best when grown dose to the 
glass, where it gets well roasted by ihe sun. The Urge 
yellow Oncidium bifolium and one or two Lady's clippers 
were also in flower in this stove. The other span-roofed 
bouse is glazed with rough plate glass, and is I 
through the show-house, which is at present fib' 
Camellias and a few rare Ferns. Among the latter was 
a noble plant of the handsome Gleichenia scandens, a 
New Holland species nearly allied to G. microphylla ; 
also Mertensia liabellata, another New Holland 
of great beauty ; and here, in a Wnrdian case, was like- 
wise the New Zealand Todea pellucida in the shape of a 
little tree with short stem and spreading branches (leaves). 
This is a Fern which requires a good deal of care to 
cultivate, and it is very difficult to propagate ; its 
beauty, however, amply repays any extra attention 
which it may demand. The Orchid-bouse connected 
with the show-house just mentioned is glazed with 
rough plate-glass, and a little strip of z'nc 
2 inches wide, bent to a right angle in the middle, is 
tacked on below each astragal, in order to cany* off 
condensed moisture which would otherwise fall on the 
plants in the shape of drip. This is found to be a cheap 
and good way of remedying the evil. Among plants in 
flower in this bouse, we remarked Dendrobium anos- 
mum, a handsomer kind than D. macropbyllum, to 
which it is related, and it has none of that Rhubarb 
scent about it which belongs to the last-named species. 
Associated with it were also D. albo-sanguineum and 
Dalhousieanum, the ivory-white flowered Cymbidium 
eburneum, the variety of Aerides affine sometimes 
called Colonel Fielding's Foxbrush, a noble plant of 
Ccelogyne asperata, otherwise called Lowii, Ansellia 
africana, and a few other plants, all of which were in 
very good condition. 



FLORICU L.TU RE. 

Pansies in Pots — My cold frames are again becom- 
ing gay with these delightful spring flowers. Duke of 
| Norfolk. Sir Philip Sidney, Disraeli, Ophir, Robert 
Burns, Euphemia, France Cycole, Mrs. Beck, Duke of 
Perth, Climax, and one or two seedlings which I expect 
will be first class flowers, already arrest attention. Those 
who have never tried to cultivate the Pansy in lb 
have little idea what a profusion of really gay flowers is 
produced by this plant during the whole of the early 
months ; and with proper attention they will blossom 
in good character till the latter part of May. As 
regards cultivation, little need be said ; for the Pansy 
is not difficult to manage. Plants for early flowering 
should be potted up from the open ground in 
October. If the weather is open in the las; week 
in January, or the first week in February, begin 
to repot generally, using soil consisting of good 
decomposed turfy loam, rotten manure, a little kaf- 
mould, and coarse sand, the latter in proportion to the 
nature of the loam. The soil should not be pressed hard 
with the hand ; no water should be given for a day or 
two after potting. Before, as well as after this opera- 
tion, the plants must be kept well np to the glass. They 
should have from two to six shoots, or strong leaders: 
and to keep them to these chosen shoots, a number of 
small ones must from time to time be removed. These 
cuttinas answer the double purpose of strengthening the 
main shoots, and producing a stock of young plants 
which will supply the place of the old ones when worn 
out. Keep the frames in whieh tbey are ■ 
whenever tlie weather is favourable, pulling the tights 
back or tilting them up ; maintain the plants in a grow- 
ing state by watering them as often as they require it, 
going over them for this purpose every day. Plants 
that have several shoots should be tied into shape, 
placing the centre-branch upright in the middle, and 



10 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 20, 



the remainder at equal distances all round ; but the 
plant must be shaped according to the number of 
shoots : three leading branched are sufficient if cut 
blooms only are required. Another advantage is, that 
the same plants, from the succession of bloom they pro- 
duce, will answer the double purpose of exhibiting in 
pots or stands of cut flowers. Alter the putting, as 
above recommended, has taken place, take the earliest 
opportunity at which the ground is in a fit state, to 
plant out any stock not required to bloom under glass, 
or plants that have been wintered in stores, &c., which 
will bloom through May or June, and produce a stock 
of good healthy cuttings. By following the simple and 
inexpensive treatment just recommended, I am sure 
that those who take the little trouble that it entails will 
not fail to be gratified by a fine display of bloom, which, 
from its long continuance, will most certainly afford 
much gratification. T, 

Tun Auricula. — About the middle of March, if 
the weather is fine, the trusses will be getting suffi- 
ciently forward to select those intended for exhibi- 
tion. Seven pips are the lowest number allowed 
by our metropolitan societies ; therefore select the 
most promising, containing that number and up- 
wards. Those with round buds, as nearly of a size 
as possible, the truss also round and compact, should 
be particularly selected, and if there are any monster 
pips among them with large oblong tubes or other 
deformities, remove them while young. At this stage 
of their growth, care must be taken in watering that 
none be allowed to fall into the tubes or pipe, if it 
happen to be exposed, as is the case with some varieties ; 
for although tin* buds be so young, the meal of the eye 
may be formed, and if so the water will run the meal 
over the ground-colour, and when the blossom is ex- 
panded it will be found dull and unfit for exhibition. 
The mealy-grass varieties require a little extra atten- 
tion, for their beauty is much increased by preserving 
the white powder on their foliage. To obtain this 
object without drawing the plauts more than possible, 
I nail a strip of wood on each side the centre bar of the 
frame, of sufficient width to shelter them from rain, and 
place the plants beneath it. By this means they enjoy 
a free circulation of air and light till iu a proper state 
of forwardness to remove under the hand-glasses, or on 
!he stage. L. 

Polyanthuses in Pots.— The Polyanthus under pot- 
i-uUure does best in a western aspect from the present 
time to the end of its blooming. Give as much air 
jfpossible during the day, unless strong cold winds are 
ilowing ; then keep the lights on. If the frame is in a 
western aspect, give air at back, by lifting the lights 
.about three inches; but if in a southern one, lift the 
lights at ths front. Protect them at night : a mat 
or two thrown over the frame will be advisable. Top- 
dress as early next month as you can, if the atmo- 
sphere is riot frosty. Polyanthuses thrive best in a 
cool soil, rather strong iu quality than otherwise. One 
measure of decomposed cow-manure, two of leaf-mould, 
and two of strong loam (top spit), are suitable for them; 
but for top-dressing only, the compost given for the 
Auricula will answer. Water them moderately, in- 
creasing the quantity as the plants increase in growth ; 
and allow them to receive light showers during the 
month when the weather is open. B. W. 



Calendar of Operations. 

(For the ensuing week.) 
f 

PLANT DEPARTMENT. 
Conseuvatory, &c. — Where the twiners for covering 
the roof are grown in boxes, or have but limited root 
room, as much of the surface soil should be removed 
annually as can be done without seriously injuring the 
-roots, replacing it with some good rich, ffresh material, 
■and this cannot be done at a better season than the 
present. The conservatory or show-house should very 
soon be full of floral beauty. Camellias, Lnculias, 
Epacrises, Heaths, Primulas, Mignonette, Tree Violets, 

• Cinerarias, Daphne indiea, and many other showy 
things, may easily be had in bloom about this time ; 
and, with proper convenience, a few Poses and other 
forced plants, as Oranges, bulbs, &c, should also be 

■ coming in, and will greatly assist in maintaining the 
gaiety so desirable in this house. 

FORCING DEPARTMENT. 
Pinery. — There is often considerable difficulty expe- 
rienced in getting the requisite number of plants to show 
fruit at this season, and where this is the case every 

-advantage should be taken of mild weather to maintain 
a brisk temperature, which may be kept at from 70° 
to 75° by night, and 80° to 85° by day. The difficulty 
■of getting plants to show fruit is generally the result 
of their growth not having been properly matured in 
time to allow the plants a period of comparative rest 
before subjecting them to forcing with the view of 
getting them to show fruit, and where any difficulty 
of this kind is experienced timely attention should be 
given to the preparation of the plants for another 
season, which is the only means of having them at 
command. All that can be done this season, however, 
with backward plants will be to take advantage of bright 
days to maintain a brisk temperature, letting it rise 
to 80° or 85° with sunshine, and 70° to 75° should be 
secured at night. Maintain a moist growing atmo- 
sphere, but do not syringe plants overhead that are 
showing fruit. Also see that the roots are in a properly 
moist state, using tepid water where any is wanted. 
Vinery.— In houses being started use means to get the 



buds to break regularly, and where necessary bend the 
Vines, raising the backward buds to the highest point ; 
maintain a moist atmosphere, and sprinkle the Vines 
morning and afternoon. When the buds begin to break 
the night temperature may be increased a lew degrees, 
but it should not exceed 55° until they are all fairly 
started, and 65° by day should not be exceeded except 
with sunshine and air. Rub off all superfluous buds, 
taking care to leave the stronger ones, but in cases where 
there is any fear about the show of fruit, it will be 
advisable to leave all promising buds until the bunches 
can be perceived. It is only in cases, however, where 
the Vines are in a bad state that there need be any fear 
about destroying all superfluous buds as soon as this can 
be done. Admit air on every mild day, using a suf- 
ficient amount of fire heat to maintain the proper tem- 
perature. Look well to the border, and see that it is 
protected from wet or sudden changes of weather ; and, 
where fermenting materials are used, turn them as often 
as necessary, adding a small quantity of fresh leaves 
and dung, in order to maintain a steady heat. 

FLOWER GARDEN AND SHRUBBERIES. 
Let the most be made of fine weather when" it 
returns, in the way of pushing forward new work, 
alterations, and all out-doors operations, for we may 
expect any time to have unfavourable weather for such 
work, and the ordinary spring duties will shortly be 
requiring attention. Where the turf is at all unlevel 
time should be spared in course of this or next month 
to repair this, as if lifted later than February it might 
require some attention to get it to take quickly. Unlevel 
turf is an eyesore the season round, and it makes the 
mowing more tedious and difficult, hence it is worth an 
effort to spare time to make whatever little repairs may 
be necessary here. Sweep lawns occasionally to clear 
them of fallen bits of branches, &c., and use the roller 
here and on gravel frequently to secure a firm smooth 
surface. Let the stock of plants, except those that may 
be wanted to furnish cuttings, be freely exposed to air 
whenever the weather will admit, so as to keep them 
hard and render them less liable to damp off in the event 
of their having to be kept covered up for some time 
Any of the stock from which many cuttings are wanted 
should be removed to a light warm situation without 
loss of time, first washing the pots and clearing aud 
adding a little fresh soil to the surface of the ball. Some 
kinds of Verbenas, &c:, are very subject to mildew when 
placed in heat in the winter season, but this is easily 
kept in check by means of sulphur, only let the sulphur 
be applied the moment the pest makes its appearance. 

HARDY FRUIT AND KITCHEN GARDEN. 
If any planting of fruit trees still remains to be clone 
this should be seen to very soon, and every available 
despatch used to get it completed. If it is worth while 
to occupy ground with fruit trees, and incur the 
expense, &c, of planting them, it Certainly is worth 
consideration whether the ground is in the best possible 
state of preparation for being planted with fruit trees, 
and to incur any expense and trouble which may be 
requisite in order to render the ground as suitable as can 
be made for the kind of trees with which it is to be 
planted. To do this is seldom a work involving much 
direct outlay, for provided the ground is well drained, 
there is little else required except labour, materials for 
concreting, and a supply of good loamy soil, all of 
which cau generally be obtained about most places. 
But it is useless to plant trees without there is a fair 
prospect of their doing well, and the necessary prepara- 
tions for securing this can be more conveniently, cheaply, 
and efficaciously made before planting than afterwards, 
and the requisite preparations should be made, even if 
doing this should necessitate putting off planting until 
another season. Push forward the digging or trenching 
as the case may be, and get all vacant ground turned 
over as soon after this as circumstances will admit. In 
the kitchen garden as in other departments alterations 
will occasionally be required, such as taking up and 
relaying Box-edgings that have become imperfect, or 
those that have grown too strong and bulky, turning or 
covering walks with fresh gravel, and such jobs should 
be done if possible before the busy season. 



STATE OF THE WEATHER AT CHISWICK, NEAR LONDON. 
For the week ending Jan. 18, IS.'>5, hb observed at the Horticultural Garden*. 























Babumbteb. 






Wind 


Jan. 


a 


Ol the Air. Otthe 


Earth 




Max. 


film. 


Max. 


Mid. 


Mean 


1 toot 
deep. 


2 lett 
deep. 


Friday IS 


23 


30,543 


3(1.519 


41 


32 


36.5 


41 


45 


N.E. 


Sdtur. 13 




30.530 


30.432 


42 


26 




43 


444 


N.E. 


Sunday 14 


26 


30.4 f 8 


30.434 


41 


19 


3i '.0 


43 


44 


N.E. 


Mon.. la 


2'i 


3n.4-i6 


30.223 




21 


•:s.o , 


41 


43 


VV. 


Tues. iC 


Si 


30.081 


30.nl 7 




22 


31.0 


4C 


42 


N. 


Wed. 17 




3IU77 


30.011 


32 


20 


26.0 


39 


42 


N.E. 


Thurs. 13 


« 


30.118 


29.955 


34 


13 


26.0 


39 


43.0 


N.E. 


Average . 


30.325 


'in 1.7 


37. S 


22.6 


30.2 


41.2 



an. 12— Fossy ; hazy clouds ; overcast. 

— 13— Hazy; overcast; l'rosly-at nijhf. 

— 14— Fine; cloudy; clear; sharp frost at nipht. 

— 15— Hazy clouds; clear aud frosty; slight snow. 

— 16— Drizzly; fine; overcast; frosty. 

— 17— Snowing slightly ; heavy snow-showers ; clear and cold; hard 

frost. 

— 18 — Frosty; clear and cold; snowing. 

Mean temperature of the week GJ deg. helow the average. 
RECORD OF THE WEATHER AT CHISWICK, 
During the last 29 years, for the ensuing week, ending Jan. 27, If 65. 







$U 


a o. 

£S 


No. Of 
Yeersin 
which it 
Rained. 


Greatest 
Quantity 
ol Ruin. 


Prevailing Wind*. 


Jan. 


55 


'A 

4 


=4 

4 


1 


7 7 


4 


Z 


Sunday 21 


42.6 


33.0 


G7-S 


13 


0.21 in 


2 


Mon. 22 


42.3 


33.6 


3H.2 


14 


0.14 


'/ 


4 


1 


a 


win 


7 


y 


Tues. 2.1 


44.5 


33.5 


39.0 


14 


0.60 


1 


a 


2 


3 


-"» ** 


'£ 


4 


Wed. 24 


42.5 


32.5 


37.5 


10 


H.11 


S 


a 


2 


1 


;ni 


5 


1 


Thurs. 25 


44.3 


31.5 


38.9 


11 


0.50 


1 


H 


a 


1 


•i in 


4 


3 


Friday 26 


45.0 


32.3 


33.7 


12 


0.17 


1 


4 


3 


3 


1 10 


4 


3 


Satur. 27 


42.8 


32.7 


37 M 


10 


CU7 




.'i 


4 


— 


4.12 4 


— 



The highest temperature during the above period occurred on the 23d, 
1354— therm. 53 deg. ; and the lowest on the 25th, 1927— therm. 15 "leg. 



Notices to Correspondents. 

Camellias : B. The blemishes on the petals of your flowers are, 
doubtless, caused by cold and damp. % 

Chesnuts: XX will be obliged by some of our correspondents 
informing him what is the best mode of preserving these from 
the ravages of mice after they are sown. 

Geological Advertisement: Doone. What would you think of 
such an advertisement as this?—" Naturalists are hereby re- 
quested to satisfactorily deny the following statements: — The 
sun shines by day. The solid constituents of plants are formed 
out of water, carbon, nitrogen, and various saline matters. The 
best reply to the above will be published nt the expense of the 
Challenger, provided it be not too long." "Would you not think 
the advertiser a lunatic? 

Holly Hkdge: A B. There is no objection to the plan proposed; 
but a better way would, perhaps, be in the end of August or 
beginning of September to take up the whole of the hedge and 
replant it, trenching the ground as you proceed, and working in 
young plants where they are wanted. As you plant settle the 
soil well about the roots with water; but do not trample it, and 
cover in the whole with a little dry soil to keep in the moisture. 
If you have plenty of manure, a small quantity of it well 
rotted may be mixed with the mould, which is put about the 
roots ; but the best way would be to use it in the shape of good 
mulching on the surface. % 

Ice : WB. Do not use salt. Pick the ice from any clean pond or 
river. Do not pound it, but pack it as closely as possible, and 
remember that the more solid the pieces are the better it keeps. 
The thin surface ice with which we are so often obliged to be 
satisfied in this country keeps badly. If you could freeze the 
whole contents of your ice house into a solid mas?, it would 
keep better; but how will you get it out when you want it? 

Insects: T Y. The white matter on the shreds of your Plum 
tree seems to be the secretion of a coccus or scale insect ; if so, 
your trees ought to be scrubbed with a brush and hot water 
(140°), and all the shreds and dead wood cut away. IF. 

Kitcuen Garden Refuse : Young Gardener. Provide a hole well 
lined with puddled clay; into this put daily all your soft 
vegetable refuse, waste kitchen stuff, and house slops. "When- 
ever you burn weeds, or sticks, or clay, add the ashes to the heap. 
Carry to it all the leaves you don't want for leaf mould. After 
laying five or six summer months, take it out, turn it well over, 
and begin a new heap. In six months more it will be good 
manure. You may hasten its decay and improve its quality by 
adding gas-water I'r-m the gas-works if they arc near. As to 
the seeds of weeds, if you are good for anything «s a gardener, 
no weeds will be allowed to seed near you. Do not add old tan, 
which ruins a "mixen," unless you burn it, when its ashes 
become as valuable as other wood ashes. If the heap becomes 
offensive, you must either add peat charcoal, or cover it with 
earth. 

Mossy Apple Trees: Lichen. Scrape the moss off by all means, 
and burn it. You need not meddle with the twigs, but confine 
the operation to the trunk and main branches, which you 
cannot easily hurt. A trowel is a good instrument, as it is 
handy to use and takes off all the loose bark as well. 

Names of Plants : "We have been so often obliged to reluctantly 
decline naming heaps of dried or other plants, that we venture 
to request our correspondents to recollect that we never have, 
or could have undertaken an unlimited duty of this kind. 
Young gardeners, to whom these remarks more especially apply, 
should bear in mind that, before applying to us for assistance, 
they should exhaust their other means of gaining information. 
We cannot save them the trouble of examining and thinking 
for themselves ; nor would it be desirable if we could. All we 
can do is to help them— and that most willingly. It is now- 
requested that, in future, not more than four plants may bo 
sent us at one time. — Leo. It is Ipomcea Quamoclit, a tender 
annual. It requires rich warm soil, and a warm corner in the 
garden, when all night cold is over. Your plants seem to have 
died from wet, cold, and the want of fresh air. We should not 
sow it before April. We have seen it flowering beautifully iu 
the warm light anil of Norfolk. 

Names of Fruits : G F. From your description and sketch of 
the Apple grown about Norwich, it is, doubtless, Hubbard's 
Pearniam.— B A. 1, Early Nonpareil; 2, Easter Pippin; 3, 
Like Golden Keinette; 5, Bedfordshire Foundling; 6, Syku 
House Russet. The Pear is unknown, probably something 
wild ; you may mark it worthless. j| 

Oxalis : A H. would be glad of a list of hardy Oxalis, conspicu- 
ous enough to be worth one's cultivating. He ouly knows of 
Floribuuda, and Deppii, and Bowii doubtful. 

Pomoloqical Societv : J T. We do not know what the arrange- 
ments are. You should apply to the Secretary, 20, Bedford 
Street Covent Garden. 

Potato Yam: Z. You have received young tubers, not sets. The 
latter are, wc presume, unattainable at present. 

Sikkim Rhododendrons : Old Sub. The following varieties of 
these are now set with flower-buds in the Hort. Society's Garden 
nt Chiswick, viz., Edgeworthi, cinnabarinum, glaucum and its 
dwarf variety, ciliatum and its variety, alphium, Theffiflorum, 
and niveiim."^ 

Temperature : Strawberry-leaf. The following was the ground 
temperature at 1 foot and at 2 feet deep, for the months of 
November and December, from 1844 to 1854: inclusive: — 



Depth. Months. 1S54. 1853. 1852. 1851. 1S50. 1849. 



lfoot ...-[ 



November 46.53 
December 42.69 



November 47.58 



2 feet J No 

.Jieet ...-j December (44,43 



44.28 
38.19 



47.30 
41.56 



47.97 
45.69 



47 .S5 
45.17 



41.18 
41.26 



41.96 
41.06 



46.28 

40.54 



46.96 
41.32 



47 75 49.05 
42.30 43.01 



1 foot .. | 



2 feet 



=1 



November 
December 



November 
December 



184S. 



44.83 
43.59 



46 06 
45.29 



47.96 
44.14 



49.71 
45.67 



48.03 
38.21 



49.61 
41.06 



46.20' 
41.4S 



47.7:1 
43.47 



1844, 



46.45 
36.95 



45.85 
39.79 



Nov. 



Dec. 



From the above it appears, that in 
J" The highest mean temperature occurred in 1846.. .48.03 
\ The lowest ditto ditto 1851.. 41.18 

f The highest mean temperature occurred in 1S52. ..45.69 
{ The lowest ditto ditto 1844.. 36.95 

Tritomas: A IT. solicits information respecting these plants, 
especially as to Aurea and Burchelli. 

Vegetables: A R. The Persil-Celeri (Neapolitan or Celery- 
leaved Parsley), is a large sort of Parsley: the leaf-stalks are 
blanched and eaten like those of Celery. In order to blanch 
the stalks, they must of course he earthed up. The Navet 
jaune de Finlande or Yellow Finland Turnip, is an excellent, 
small, regularly-formed Turnip with sugary tender flesh. 
The top is small, as is also the tap root; the latter proceeds 
from the centre of an evenly-rounded bottom. As a garden 
Turnip for winter use it well deserves cultivation. j[ 

Woods and Forests : Quercus. The last Blue book we have 
seen is No. 377, ordered to be printed July 17, 1S54. We have 
before us a "report," dated Dec. 7, 1854, by Messrs. Mathews, 
Murton, and Menzies upon the state of the forests and their 
management, but we can place no confidence in the state- 
ments of persons who could be concerned in such a dark trans- 
action as that which ended in the dismissal of Mr. Brown. 

Misc. : Diss. It is a rule at all publishing offices not to interfere 
with the wording of advertisements, or to refuse the insertion 
of anything unless against good morals. 

* m * As usual, many communications have been'received too late 
and others are unavoidably detainedtill the necessary inquiries 
can be made. 



3—1855.] 



Til E A.G R EC i LTD R A L GAZETTE. 



11 



PERUVIAN GUANO, Bolivian Guano, Suporphos- 
plmto of Lime, Nitrate of Soda, 8u«af Scum, and ovory 
description of Artificial Manurrts, Mn«eod Cakon, &o, 
Wm. IkoltB CA TtHIt, 10, Murk l-n,u\ London. 

rpHJE FOLLOWING MANURES are manufactured 
■t- at Mr, Imwkh' Factory, Doptford Orcolc:— Turnip Man tiro, 
ll, per ton; Superphosphate of Llmo, 71.; Sulphuric Acid and 
CoprolltOB, Ql. 

Offlco, 69, Klrif,' winiiini Strcot, City, London. 
N.B. Genuine Peruvian Guano, guaranteed to contain lflpfi* 
cent. of animonla. Niinito of Soda, Sulphate of Ammonia, and 
otlmr Chondral ManuroH, 

npHB LONDON MANUItK COMPANY bcgtoen.il 

L tho. .-attention of AgrloulturlBtn to llialr WHEAT and 

CLOVKit JM A N UKi;s for present 1 tiso. Tho London Manure 

Company alno offer Genulno Peruvian Guano, Nitrate of Soda, 

Concern ruled 1'iiile, Kuperphn, phuto i>t' Limo, I'luhnry and Other 

Saltn, and nil Artificial Manures of value. The London Mn 'O 

Company guarantee Peruvian Guano and every Manure they 

Hllpply to lie fltrlOtly RGllUtllO. Edwaiw PuilBBB, Hue. 

Bridge Street, BlackA-lara. 

CYANIC MANURE COMPANY. 
WHITE'S PA T ENTB. 
Directors, 
Tho lion. .1. w. ForlOBono, 17, GroBvcnov Squnre, Ohatrman, 
Tho I Inti. R, E, Unwind, D.C.L., Garden Court, Temple. 
G. P. Irvlno, Etjq,, 15, Pall Mull. 
Cononil Macdonald, C.B., 72, OnBlow Square, Brompton. 
Nowinn s. Scott, Bnq., 0, LowndoB street, Balgrave S<niaro< 
flankers— MoHBra. Horrlofl, Farquhar, & Co., St. Jamoa'd Street. 

Ayritluttunil C/iimiif Williinii While, F.hi|. 

SdHcitois— Mokhi'h. Vullmico & Viilliutoo, 'JO, Essex Strcot, Strnnd. 

Secretary— Mr. W. P. Mould. 

OJiccx, :17, Charing Cross, London. 

ThiH Company in formed for tho manufacture and supply of tho 
three following valuable preparations, In von tod and patented by 
Mr. William WniTKi— CYA'tflC MANURE, CYANIC DEO- 
DORISING POWDER, CYANIC PLANT-PRESERVATIVE. 

Tho Cyanic Manure in the successful result of many years' 
patient Investigation Into tlio economy of tho vegetable kingdom, 
and poHHOKHOH Hovoml distinctive featured of superiority over 
ordinary farm-yard manure, and the grout majority <>t' those 
known an artificial. To tho Agriculturist; it will be found to 
afford all the- elements of fertilisation in their just proportions; 
this assertion Is founded on positive experience. It is manufac- 
tured in the form of a portable inodorous potoclcr, ntul is used fit 
tlio average rote of three out. to the aero. Like Guano, it in sown 
broadcast or drilled in with the seed; and for Wheat and other 
grain crops Is most efficacious'. In its application to Turnips, 
Swedes, Mangold Wurzbl, ami root chops generally, as also 
to -Clover- and Grasses, it has proved to be equally successful. 
To tho Gardener it is essentially valuable, as presenting the 
richest manure In the simplest form, which can at pleasure be 
used by either being drilled in with the seed, or broadcast over 
the soil. Price of tho Cyanic Manure, 8/. per ton, packages in- 
■cluded, and delivered free' at all the Railway Stations and Wharfs 
in London. The above are not submitted to the public until 
-every assertion relative to them has been tested by patient and 
successful experiments, and witnessed by judges of the first 
authority.— Orders addressed to the Secreiary, at the Offices of 
the Company, No. 37, Charing Cross, London, or to the several 
Agents, will receive prompt attention. 
Agents,— London : Mr. J. E. Saunders, 7, Lower Thames Street. 

■ Exe ter: Messrs. Lucombe, Piece , & Co., Seedsmen. 

A KTIF1CJAL MANURES, &c— Manufacturers and 
** others engaged in making ARTIFICIAL MANURES may 
obtain every necessary instruction fur their economical and 
efficient preparation, by applying to J. C. Nbsbit, F.G.S., &c, 
Principal of tho Agricultural and Chemical College, Kennington, 
Loudon. Analyses of Soils, Guanos, Superphosphates of Lime, 
Coprolites, &c, and Assays of Gold, Silver, and other Minerals, 
are executed with accuracy and dispatch. 

Gentlemen desirous of receiving instructions in Chemical 
Analyses and Assaying, will find ample facility and accommoda- 
tionat the College. 

MANURE TRADE AGENCY.— The Advertisers 
require AGENTS for tbe sale of a new and first-class 
Manure. As they will be .supplied with an article .equal, if not 
superior to any art ricitU manure of the day,. it is needless for 
those who expect a large commission for the sale of a worthless 
Article to apply.— Alpha, care of Mr. Jordan, fl Gracechuich 
Street, London. 

ROT IN SHEEP.— We, the undersigned Church- 
wardens and Overseers of Castor, near Peterborough, 
Northamptonshire, wish to inform the public that we have had 
Medicine from Mr. FOUNTAIN, Veterinary* Surgeon, 
&c, Market Deeping, Lincolnshire, for years, for the direful 
-disease, the Rot in Sheep; snd we do declare that it has cured 
«very Sheep we and our neighbours in the adjoining parishes 
have given it to, although in the last stage and in the lambing 
season; and we highly recommend Mr. Fountain, and will 
satisfy every inquiry. 

Wf Callow, Peter Dickens, 
Wit. Berripoe, Kicnn. Marrott. 

CLAYTON, SHUTTLEWOKTH, and CO/S 
PRIZE PORTABLE STEAM-ENGINES, and COM- 
BINED THRASHING, STRAW SHAKING, RIDDLING, 
Att_ "WINNOWING MACHINE may be seen at their London 
Establishment, G, Fitzroy Tecrace, New Road, where all infor- 
mation relative thereto can be obtained. These Machines are 
constructed to born Barley, and make a perfect separation of the 
chaff from the pulse. They are litted with Elevators, which 
deposit the grain into bags, and beyond the feeder of Machine 
require no hands except to take away tbe Corn, &c,, as thrashed, 
the whole of tbe operations being performed by self-acting 
machinery, whereby the Corn, Straw, Chaff, and Pulse are 
delivered in the places assigned for them. 

C. S. and Co. have paid special attention to this class of 
Machinery, and Fixed Barn Machinery, and from the position 
they have taken at tbe Royal and all the leading agricultural 
shows of England, flatter themselves that for efficiency, dura- 
bility, and simplicity; their Engines and Machines "are not 
surpassed by any other maker in England. All letters for- 
warded to the Works at Lincoln will have immediate attention : 
and Illustrated Catalogues forwarded to all parts of the kingdom 
postage free, 

WATERPROOF PATHS.— BARN AIMD CATTLE SHED 
FLOORS. 

THOSE who would enjoy their Gardens during the 
winter months should construct their walks of PORTLAND 
CEMENT CONCRETE, which are formed thus:— Screen the 
gravel of which the path isat present made from the loam which 
is mixed with it .and to every part of clean gravel add one of sharp 
river sand. To five parts of such equal mixture add one of Port- 
land Cement, and incorporate the whole well in the drv state before 
applying the water. It may then be laid on 2 inches thick. Any 
labourer can mix and spread it. No tool is required beyond the 
spade, and in 48 hours it becomes as hard as a rock. Vegetation 
cannot grow through or upon it, and it resists the action of the 
severest trost. It ia necessary, as water does not soak through it, 
to give a fall from tbe middle of the path towards the sides. 
- ?-^ e RIUne preparation makes first-rate paving for BARNS, 
CATTLE-SHEDS, FARM-YARDS, and all other situations 
where a clean, bard bottom is a desideratum. May be laid in 
winter equally well as in summer. 

Manufacturers of the Cement, J. B. White & Brothers, 
Mllfcank Street, Westminster. 



PRIZE MEDAL L861, 
AT A V I. II V BOO N -1 I C A J. n A T I.. 

QaMUBL CUNDY, Mason and Builder, Pihlico 

^ Ma in? 1 1 andSTOVR W0BK8, Bi Igr&vc Wharf, Lower R 
Place, IMmlJeo, London. 

M nihil' Chlinnoy-pfcccfl m«nufnctured by In pn ■■■ ■■ mnditnorr. 
Tin' public in-' Invited •" vU w tl clock, onooonllcd f-<r quality 
11 ud prlco. A good Mnrblo i litmni rj r *nli 1 •• foi 40 ■■. Hurt)] 
fn nil ltd brunches m n remark ohly client) rote for JUli ., Dfth 1 
i.ni.i. pi, &o. Circulars sont on application, 

N,B. Tbo "Royal Blue" Omnibuses pass tho Wort 
'-■I iii<"i from di" Bank. 

" |/|[l(.l DOMO."- Patronised by her Majflnty the 
I Queen, Duko of Northumberland forSyon Bou M 

1,1 tiir Duko ol I lovonBhlro for Clilawlcl Clardcna, Pr< ui 

Liniiiiv for the Horticultural Socio ty, sir Joseph Paxton i"r tin: 

Grystftl I'h I nee, Koyal Zoological I Ol >•■!;', and Mn„ l.n.'. hi,- | , oi 

Knllna Park. 

"FftlOl IX'MO," a Canvftfoi made of proparod Ifalr and 
Wool, d porfeol non-conductor of U eat and Cold, kooplng, ■ ban 
bvoi it in applied, a flxed temperature. l\ i» adapted foi 
nil horticultural and florlcultural piirpoaofl, f'»r proflervlna I 1 ultj 
and FloworH from the scorching raya ol the sun, fVoni wind, and 

frniii iitliH 1(H i»l liiKcctn nt;d in-.i nine Ir'intn. 'lob'- bud in any 

required length, upward** of 2 yarda wide, at I*. 6d. per yard mn, 
of I-Mhiia THOMAS Ahohbb, 7, Trinity Lane, Cannon Street, 
City, and tho Itoyal Mills, Wandnwortb, Snrrny. 

THE GENERAL LAM) DHA1NAOK AM) IM- 
PROVEMENT COMP \:r, . 

iNConroitATKD nv SPltClAL Act <>v Pai'T-iahkht. 
Offices, f>2, Parliament Street, London. 

DinsCTORfl. 

llr-M.v Kr.it Sbyksb, Esq., M.P., Chairman, 

Siu John V. Shelley, Ilnrf., M.P., Deputy-Chairman. 



John ('. Cobhold, EBq., M! 
sir William Cubitt, r.K.S. 
1 iriiiy Currlc, Esq. 
Tlioinas Edward Dicey, Esq. 



William Fisher Hobba, Eaq. 
Edward J. Uutchlns, Esq., M.P, 
Samuel Morton Peto, Eaq M M.I*. 
William Tito, Esq., F.R.S. 

William Wilsbcre, Esq. 
Empowered to executo works of Drainage, Irrigation, Road- 
making, Enclosing, Reclaiming, and the Erection ol Farm 
Buildings upon any Estates, under Settlement, Mortgage, 
or Disability, and without any investigation of Title, to charge 
tbe tola! amount of lh« outlay and expenses upon Ihe property 
improved, to be repaid by annual iiiKtalmenta, varying according 
to tbe number of years oveiMvhieh Landowners may determine 
the repayment shall extend, within the lirnilB of 31 years for 
Farm Buildings, and 50 years for Drainage, Roads, and other 
Improvements. Arrangements are also made with Landowners 
for the execution of the works by their own agents, and for the 
supply of the capital or repayment of their own advances, through 
the exercise of the Company's powers. William Clifford, Sec. 



r yl\\i LANDS IMPROVEMENT COMPANY, 

■*■ INCORFORATF.D BY SPECIAL ACT OF pAttLIAMENT FOR 

England and SCOTLAND, — To Landowners, the Clergy, Soli- 
citors, Surveyors, Estate Agents, &c— Loans may be contracted 
for the execution by the proprietor or by the Company of every 
landed improvement, especially Drainage, Building, Clearing, ! 
Enclosing, Warping, Irrigation, Embanking, Reclamation, Roads, i 
Planting, Machinery, &c. The plans (of buildings), specifica- 
tions, and estimates are prepared by the proprietors, and are , 
submitted to the approval of the Enclosure Commissioners. Pro- j 
prietors may avail themselves of the powers of the Act to recover 
from the inheritance their own funds to be expended on improve- 
ments. They may also apply jointly for the execution of a 
mutual improvement, such as a common outfall, &c. For forms 
of application, &c, apply to the IJon. Wm. Nailer, Managing 
Director. 2, Old Palate Yard, Westminster. 



/ COLLEGE of AGRICULTURE and CHEMISTRY, 
VV and of PRACTICAL and GENERAL SCIENCE, 37 and 

38, Lower Kennington Lane, Kennington, near London. 
Principal— J. C. Nesbit, F.G.S., F.C.S., &c. 

The system of studies pursued in tbe College comprises every 
branch requisite to prepare youth for the pursuits of Agriculture, 
Engineering, Mining, Manufactures, and the Arts; for the Naval 
and Military Services, and for the Universities. 

Analyses and Assays of every description are promptly and 
accurately executed at the College. The terms and other par- 
ticulars rn^yJieJiadj>n_application to thePrincipal. 

ROYAL AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, 
CIRENCESTER. 
Patron— His Roval Highness PRINCE ALBERT. 
President of Council— Earl BATHURST. 
Principal— Rev. J. S. HAYGARTH, M.A. 
Professors, &c. 
Chemistry— J. A. C Voelcker, Ph.D., P.C.S. 
Zoology, Geology, and Botany— James Buckman, F.G.S . F.CS. 
Veterinary Medicine and Su?-gery—G.T. Brown, M.R.C.V.S. 
Surveying, Civil Engineering, and Mathematics — F.Armstrong, C.E. i 
Manager 0/ Farm — G. Austin. 

Tbe first Session of 1855 will begin in February. The Annual I 
Fees for Boarders vary from 45 to SO guineas, according to age and 
other circumstances. The Fee for Out-Students is 40?. per annum. I 
The College Course of Lectures and Practical Instruction is ! 
complete in one twelvemonth — though a longer course is recom- 1 
mended. There is a department for general as well as for 
agricultural purposes. Prospectuses and information can be | 
had on application to the Principal. 



BIRMINGHAM CATTLE AND POULTRY SHOW. 

•I EST1MON1AL TO MR. T. B. WRIGHT.— The ! 
* Committee appointed to promote the SUBSCRIPTION for j 
(he PRESENTATION of a TESTIMONIAL to Mr. T. B. ) 
WRIGHT, in acknowledgment of his important services in , 
originating the Birmingham Cattle Show, and for the valuable 
assistance he has contributed towards its management, respect- 
fully request that the friends of tbe above gentleman, who are 
disposed to participate in this well-merited tribute of respect, 
■will do so at their earliest convenience. 

Howard Luckcock, Chairman of the Committee, j 

3o™&. J,,,,, [Honors Secretaries. 
SS, Bennett's Hill, Birmingham, January 20, 1S55. 

Subscriptions to the Fund will be received by the Treasurer, 
Mr. John Shackel. Blenheim House, Small Heath; Mr. John 
Lowe (of the firm of Mapplebeck & Lowe). Bull Ring, Birmingham ; 
Mr. John Morgan, Jim., Cattle Show Offices, SSJBemnett's Hill; 
and by the Bankers, Messrs. Attwoods, Spooner, & Marshalls, 
New Street, Birmingham.— Post-office orders should be made 
payable to Mr, John Morgan, Jun. 



Eitt &gt ( cultura l ©s^ttr* 

SATURDAY, JANUARY 20, 1S55. 

MEETINGS IOR TBE E^'SC)^G WEEK. 
Thitbsdat, Jan. io— Agricultural Imp. Society of Ireland. 



Most of us have read the amusing account of our 
London Commissariat, given in the last numher of 
the " Quarterly Review." The 2,000,000 quad- 
rupeds which, according to it, contribute most of 



upplie , are abonl (o change their v.«-.:kly 

be the leuri 
which ' ui Ian mark) I I at 

iiirld. Tl,<.- drove "f oxen I 
by the ; rovidci 

'.ui annual mpplyof beef, will con- 

ic in Cop< nhagi n 1 11 Id 

'h<» 
iIp,-.' ol i ■ •' p 1 20 roili in length, • i 
pig* - mill h in length, which •••. 

f'.im onr annual inpply ol I 

r in room and comfort — neither ot 
which coul ned within the narrow area of 

r< enl mi i ■ 
Onr ei 

accommodation which for the fnl en 

to tl." moat important tradi 
— Smithfield market n an irregolarlj 
ii ti i ected by nnmerotu thoroughfan '*: 

i loj i nhagen E ield, il ■■■ ill bi een, *d- 

nlar .-ir>-.-i intersected only by inch roadj a« 
adapt it for its market purpose*. T!,<: former is 
hut <)l acred in extent, no larger than it wan when 
London held one-fifth it« present numher of ( 
siimern : the latter is five timeH as extensive — only 
a puition of its area, howevi ■ qnired f' r I 

market proper. Thirty-five thousand sheep will find 
standing room within it, in nearly 1 ■•A 

there are more than 13,000 feet ol rail 'wo 

of which a bullock may be tied. The pens for shi 
and railing for the cattle can be readily identified in 
the drawing. The engraving represents the place 
as seen from the west or sonth-west comer. The 
two rectangular partly-covered courts on the 
west side of the sheep- pens, are areas of an acre 
each for the accommodation of calves and pigs 
respectively. Shelter while on sale, and convenience 
for despatch by carts (the floor of the greater p*rt of 
these two markets being on a level with the cart-led 
above the roadway) are thus provided. On tbe 
western side, the buildincs immediately at the foot 
of the engraving are only partly built — they are 
the public slaughter-houses and the meat market. 
On the same side, west of lhe calf and pig markets, 
is the lairage for sheep, providiug accommodation for 
8000 on an area of 6 acres. This space is divided into 
yards, a part of each being covered, and each being 
furnished with hav-racks and with water-troughs. 
The lairage for 3000 bullocks, on an area of 8 acres— 
similarly divided into yards, each of which is pro- 
vided in like manner with shelter and with food — 
lies to the south and south-east of the ground. Each 
of these spaces has at short intervals water laid on 
for use either in cleansing or for consumption. At 
the eastern end of the area, beside the Great Nor- 
thern line (which runs under one corner of it), a 
hide and skin market, not yet erected, is repre- 
sented as being intended ; and on the other tide of 
that line additional slaughter-houses, as requir- 
may be built. The central building with the 
clock tower will furnish accommodation for the 
several banking establishments ; and public-hons€s 
at the corners, with two large hotels on the northern 
side — the Queen's Arms and the City Anns — will 
supply refreshments to the salesmen and the:r cus- 
tomers, who will conduct the enormous trade that :s 
next week to find its new channel here. At the sou' a. 
of the area a cattle station will be erected by 
London and North- Western line, and access from tbe 
northern, and western, and eastern districts of supply 
will thus be easily provided — these being the quar i - 
from which much the largest quantity cf c 
present reaches us. — We may add to the above that 
there is abundance of unoccupied space belongicc 
the market, into which it may extend itself as 
London gTows and its necessities increase. 

Business will be conducted here as fa 
the same men, under the same regulations, in the 
same manner, after the same rates, on the same davs, 
and at the same charges. The only differences will be 
those arising out of change of place ; tut how great 
these will be to the comfort of the men employed 
and of the animals disposed of, and therefore to the 
interests of the owners aEd consumers of the stock, 
anv one who has witnessed Smithfield on a crowded 
day can readily anticipate. The barbarity of gcad- 
ing into "ring droves" imposed upon the salesmen 
by the limits of the present market will be avoided ; 
this, and the avoidance of the present brutal driving 
through narrow crowded streets, will together save 
much in value of the animal up to the time of sale 
and much in the after quality of the meat. 

There will now he room enough and accommoda- 
tion, too, to enable the 30,000 sheep and 5000 head of 
cattle, and a thousand head apiece of calves and pigs 
which mav be congregated here on the Monday after 
next, to find their way and find their place, and leave 
it for the slaughter-houses, without the need of reck- 
less packing and all the cruelty by which it is efected 
Ten or twelve hanking houses, several hundred 



42 



THE AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE. 



[Jan. 20, 



salesmen, and many hundred drovers will transact 
with ease and comfort the business of many millions 
annually, which has been conducted hitherto under 
difficulties as to space and access to it, which have 
imposed upon our London market the roughest 
character for recklessness and cruelty. We have 
given in another column a description of the market 
as hitherto arranged ; we doubt not next week will 
see the commencement of a very great improvement. 
This will have been owing to an expenditure of about 
300,000^. upon the Copenhagen Fields, under the 
superintendence of Mr. Bunking, City architect. 
We learn that the works have been contracted for 
and constructed by Mr. Wilson, of Southwark, the 
contractor for the buildings, Messrs. Kennard, of 
Thames Street, who provide the ironwork, and Mr. 
Chadwick, the contractor for the roadways and the 
paving. 

A rumour has prevailed in the City during the 
week that the opening of the market was to be 
delayed ; but on inquiry at the architect's office we 
find that although the existence of the report was 
known there, they knew of no foundation for it. 
The market commissioners only await Lord Pal- 
merston's authority ; and their intention is to open 
the place for business for the first time on the 26th 
of January. From the statements made in the 
Common Council on Thursday, it would seem as 
if the committee were themselves quite in the dark 
on this subject ; but it appears that if they obtain 
the authority of 4be Home Secretary there will be 
nothing in the condition of the works to hinder the 
carrying out of the original intention. The act of 
Parliament from which they derive their power 
requires that the market be removed within three 
years and six months of the date of its enactment, 
a period which expires on the 1st of February. 

References to the Engraving. 
i . Cattle market. Length of railing, 13,232 feet. 

2. Sheep market — 1749 pens. 

3. Court of calves' market. Area, 1 acre. 

4. Court of pigs' market. Area, 1 acre. 

5. 5. Lairage for cattle. Area, S acres roods 11 perches. 

6. Lairage for sheep. Area, 6 acres roods S perches. 

7. Slaughter-houses only partly erected. 

8. Slaughter-houses intended. 

9. Dead-meat market, only partly erected. 

10. Hide~ahd- skin market, not yet erected — near the Great 

Northern Railway. 

11. Shedding provided behind the City Arms and Queen's 

Arms Hotels. 

12. Banking-houses and clock tower. 



origin. This instance affords a new proof —if such were 
necessary — that farmers might often save many pounds, 
if they would but spend a few shillings in analysis. I 
hope you will excuse this lengthy epistle— the import- 
ance of the subject must be the apology." 

Cases of this kind are now, as we have said, not 
unfrequent, and we see one has been reported to the 
Macclesfield Courier as occurring near Sutton, in 
Cheshire, where two beasts out of three to which the 
adulterated cake had been given died in the course of 
an hour after eating it. It was evidentto the owner of 
the cattle that the cake must have contained some 
poisonous or deleterious mixture ; and he forwarded a 
portion to Mr. F. C. Calvert, Professor of Chemistry, 
at Manchester, to be analysed ; the result proved 
that the cake contained a large portion of Mustard 
seed, the action of which, in the stomach of a cow, 
was reported by Mr. Calvert to be such as to pro- 
duce death. Upon this report being made known to 
Mr. Thorley, the respectable seed merchant in Hull 
from whom it had been obtained, he at once returned 
the cake to a Russian firm, from whom he had 
purchased it ; they declined to receive it, and sued 
him in the County Court at Hull for the price, and 
the trial, which excited great interest amongst the 
merchants there, took place a few days since, when 
a verdict was given in favour of Mr. Thorley. Mr. 
Thorley very honourably reimbursed the owner of 
the cattle for his loss and expenses, and he is now 
proceeding for damages against the parties who sold 
the cake to him. If similar cases were only followed 
up and sifted in this way, such frauds would be less 
frequent. 



Br. Voelcker has kindly forwarded to us his 
report upon a poisonous " rape-cake," which proved 
fatal to some cattle belonging to Mr. Smith, of 
Bibury, near Cirencester. The adulteration of 
Rape-cake with Mustard seed is a matter of very 
serious consideration to farmers. The use of this 
article as food js rapidly extending, and its liability 
to this sort of poisonous adulteration is thus more 
than ever a matter to which attention should be 
drawn. We are, therefore, much obliged to Pro- 
fessor Voelcker for the information he has published. 
In the letter originally addressed to Edward Hol- 
land, Esq., of Dumbleton, he says : — 

" Allow me to direct your attention to a cake, of which 
I inclose a small piece. Apparently it is a sweet- 
smelling and good-looking Rape-cake, from which it 
cannot indeed be easily distinguished on simple inspec- 
tion. It is, however, a cake which is sure to kill any 
animal, if used for feeding pui'poses, instead of manuring 
land with it, the only use to which the farmer can apply 
it in quantities. This cake, I have fouud on examina- 
tion, consists entirely of the expressed seeds of Mustard. 

My attention was directed to the subject by Mr. , 

who had two beasts killed in consequence of their 
having eaten a small quantity of the enclosed cake. 
Having tested the cake in vain for arsenic, lead, copper, 
and other kinds of metallic poisons, I found that some 
of it digested in cold water, in the course of a couple of 
hours, had become as pungent as Mustard, and ou dis- 
tillation I obtained in reality the highly irritatiug cha- 
racteristic smelling volatile oil of Mustard. Thus, it 

was plain that Mr. 's beasts were killed by Mustard 

powder, which incautiously bad been given to them 
instead of Rape or Linseed-cake. 

" It is a curious fact that Mustard seed whole does 
not contain any wlatile oil. This is only developed 
(and very gradually), if the powdered seed is moistened 
with cold or lukewarm water. Boiling hot water does 
not produce it, because it coagulates the albuminous sub- 
stance in Mustard seed, which substance (in a moist- 
ened state), transforms a peculiar constituent of Mustard, 
called by chemists myronic acid, into volatile oil of 
Mustard. This myronic acid has as little smell as the 
albuminous substance which acts upon myronic acid as 
a ferment, which is called myrosin. For this reason, 
Mustard mixed only a few minutes before its use has 
hardly a pungent taste, and a Mustard cataplasm at first 
does not cause any inconvenience ; but when kept too 
long in contact with the skin, it produces blisters. 
In either case, oil of Mustard is gradually formed from 
myrosin and myronic acid. Hence the inclosed cake 
you will find does not taste pungent at first ; but, if you 
will coarsely powder it, and make it into a paste with a 
little water, you will have no difficulty in recognising its 



THE SMITHFIELD MARKET. 
Sjiithfield is an irregularly-shaped area of 6 \ acres, 
intersected by numerous streets. When first appro- 
priated to market purposes, it was situated outside the 
walls of the city ; but the population and houses having 
increased tenfold, it is now nearly equi-distant from the 
northern and southern suburbs. Oue of the great 
thoroughfares to the Eastern Counties Railway passes 
through it, dividing it into two departments ; in the one 
of which, 1506 open pens are erected for sheep, calves, 
and pigs, and in the other, railing to which 2750 beasts 
may be tied. The rails are placed sufficiently far apart 
to admit of 1250 more beasts standing in what is 
technically termed "ring droves" — from 10 to 20 
cattle goaded 'into a circle, their heads forming the 
centre. During the market hours the intersecting 
streets are closed. 

The market belongs to the corporation, and is held by 
prescription, charters, and acts of Parliament. The 
city of London " has been seized in fee of its ancient 
market, from time whereof the memory of man runueth 
not to the contrary." There are two weekly market 
days for live stock — Monday and Friday ; and three for 
hay and straw, Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. 
Cattle sales commence about day-light in winter, and 
5 o'clock a.m. in summer, and are generally over by 
3 o'clock p.m., when the market closes. On Friday 
milk cows are sold, after which a horse and donkey fair 
commences. 

The government of the market is under the corpora- 
tion, whose officers are a collector or clerk, an inspector, 
and a sergeant and small staff of police. The duty of 
the clerk is to grant licenses, space in the different 
departments of tbe market to salesmen and graziers, 
and to receive and account to the city chamberlain for 
all monies arising from tolls, dues, licenses, fines, &c. 
The duties of the inspector are, to examine the sound- 
ness of the stock, and to cause the removal of diseased 
beasts. And the duty of the police is to see the bye- 
laws of the market duly attended to by all parties. The 
principal parties connected with, and attending the 
market, are seven banking or money-taking houses, 600 
salesmen, about 4000 butchers, and 350 licensed 
drovers. The " money-takers" co-operate with sales- 
men, discharging their pecuniary duties by receiving from 
butchers the amount of their purchases, by remitting 
to the provinces the proceeds of sales, by paying tbe 
tolls and dues on stock to the collector, and so forth, for 
which they charge 6d, for every bullock, id. for every 
calf, and Is. id. for every score of sheep, Id. for single 
heads over the score. Drovers are of two orders — 
" masters" and " men ;" the former get their instruc- 
tions from salesmen, and receive at the different railway 
termini, and of country drovers, cattle — take them to 
lairs, and to the market— and, when sold, deliver them 
to butchers, for which they have 6d. per bullock. The 
tolls and dues of the market come also out of the com- 
mission of salesmen, which is 3s. Gd. per head of cattle 
in some provinces, and 4s. in others, according to 
ancient custom — the latter being the most general ; 
sheep from 6d. to 8d. per head. 

The lairage of the market, principally the property of 
salesmen, and situated in the suburbs, forms part of the 
same commercial fabric — for here cattle are fed, exa- 
mined, and sorted for Smithfield : on the ox arriving at 
these lairs it receives abundance of water, and 14 lbs. 
of hay for the night, the common allowance being a 
truss among four beasts, for which the owner ischarged Is. 
— 3d. for the lair, aud 9d. for hay, including attendance. 
Salesmen for the sake of order generally occupy the 
same standings in the market : and, on the day previous 
to it, have to apply for them, stating the number of 



head each requires room for, when orders of admission 
are received from the clerk. On the ox arriviug iu the 
market ground, it is driven up to the rail, when a 
drover in front throws a lasso, or rope with a running 
noose, around its neck, pulling it tight aud making it 
fast. In this manner ox after ox is tied up, so long as 
one can be wedged up between other two,; when this is 
no longer practicable, the goading into " ring droves " 
commences. When sold, it is driven to the lair of the 
butcher — sometimes his owu property, sometimes not. 
A large proportion of purchases are handed over to 
slaughtermen, who charge from 3s. to 4s. per ox for 
slaughtering and delivering the carcass to the butcher. 
In the sheep and pig department, practice is of a 
kindred character. 

The commerce of Smithfield is also inseparable from 
that of the dead meat markets of Newgate and Leaden- 
hall ; for not less than 1200 beasts are weekly bought in 
Smithfield, with an equal proportion of sheep, calves, 
and pigs, to supply the demand of the latter. 

Newgate and Leadenhall markets are held daily under 
the government of the Corporation ; and the amount of 
business in both, but especially the former, has greatly 
overgrown the market buildings. In 1848, the number 
of salesmen in Newgate was about 200, while forty years 
previously it was only thirteen. In Leadenhall there 
are "about twenty meat, and twelve poultry salesmen." 
Their commission is Id. per stone on beef, and about the 
same for other descriptions of meat — or from 8d. to $d., 
and upwards, for each sheep or lamb ; calves, Is. 6d. 
to 2s. The officers of the markets are a collector and 
beadle. 

In neither market can any account be had of the 
quantity of meat annually sold, none being kept ; but in 
1848, independently of the above supply of live stock, 
the different railway companies " pitched into Newgate 
about 800 tons weekly on an average." Tbe annual 
value of the total sales in this market, at this period, 
was estimated at upwards of 3,837,600£., and since then 
an increase has taken place. 

Mr. Hicks, a carcass salesman, and member of common 
council, in his evidence before a Committee of the House 
of Commons, in 1849, gives the following result : — It is 
obtained from the account of sales of ten salesmen of 
cattle and sheep, fcr oue week in May, August, and 
December, for three years ; namely, 5579 head of cattle 
sold at upwards of ill. each, and 8600 sheep at 42s. Gd. 
each— and from it he deduces the following as the 
anuual value of stock sold in Smithfield, making as a 
necessary allowance for inferior quality a reduction of 
50s. a head on the average value of the cattle, and 4s. Gd. 
a head on the average value of the sheep : — ■ 

224,000 heasts, at 1SI. 10s. = £3,144,000 

1,550.000 sheep, at 11. IBs. = 2,945,000 

27,000 calves, at 31. 15s. = 102,375 

40,000 pigs, at 11. 10s. = 60,000 

Annual proceeds of sales ... £7,251,375 
Mr. Giblett, a butcher, gives, per head — beasts, 
161. ; sheep, 35s.; calves, 80s.; and pigs, 40s. The 
clerk of tbe market — heasts, 171. 5s. ; sheep, 36s. 6d. ; 
calves, 77s. Gd. ; and pigs, 35s. The latter also gives 
the following saies for 1848 : — 

Horses 12,867 head 

Hay 18,537 loads 

Straw 1,751 „ 

In 1847 there appears to have been in the market 
7641 milk cows ; and, in 1848, 6630, making an average 
of about 140 weekly — a return exceeding that of 1851. 
The cow and horse markets, however, afford no index 
to the general supply and demand of the metropolis, for 
the principal dairymen get their cows direct from the 
country, and horses come from tbe same quarter, via 
Tattersall's, &c. The show in Smithfield of this stock is 
little more than the offscourings of the London dairies 
and livery stables, &c. 

No toll or charge is made on donkeys, and hence no- 
account of numbers is kept ; the traffic, however, is by 
no means unworthy of notice. With the assistance of 
one of the market police, we numbered one day, within 
the avenues allotted for them, 120 within tbe area of the 
market. By this time several juvenile buyers had left 
the market, proud of their purchases, while as many 
more were hurrying to it to get rid of bad bargains— so 
that from this and other sources, we arrive at the con- 
clusion that cows and donkeys stand upon a footing of 
equality as to numbers — there being a weekly supply of 
about 140, and an annual of from 6000 to 7000 each. 

The present tolls and dues in Smithfield are as follows : 
Tolls— Sheep— For every score of sheep sold, 2d. per score. 
Beasts — For every score of heasts sold, 20d. per score. 
Horses— For every entry of sale, 4d. each. 
Pigs — For every score, 4d. 
Dues — Pens for sheep, calves, or pigs — Permanent pens, Is. each. 
Ties for beasts or calves, Id. each — for horses, 2d. each. 
Hay duty, Gd. per load — and for each entry of sale, Id. 
Straw duty, Id. per load — and for each entry of sale, Id. 
Drovers pay 5s. for a license, and Is. annually for renewal. 

In Newgate market the Corporation is entitled to " a 
toll of Id. for every hamper — 2d. for every bundle — and 
Gd. for every pack of meat brought into the market — 
and Id. for every coop of poultry — and the same for 
every lot of butter and eggs ; but these tolls have been 
commuted for a fixed weekly payment, which is received 
of those who are tenants in the original market." In 
Leadenhall the same has taken place ; in both, a weekly 
rent is charged for every stall. — Agricultural Cyclopcedia, 
Article Markets. 

[In 1853 there were sold in Smithfield 294,571 oxen, 
1,518,040 sheep, 36,791 calves, and 29,593 pigs. 

The total sale of meat, dead and alive, for London 
consumption, is estimated at 483,388 oxen, 2,141,393 
sheep, 132,976 calves, 159,052 pigs.] 



Til I) A.ORTCTITjTURATi n \ 7 I l"P i 




44 



THE AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE. 



[Jan. 20, 



ON THE GROWTH OF MANGOLD WURZEL. 
Br Professor J. Bcckhax. 

When Mangold Wurzel was first introduced into 
farm cultivation, its great recommendation seems to 
have been that while its roots contained a large quan- 
tity of succulent and nutritive matter, suitable for all 
kiuds of stock, its leaves were no less valuable for 
feeding purposes, so that its growth was advocated much 
upon the supposed grounds of a capability for simul- 
taneously producing two crops. Experience has, how- 
ever, long since taught us that though the Mangold 
•be a plant yielding a large amount of produce when 
jproperly cultivated, yet that, by endeavouring to obtain 
too much, we in reality get less, and this is confirmed 
'by direct experiment. Hence the author of " Practical 
Agriculture," fifty years since, made the following re- 
marks : — 

" It is probable that, upon the whole, the root has 
neither been found to be equal in quality, as a cattle 
food, or to afford the quantity of produce that was 
supposed on its first introduction."* Now this becomes 
perfectly intelligible when, as we learn from the 
' Annals of Agriculture" for the sane period : — 

" The plants seem to have afforded a large produce 
of leaves when gathered every two or three days, from 
July till late in September, yet the whole produce in 
leaves and roots is cot equal to that of the large Cab- 
bage." Such is the experience of 50 years since, and 
yet after a lapse of half a century we find Mangold 
Wurzel extensively cultivated, and its root is demon- 
strated alike by practical experience and scientific in- 
vestigation to afford a highly valuable because eminently 
nutritious crop. The reason, therefore, of this dis- 
crepancy of opinion, and its resulting increase of growth 
in modern times, must be sought for in the fact of an 
improvement i^ management, the most important change 
being that of non-mutilation. We now care not for tbe 
leaves, and, as will be shown in the sequel, we therefore 
obtain not only a larger quantity of the root, but this 
is improved in its nutritive capabilities. That the root 
as injured in its growth by depriving the plants of their 
leaves will be at once gathered from tbe following 
•experiments, which were instituted on purpose to obtain 
evidence on this very point. 

In May of the past year were sown five sorts of 
Mangold Wurzel ; two rows of each were ridged 
and cultivated in exactly the same manner as those in 
the farm, and the ground for the whole prepared alike. 
When, however, the roots had attained the size of about 
H- incites in diameter, a single row of each sort was 
•closely stripped of all the outward leaves by carefully 
cutting tbem away with a sharp knife so as not to pro- 
duce injury by tearing, a process which was from time 
to time repeated as often as the outer leaves had again 
attained to a size to be used as a feeding matter. The 
result of this treatment was as under, weighed in 
November, 1854. 



wall lho.-e iu which ttie leaves were taken oh", make it 
evident that not only is there a diminution in quantity, 
but a deterioration in quality of the latter — facts 
which will be explained by the following table of the 
composition of two varieties of Mangold Wurzel in two 
methods of growth in the fresh state : — 





1. Globe variety. 


2. Long variety. 




Leaves 
taken off 

0.869 
1.010 
0.078 
2.605 
.937 
89.494 


Leaves 
intact. 


Leaves 
taken off 


Leaves 
intact. 


Woody fibre 

Ash 

Sugar 

Pectin, Gum, &c 

Protein Compounds 
Water 


0.S43 
1.050 
6.183 

• 1.090 
1.019 

S9.S15 


0.938 
0.943 
4.594 
3.201 
0.772 
89.554 


1.004 
1.125 
6.365 
4.024 
1.000 
87.482 




100.000 


100.000 


100.000 


100.000 



tons of Mangold Wurzel. 


Leaves intact. 
31.0 
45.0 
49.0 
35.5 
325 


Leaves cut. 


1. Red Globe 

2. Yellow Globe 

■3. Long Red 

4. Long Yellow 

-5. Long White 


23.5 
18.5 
180 
18.0 
19.5 


Total for the five sorts 


193.0 


97.5 



Now, in this table we cannot help remarking upon 
the great increase in those important feeding elements, 
sugar, and protein or nitrogeous substances, matters, it 
may be presumed, which would be still farther lessened 
by a greater denudation of such important plant-organs 
as the leaves. 

However, in estimating the good or injury which 
finally results from the plan of growth commented upon, 
it may be a matter for consideration as to whether the 
leaves in their value counterbalance the injury to the 
roots, as it is quite evident we cannot get the leaves into 
the bargain of a good crop of roots ; and here I would 
remark, that 1 think the value of the leaves as a feeding 
stuff has been much over-rated, and this is confirmed 
by Dr. Wolff's experiments, who also adds that the 
leaves are very apt to produce diarrhoea in cattle. The 
following table from this author gives the result of ex- 
periments to test the qualities of milk as obtained from 
cows fed with aftermath, as compared with feeding 
from Mangold leaves. 

Composition of milk in these cows : — 
A. Principal Food Aftermath. 

1. 2. 3. 

Dry substance 12.47 12.49 11.39 

Water 87.53 87.51 8S.62 

Butter in Milk 3.13 3.39 2.53 

B. Principal Food 3Iangold Leaves. 

Dry substance 11.30 12.08 11.04 

Water 88.70 87.42 8S.96 

Butter in Milk 2.60 2.88 2.20 

These results show a large decrease of an important 
constituent of milk, namely butter, from which we may 
conclude that the plan of using Mangold Wurzel leaves 
is by no means satisfactory iu dairies, where it has 
been specially recommended. 

Here, then, to sum up our conclusions upon what we 
may term the economics of Mangold Wurzel growing, 
and leaving out all reference to the physiology of the 
question, the case will stand as follows : — 1st. The leaves 
of Mangold Wurzel cannot be systematically taken from 
the growing plant without lessening the quantity of roots 
in proportion to the closeness with which the operation 
is performed. *2d. The decreased quantity of roots does 
not yield so large a percentage of nutritive matter as 
are contained in those that are uninjured ; and 3d. This 
injury to the roots is by no means counterbalanced in 
quantity or quality by any value that we might attach 
to the leaves. 



the United Kingdom. They are called "Shropshire 
sheep " — a name which appears to be finally settled, as 
it is adopted by many of the principal breeders — the 
term " Shropshire Downs " being inappropriate, and 
only calculated to mislead. The latter designation 
would iudicate a small and delicate variety, while the 
former is intended to apply to one of a larger and more 
robust character ; precisely what is generally required. 

It is not our purpose to enter upon a discussion as 
to the precise course which has been followed in pro- 
ducing the improved Shropshire sheep, as such an 
inquiry would now possess but little, if any, practical 
value. The generally received opinion is no doubt the 
correct one, namely, that the example of Ellman with 
the South Downs has been followed by breeders in 
Salop, who had as a foundation the very excellent breed 
of sheep which is known to have existed in that county 
for many centuries, and who have taken judicious 
means, while preserving the fine quality for which the 
breed was always distinguished, to obtain a larger 
frame and increased aptitude to fatten. The questions 
which purchasers have to consider, and which have no 
doubt attracted their attention, are these — have the 
breeders of this stock succeeded in obtaining purity of 
type? and can its present characteristics be perpetuated 2 
As tests of the estimation in which the breed is held, 
we append the following list of sales during the past 
year. 

The annual sale of sheep bred by W. O. Foster, Esq., 
took place at Kinfare Hill Farm, near Stourbridge, on 
the 30th of July. The following are some of the prices 
realised : — 

SHEARLING RAMS. 
£. s. d. 
No. 1 31 10 Lord Wenlock. 

2 27 6 Mr. Somner. 

3 11 6 Mr.W. M. Bill. 

4 16 16 Mr. Edwards. 

5 9 10 Mr. W. M. Bill. 

6 . ... 19 19 Mr. Preece, auctioneer. 

1 13 13 Mr. Herbert. 

8 12 Mr. Clayton. 

9 9 10 Mr. Williams. 

16 18 IS Mr. Farmer. 

17 10 10 Mr. Fletcher. 

25 sheep at 10 6 11 each. 

FIVE SHEARLING EWES. 
No. 1 4 16 each ... Mr. Clarke. 

2 4 16 „ ... Mr. Moore. 

3 4 4 „ ... Mr. Fletcher. 

4 4 16 „ ... Mr. Garlick. 

5 3 16 „ ... Mr. Smith. 

6 4 16 „ ... Mr. Clarke. 



Here it may be noticed that the resulting produce 
of the uncut when compared with the cut plants, iu an 
average of five sorts, is within a fraction of two to one, 
or nearly double, and it will be seen that while the 
Yellow Globe and tbe Long Red when uninjured have 
produced the largest crops yet that they suffered propor- 
tionably more from mutilation ; in each case less than 
half the amount of root resulting from the injured, when 
compared with the uninjured. These experiments, 
•therefore, while they show the effects as far as the 
roots are concerned of destroying the leaves, fully 
justify the favour in which the Long Red and Yellow 
Globe Mangold are held, at the same time making it 
appear that those kinds which yield the largest return 
if rightly cultivated, are just the ones that suffer most 
from an opposite method. Having now shown a 
diminution of the crop to result from injury to the 
•leaves, I go on to furnish evidence to prove that even 
this smaller amount is at the same time deteriorated in 
■quality. Upon this head it would be sufficient to notice 
•that the practical farmer was dissatisfied with the culti- 
vation of the Mangold Wurzel while the vicious system 
prevailed, the reasons for which, however, have been 
amply proved by experiment and chemical investigation. 
In a report of " experiments made by Dr. Wolff, 
Professor of Chemistry in the Royal Agricultural College 
of Hohenheim, in Wurtemberg," published at Leipsic 
during the preceding year, we learn that two sorts of 
Mangold Wurzel were grown, Damely, the Globe and 
Long Red varieties, from which the leaves were taken 
off for feeding purposes in September and again in 
October, and the result of twice stripping the plants 
of their leaves was a diminution in produce amount- 
ing to one-filth ; it is therefore no wonder that four 
or five times stripping off the leaves should diminish 
the produce of root one-half, as in my own experiment, 
still less that the gathering of the leaves every two or 
three days, from July until late in September, should 
have caused this useful plant to be slightingly spoken of 
•50 years since. 

As in my own experiments those of Dr. Wolff show 
that the amount of root suffers greatly when the leaves 
are removed, but this is not all; for chemical analyses of 
the root where the leaves were intact, when compared 

* Quoted from the " Complete Farmer," 1807. 





£136 0, or il. 10s. 8d. per head. 




FIVE STOCK EWES. 


1 ... 


... 5 5 each ... Mr. Fletcher. 


2 ... 


... 4 „ ... Mr. Williams 


3 ... 


... 4 16 „ ... Mr. Fletcher. 


4 .. 


... 3 12 „ ... Mr. Clarke. 


5 .. 


... 4 „ ... Mr. Fletcher. 


6 ... 


... 3 12 „ ... .Mr. Clarke. 



TITHE COMMUTATION AVERAGES. 
As your readers may feel anxious to know the result 
of the corn averages for the seven years to Christmas 
last, published in the London Gazette of 5th inst, viz. : 

Wheat Gs. 0%d. per imperial bushel. 

Barley 3 7-j „ „ 

Oats 2 6 „ „ 

I bes to state for their information that each 100?. of 
the Tithe Rent Charge will, for the year 1855, amount 
to 891. 15s. 8%d., which is a reduction of 11. 3s. 8,jc?. 
from last year's value. The following statement from 
my " Annual Tithe Commutation Tables " will show 
the worth of 100?. of tithe rent charges for each year, 
since the passing of the Tithe Commutation Act, viz. : 

For the year 1837 £9S 13s. 9JA 

„ 1838 97 7 11 

„ 1839 95 7 9 

1840 98 15 9J 

„ 1841 102 12 5f 

1842 105 S 2J 

105 12 2i 

104 3 5i 

103 17 11J 

102 17 8| 

99 18 10| 

102 1 

100 3 7j 

98 16 10 

96 11 4J 

93 16 Hi 

91 13 5J 

"90 19 5 



1843 ... 

1844 ... 

1845 ... 

1846 ... 

1847 ... 
1818 ... 

1849 ... 

1850 ... 

1851 ... 

1852 ... 

1853 ... 
1854 



1855 ... 



89 15 8| 
19)1878 14 6J 



General Average for 19 years ...£98 17 7£ 
diaries M. Willich, Actuary to the University Life Office, 
25, Suffolk Street, Pall Mall, 8th January, 1855. 



THE SHROPSHIRE SHEEP. 
[The following paper is abridged from tbe columns of the 

Midland Counties Herald.'] 
During the last few years much interest has been 
excited amongst agriculturists respecting a breed of 
sheep which bad been for some time previously common 
to the county of Salop, and to some extent to the 
adjoining counties of Stafford, Worcester, and War- 
wick, and which is now become well known throughout 



£126 5 0, or 41. 4s. Id. per head. 

The seventh annual sale of Shropshire sheep, the 
property of the Earl of Aylesford, was held at the farm, 
; Meriden Heath, by. Messrs. Brown and Clarke, on the 
4th of September, when 31 shear-hog, and 9 two and 
three-shear rams, and 200 store ewes and theaves, 
were disposed of. A two-shear ram was pur- 
chased for Lord Willoughby at 15?.; another of the 
same age realised 12?. 10s.; and a three-shear ram, 10?. 
Of the shearling rams, the highest price was 11?. 10s,, 
the purchaser being Mr. Docker, of Allesley. Of the 
ewes, four pens were purchased for the Hon. A. H. 
Vernon, of Sudbury, at 76s., 60s , and 50s. per head. 

Mr. Preece, the auctioneer of Shrewsbury, has 
supplied the following information: — " At the Shropshire 
Great Ram Fair, on the 25th July, 20 rams, bred by 
Thomas Juckes, Esq., averaged 16?. each. All were 
sold, the highest price being 33?. 12s., and the lowest 
i 11?. lis. Twelve rams, bred by the Messrs. Crane, of 
Shrawardine, averaged nearly 12?. each, all being sold ; 
highest price, 19?. 19s.; lowest ditto, 6'?. 16s. 6d. Fifty 
draft ewes, bred by the Messrs. Crane, realised 290?. 10s., 
an average of 6?. each, less 10s. The principal part of 
the ewes were bought to go into Lancashire, Gloucester- 
shire, and Warwickshire. There were at this fair 
sold by me about 30 other rams, belonging to Messrs. 
Minton, Farmer, Haughton, Peckstoek, and Claridge, at 
prices ranging from five to fourteen guineas. 

At Mr. Masfen's sale, at Norton Caines, near 
Walsall, 30 rams were sold, on the 1st of August, at an 
average of 11?. 10s. each, all being disposed of. Highest 
price, 20?. ; lowest ditto, 6?. 

Mr. Adney's (of Harley) sale took place August 7th, 
when 27 rams were sold at an average of 13?. 10s. each; 
and 100 draft ewes, at an average of 3?. 18s. each ; some 
pens making 5?. 1 Os. each. At the late Shropshire Cattle 
Show, Mr. Adney's original Shropshire ram won the 
Champion Sweepstakes ior the best ram of any age or 
breed, beating Mr. Horton's celebrated Shropshire ram, 
which won the prize at the Gloucester meeting of the 
Royal Agricultural Society of England, and several 
others of the distinct South Down, Leicester, and 
Shropshire breeds. 

At Mr. Horton's (of Harnage) the highest-priced 
ram was 33?. 12s., bought by Col. Pennant, of Penrhyn 
Castle ; and the lowest price obtained was 9?. The ewes 
(130 drafts) averaged 3?. each, the highest pen making 
5?. 10s. each. 

Mr. Bach offered a considerable number of Shropshire 
sheep (the property of different breeders) for sale by 
auction, at Ludlow Fair, on the 19th of August. 
Yearlings were in the greatest request, and those of 
Messrs. James Hand, Edward Urwick, and R. Bach 



3—1855. 



T II B AC RICH l/l'i I; A I, GAZETTE. 



45 



averaged over 102. each, few remaining at the cIoho of 
tho Hale unsold. 

On the IHlh of August, Messrs. NOCK and Wilwjn 
hold a sale of Shropshire sheep, at Marlow Lodge, 
Lointwiu-dino, the property of .1. li. Green, Kw|. Some 
of tho rams Hold at 10, 15, 17, HI, and '20 guineas each ; 
whilo others were let for tho season at 107., 122., and 152. 
each. 1'he owes realised ■lll.v., Sol., and 56«. each. 

Messrs. Nuck and WilBon also held the annual Hale of 
Shropshire sheep, the property of the Earl of Dort- 
mouth, at Patshull, on tho llth of September, when 
sevornl pons of 10 ewes were Hold at 40s., 4 7s., S8«., and 
iiii.:. each. 

Wo understand that in the month of October last, Mr, 
Thomas Lloyd Roberts, of Lnngloy Farm, Bromfleld, 
Salop, Hold 15 yearling Shropshire rams at an average 
of 192. each, and a number of draft uwoh at an average 
of 52. each. The same gentleman also mild tonne breeder 
10 owes and one yearling rain for 1502. ; tho ram for 
502., and the owes at 102. each. 

Higher prices than those mentioned above havo boon 
obtained in isolated cases in former years ; but theso 
returns will show that tho sales last year were moro 
generally successful, although greater numbers were 
oirerod for competition than heretofore. We trust that 
tho information wo have now supplied will havo the 
effect of directing still further attention to tho useful 
character of this breed of sheep. 

Home Correspondence. 

The Irish Flax Trade. — In your impression of 13th 
inst., reviewing Mr. Locke's es9ay, entitled "Ireland's 
Recovery," I observe the following passage : — " Ireland, 
so anomalous-in many things, gives an instance of the 
national characteristic, in the fact that in the lust year 
Bhe exported about 5000 tons of Flax (at 582. per ton), 
with tow and yam, and imported nearly U0O0 tons, at 
052. per ton. Tho yarn exported was valued at 
1052. per ton, whereas the imported (leas than that ex- 
ported) was valued at 11102. per ton. This would seem 
to iudieate superior skill elsewhere in the spinning of 
fino yarns, or inferiority in tho quality of the native 
raw material itself for the manufacture of some of the 
finer linens." This paragraph having been evidently 
penned by one unncquainted with the circumstances of 
our staple manufacture, should not remain without some 
explanation, which, I trust, you will give me space in 
your columns to make. There may be many anomalies 
in the Irish national character, but I can safely affirm 
that the linen manufacture exhibits no feature which 
will not redound to the credit of the people of Ulster, 
both as regards their manufacturing skill and their 
commercial shrewdness and activity. The reason 
why we export 5000 tons of Flax, at an average 
value of 582. per ton, and import 9000 tons at an 
average value of 652. per ton is simply because the home- 
grown fibre, while the best in the world for the large 
range of medium qualities of linen, is neither so coarse 
as the Russian, nor so fine (except in certain districts) 
as the Belgian. Hence, to make heavy fabrics, we must 
buy the former, and to make fine lawns and cambrics we 
must procure the latter. And because Irish Flax is the 
best material for medium fabrics, the English and Scotch 
spinners, and, to some extent also, the French and 
Belgian, purchase it in our markets. As respects Irish 
yarn exported, and valued at 1052. per ton, while 
Ireland imports yarn valued at 1802., the explanation is 
again simple. It is well known that of a given number 
of districts occupied in the same branch of manufacture 
scarcely two make the same article; each applies itself 
to one particular description of the fabric and attains 
much greater perfection in it than if a range of fabrics 
of different textures were made. Thus, the great bulk 
of Irish spinners make the medium Nos. of yarn, the 
Scotch spin the heavy and coarse Nos., and the English 
the finer Nos. Some of the Irish spinners make yarns 
equally fine with the latter, and their quality is admitted 
to be unexcelled. But as they are the exceptions to 
the general rule of medium spinning, the Irish manu- 
facturers must naturally have recourse to England for 
the yarns they require for the lighter and finer fabrics, 
and for the finest cambrics they must procure the 
delicate hand-spun yarns of Westphalia and French 
Flanders, which are very costly. The Irish yarns 
exported represent, of course, the quality generally spun 
in Ireland, while the imported yarns, consisting almost 
exclusively of the finer Nos., raise the average value 
above that of the exported. In whatever way the Irish 
linen manufacture be examined it will be found to 
occupy the first place, not only as compared with the 
foreign linen manufacture, but with that of Great 
Britain. Jas. Mac Adam, Jan., Belfast, Jan. 16. 

Cross-bred Mountain Sheep. — Without entering into 
any formal reply to the scientific inductions of " T.," 
p. 26, perhaps it will be sufficient for me to state that my 
friend had no cause for complaint on the score of the 
parturition of his ewes, but on the contrary was so 
well satisfied with his experiment that this year he 
has considerably increased the number. I cannot 
admit that it follows as a natural consequence that a 
large male must necessarily cause a large offspring and 
difficulty at the time of birth. On the contrary, reason- 
ing from my own experience, I believe the feeding or 
nursing properties of the mother have more to do with 
the size of the young prior to birth than the male Irom 
which they have proceeded. Of this there are numerous 
examples, familiar to every one, as the smalt breeds of 
Guernsey or Kerry cows with a Durham bull, an ass 
with a large horse, lap-dogs with a Newlouudlaud 



inrib', all these being instances where though the ulti- 
mate result may be a largo animal, the difficulties at 
the time of parturition form the exception rathor than 
the rule ; — in fact the mule has little to do with the Izc ol 
tho young during the time ol gestation ; he may I 
his size, colour, and constitutional peculiarities upon the 
animal, but the size which it will attain prior to birth 
depends almost exclusively upon the feeding propertioi 
of tho mother. Apart from all considerations ol the 
male, fat cows and small calves, fat women and small 
children, lean cows and largo calves, lean women and fal 
children, are examples bl daily occurrence, Neithi i da 
I believe that high feeding ban any influence, except an 
evil one, upon the size of the offspring, for I could cite 
an instance of a large dairy of cows stuffed daily with 
Turnips, oilcake, and Linseed mash, which product d a 
lot of poor nasty calves, whilst other cows, taking their 
luck in tho straw yard, produced comparatively 

lirHt-rato calves. Look, again, at the puny ofl | ;' 

of ninny of our high and middle classes, iih com- 
pared with tho fat, ruddy, chubby, Imply children 
of tho half-starved and hardly worked peasantry of 
England and Ireland, and especially of vValcs,and here is 
further proof that underfeeding is better than pamper- 
ing. In the example which " T." cites of bis own want 
of success, perhaps his stock Buffered iih much from their 
predatory habits, received positive injury thereby, as 
from being put to a largo male. I grant all he »ayi 
against tho mountain breed, thoy are especially in 
inclosed districts a perfect nuisance ; hut even 
that does not " kick the beam " against the 
fino quality of their mutton, especially when that 
mutton is formed among the sweet herbs and their 
mountain Heather. Of " T.'s" argument in favour 
of in-and-in breeding, I may remark, that by such a 
courso ho may get fine quality and high feeding proper- 
ties, and great aptitude under careful management to 
lay on meat ; but most assuredly tho constitution 
will deteriorate, and if obliged to "rough it," animals 
so finely bred will not do to compare with their 
more plebeian brethren. I know an instance where 
cows were bred in-and-in until they ceased to yield 
milk sufficient to support their calves, and a few 
weeks after calving would go quite dry ; still they were 
always fat, and fat they would be even in the straw- 
yard. In conclusion, however, I may remark that, in 
speaking of putting mountain ewes to a large ram, I 
spoke comparatively of Welsh as compared with En- 
glish farming, or good ordinary Southdowns, such as 
are seen in Wales, and not of the prize animals of Good- 
wood and other places in this country. W. P. Ayres, 
Whittlebury Lodge, Jan. 15. 

Lord Favcrshani's Ox at Birmingham. — If I had 
known that you would have published the weights of 
the beasts shown at Birmingham, I would also have 
sent you the weight of the white ox (short-horn) shown 
at Birmingham, and fed by the Right Hon. Lord 
Faversham, of Buncombe Park, in this county. The 
particulars are as follows : — 

Live Weight of the. Ox: — 162 Imperial Stones Measure. 



feeder, and put the onci chopped Gone npon it with a 
Shovel ; the fctiaw pull* it on, and it gets Quits II 
cut and bruised a* (g useful for . 
iheep. I think no one who fairly b u will 

it up again. I should much ;. light 

sand form ol • !00 acres well cultivated, and »itii 

foi I ■ .. fanned >M M to havo 

i 00 seres eoi a an I gri n ind the -i'j wi 

Qorae. The number ol stoel It would koep profitably, 
il m bo es all the year, would be very great I bona 

;' I would be brief ; but I have mi/Jo a »ai |./fig 

story of Tl I bar. Il may In useful, however, I 
"Col tan Ret u r." II'. '/>. P. 

I / I have lately purchased oornc lull 

land, to the purchase of which no objection ws 

by any one, the title an clear tut part ownership 
Bnglnnd, The sum amooDtod to 480/, ; the law ex- 
penses for this 4802. were 7C. ! John Ay, •' 

I ... a ' • ; / ■ ■■ 1 have lately b 

reading thin work, which is well worthy the atu i 
all inten rriculture, whether landlord, tenant, 

or implement maker. I think Mr. Hoakyns is on the 

right track when be says tbat Steam cultivation mum bf 

done by a cylinder of claws revolving Independently of 
the draught, and there is little doubt that it will v.ine 
flay he accomplished ; but an yet I faney the veigbl '*f 
the engine, if constructed an portable enginca ai 
motive's now arc, would be SO great OS ' 
working, except, perhaps, when lbs ground i» very hard. 
Supposing that it takes 

breadth of inches of soil into ft boo mould, a- 
to turn over a furrow of tiiat width < : think 

you enn allow lets), then, if the cylinder were 
wide it would require 10-horse power, viz., two t 
9 inches. It is pretty good work for three horses to 
draw a seven-horse power portable engine along a road, 
and 1 do not think fcix homes power would I* more than 
sufficient to move so heavy a machine along a stubble 
field ; we have then a 2'2-horsc power engine besides 
the revolver — how is such a cumbrous affair to be lurried 
short round each time it arrives at the end of a field I 
Of the expense I say nothing, as I think if it can ot.ee 
be accomplished the cost maybe reduced afterwards. 
I must apologise for trespassing bo much on your space ; 
but being interested in agriculture, I am anxious to 
know if Mr. Hoskyns can overcome the difficulty I havo 
mentioned, and 1 have no meanB of communicating 
with him but through your columns. A Farm'.,- in 
I Embryo. [The difficulty to which yon allude has long 
been the acknowledged hindrance to the progress if 
6team culture.] 



Length. 


GlKTH. 


Cabcase. 


Loose Fat. 


feet inch. 
6 1) 


feet in. 

8 8 


Actual Weight, 
st. lbs. 
108 6i 


st. lbs. 
IS 131 



I should have liked this to have appeared in your Paper, 
as it appears his lordship's ox had more loose fat than 
any beast shown either at Baker Street or Birmingham 
except No. 32, which had 17 stone. Walter Taylor, 
Malton, Yorkshire. 

Payne's Defiance Wlieat. — Mr. Mechi asks of your 
correspondents whether the value of Payne's Defiance 
Revitt Wheat is, as a rule, 10s. per quarter below other 
Wheats. I have grown it for two years, and the millers 
who buy nearly all my corn, and they are perhaps doing 
the largest business in the county, have always con- 
sidered that, weight for weight, the Revitt is 5s. per 
coomb under value. This, coupled with the fact that I 
cannot grow a larger acreable yield than of the old 
sorts — Spalding, for instance— has led me to eschew the 
growth of Revitts for the future. T. R. Ellis, Oxnead 
Hall, Buxton, Norfolk. 

Gorse. — In your answer to "a Constant Reader," 
January 8, there are several points in wdiich I think 
you have not had perhaps experience in Gorse feeding. 
I will state tliem as briefly as I can. The common 
Ulex europrcus is the best in every point of view, both 
in quality, quantity, and hardihood, even if the immense 
trouble and expense of growing U. strictus was not 
sufficient bar to its introduction. The sowing direc- 
tions are very good. The plan, however, of cutting the 
alternate rows annually is very bad. If the soil it is 
grown on is sandy you may cut it every year ; but if 
not well qualified for Gorse, every other year. But 
instead of cutting the alternate rows iu the troublesome 
manner you mention, mow half your plot each year with 
a scythe, and simply rake it up as you would auy green 
crop. The expense and trouble of this is no more than 
so much Lucerne, &c. By mowing regularly you save 
all the expense of separating woody stems, as there will 
be none. The mallet and block is very well for a poor 
cottager with one or two cows ; but to use Gorse upon a 
large scale, as it ought to be on all light sandy soils, as 
one of the very best and cheapest foods for cattle, 
horses, and sheep through eight months iu the year, get 
a good strong chaff-cutter that will cut half-inch chaff 
(I find Ransome and Parsons, of Salford, the best I 
know). If with a horse-power attached, this will cut up 
a good cart load in a very short time ouce over, the mau 
feeding having gloves on. Then lay straw on the 



^octettes. 

Highland and Agrictltcril. — At the late half- 
yearly general meeting of this Society, the Duke of 
Buccleuch in the chair, 78 new members, 49 of whom 
are tenant-farmers, were elected. 

Agricv.Hv.ral Statistics. — Sir John M'Neill said he bad 
the pleasure of reporting to the society what might be 
considered as the completion of the inquiry, and he 
might state with confidence that in no part of the United 
Kingdom had there yet been collected a body of agri- 
cultural statistics so worthy of trust or so complete as 
those which bad now, through the instrumentality of the 
Highland Society, been collected for Scotland. While 
congratulating the Society upon their success, be did 
j not mean at all to assert that the returns which bad 
' this year been obtained were complete and perfect. 
There were, necessarily, some defects for which they 
were not responsible. He might instance the fact <:: 
the impossibility of giving the entire area of the country 
from the want of such a survey as would alone enable 
them to do it with accuracy; but when they had obtained 
a trigonometrical survey of Scotland, they would be able 
to give returns complete as regarded the area. There 
was another imperfection also in the returns, which was 
not likely to occur again. To obtain accurate returns 
of stock iu all parts of the country it was necessary to- 
followthe same system which was adopted in enumerating. 
the population — to take the numbers upon one day. But 
from the late season at which the authority was given, 
and from the difficulty of obtaining correct returns cf 
occupants, it was impossible to accomplish that this year. 
The tables would be forwarded to the Board of Trade, 
aud he trusted that the board would have no objection 
to publicity being immediately given to the results thus 
obtained. He thought the tenant farmers who bad 
laboured so zealously in the matter were entitled to the 
immediate benefit of the Scotch tables. 

The Duke of Bnceleuch said they were dee;" _ 
gentlemen who had acted as enumerators in the different distr 
They had done their duty in a most excellent minner. Bnt he 
should be doing an injustice to the position be held as th eir 
1 chairman, and also to his position as a member of the society, if 
j he did not express most distinctly his o^rn individual opir 
land, he was sure, the opinion of every one, of the ixrta] 
j services which had been rendered to them by their secretary. Mr. 
' Hall Maxwell. His labours had been labours of love— purely 
gratuitous, and highly honourable to himself- He thought they 
could not do less than pass a vote of tha nk s to Mr. Maxwell for the 
manner in which he had conducted the inquiry [cheers). — 
Lord Panmure thought they should als^bearapiblic tesrl— -r.y 
to the zeal of the tenantry of Scotland, through -whom alone 
these statistics could have been furnished. He concluded by 
seconding the proposition to give a vote of thanks ta the 
secretary for his zeal in conducting the investigation. The 
motion having been unanimously adopted, Mr. Maxwell returned 
thanks. 

The Chemical Department. — Dr. Anderson reported 
that continued progress was being made in this depart- 
ment. They had just completed a very extensive inves- 



46 



THE AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE. 



[Jan. 20, 



ligation inio the composition of a great variety of 
oilcakes, and this would shortly be laid before tlie 
society. They had also been investigating the composi- 
tion of oilcake made from the earth-nut in France, and 
which seemed likely to be of considerable importance ; 
and they had been engaged in determining the properties 
of soils, &c. As regarded analyses made for individuals, 
the number of these during the past half year had been 
larger than was usual during the latter half of the year, 
when farmers were occupied with other matters. It 
was interesting to observe that the character of these 
analyses was undergoing some change. During the last 
year the analyses of superphosphates had very largely 
increased, the use of superphosphates being greatly on 
the advance in Scotland. When he first became chemist 
to the society, these analyses were somewhat of a rarity, 
but the case was now very different, and, while formerly 
they had been of an inferior oharacter, the quality had 
now greatly improved. The report was approved of. 

The Inverness Show. — Mr. Maxwell stated tha* 
arrangements had been made for holding the next show 
at Inverness, in 1856, and that a list of the classes of 
stock was now before the local committee, of which 
Lord Lovat had undertaken to act as chairman. Mr. 
Maxwell added that the society would meet in Glasgow 
in lb'57, and that there was an application from Aber- 
deen for 1858. 



Farmers' Clubs. 

London. — The following have been selected as sub- 
jects for discussion during the present year : — 

Proposed br 
Fd'iuarno. — To wliat extent can Town { ,. T T , r ' e 

Sewage be profitably applied to the-, Entree H^E^'ex 
purposes of Agriculture ? (. Xl P tree *""'. ^ssox. 

March 5.-The Cultivation of Italian ] M ?dL C ' SSt™ 
Ryegrass i u PP er Wellington 

live grass ^ Street, London. 

April2. — The most economical mode of f Mr. W. Bennett, of 
Cultivating Root Crops ;. \ Cambridge. 

J/aT/7.— On the general application off 

Steam Power to Agricultural Pur- J Mr. J. "Williams, of 
poses; and, if practicable, -what] Baydon, Wilts, 
would be its natural results? I 

Junt\.— On the Economy and Cost off Mr. J. Bailey Denton, 
Good Roads \ of Stevenage, Herts. 

Xovcmbcr 5. — The best system of Stall- r 
feeding Cattle — particularly on I 

Farms chiefly Arable, and where Mr. Owen Wallis, of 
Economy in the Consumption of-< Overstone Grange, 
Hay, or its entire omission in the Northampton, 
process is an important considera- I 
tion V 

December— Upon the Management off,,- ,, ~ JTTT .,„ 

Estates, so as to insure their utmost Mr.R.BAKB>B,of Wnttle, 
Development and Improvement ... ( ^ssex. 
The discussions commence at half-past 5 o'clock. 

There are no meetings for discussion in January, July, 

August, September, or October. 



Notices to Correspondents. 

Bushel of Wheat : A Northman. The cost of a bushel of Wheat 
is what no two men will agree upon; the preliminaries to a 
discussion of that point need themselves to be discussed, and 
tbis we hope shortly to do. 

Covered Yakds : An Anonymous Correspondent calls the atten- 
tion of our readers to this subject, and we shall be much 
obliged for information on it from any one who can speak from 
experience. He asks for " reliable information as to the con- 
struction of covered yards for manure. (He does not refer to 
homestpads under one roof.) On bow many sides should there 
be walls, and with what openings? What height should the 
wall plates be from the ground to allow for the manure and 
young stock kept in the yard? What is the best arrangement 
for troughs for feeding the stock, so as not to be interfered with 
by the manure ? What is the best and cheapest form and span 
of roof to cover such a space, say a square of 60 feet or up- 
wards? Should there be any arrangements for light or air in 
•the roof? Any information on this subject, or indication where 
-it can be got will oblige. Also as to where practical informa- 
tion can be got as to cast-iron pipes for liquid manure. Can the 
system be worked without machinery in 3-inch pipes, where 
there is a small fall, say under 10 feet? Would it answer 
simply pumping up the liquid manure into a small supply 
tank from the larger one below, so as to give a fall of the 
height mentioned above? Distribution of liquid manure by 
gravity is spoken of in some of the papers on the subject, but 
as far as appears this is only by open channels like water 
gutters, for no mentionis made of pipes distributing bv gravity, 
without steam-engine or horse-gear." [Distribution by gravity 
is generally mere surface distribution, but it may be by pipes 
if the position of the buildings be high enough above the land 
to be so treated. It is plain that the pressure of a column of 
water, whether the natural result of situation or the artificial 
result of pumping to an elevated tank, has all the effect of the 
forcepump and condenser, and will be equally efficient.] 

Titrate op Soda : 1} V. We would mix nitrate of soda with 
salt in your inland county with greater confidence than else- 
where. It may be applied with good effect for Beans ; and for a 
rapid growth, such as that of Rhubarb, we imagine that it and 
guano applied at frequent intervals in the liquid way would be 
the best plan to adopt. 

Potatoks: Worcester. Ton should have got gas lime together in 
compost months ago, and turned it frequently if you are going 
to use it now. A " waggon load" per acre is a common dressing. 
You may apply it broadcast, and leave it for some weeks before 
turning it in. You should plant early in spring, early sorts in 
early t-oils, and so you will run least risk of the disease. We 
should ourselves prefer a deepisb planting early in March to 
autumn planting. 

Hoot-Gkindinc Machine : ASmall Farmer. We cannot say from 
personal experience which is the best of the few that we have 
seen— and n. ust therefore be dependent upon our correspondents 
giving us information. We should not purchase any of them 
as at present advised, but retain the use of the Banbury Turnip 
cutter. • j ■ r 

Round Bricks : Mr. Morton asks the probable cost of manufac- 
turing round balls of well burned brick, some 3 or 4 inches in 
diameter [We would dissuade you from the expence of a 
patent The existing plan of pipe drainage affords a much more 
perfect channel for the exit of drainage water than the inter- 
stit.al spaces left in the manner you claim to have invented.] 

Sj lt!£o!/ RU I H G ; We ha , ve rec «ved your particulars and will 
a week or twoT " 3e ° f them in ■»'«**» on the subject in 



WARNER'S IMPROVED LIQUID MANURE. 
OK GENERAL PORTABLE PUMP. 

The valve is a ball of imperishable 
material, and cannot clog in action. 
The barrel is of galvanised iron, not 
likely to corrode, aud can be raised or 
lowered at pleasure. The legs will (bid 
together, and the whole may be carried 
on shoulder to anv pond or tank required. 

Price of A\ in. Pump, with legs, 83.3s. 
The barrel is 27£ in. long, and the legs 
are 5 ft. high. 

14 inch Gutta Percha Suction Pipe, 
Is. Gd, per foot. 

Vj inch Flexible Rubber and Canvas 
Suction Pipe, 3s. 6d. per foot. 

May be obtained of any Ironmonger 
or Plumber in town or country, at the 
above prices, or of the Patentees and 
Manufacturers, John "Warner & Sons, 
8, Crescent, Jewin Street, Loudon. 

Every description of Machinery for 
Raising "Water, by means of Wheels, 
Rams, Deep "Well Pumps, &c; also 
Fire and Garden Engines, &c— Engravings sent on application. 




£jlji<*33fc 



WARNERS PATENT VIBRATING STAN- 
DARD PUMPS. 
PATENT CAST-IRON PUMPS, for the use of Farms, Cot- 
tages, Manure Tanks, aud Wells of a depth not exceeding 30 feet. 
Diameter Length of Barrel, 
of Barrel under nose. 
2* in, short lft. Tin. /Fitted for lead, 
2* „ long 3 „ 3 „ gutta percha, 
ditto 3 '„ 6 „ i or cast iron 
ditto 3 „ 6 „ flanged pipe, 
ditto 3 „ 6 „ I as required, 
short, with 15 feet of Lead Pipe 
attached, and Bolts and Nuts 

ready for fixing 2 12 

24 in. long ditto ditto ditto 2 15 




£ 5. d. 
1 12 

1 15 

2 12 

2 IS 

3 5 



The short barrel Pump is very convenient 
for fixing in situations of limited height and 
space, for the supply of coppers and sinks in 
Wash-houses with soft water from under- 
ground tanks, or in Hot, Forcing, and Plant 
Houses; they may be fixed, when desired, 
under the stage. 

May be obtained of any Ironmonger or 
Plumber iu Town or Country, at the above prices, or of the 
Patentees and Manufacturers, JOHN WARNER and SONS, 
8, Crescent, Jewin Street, London. 

Every description of Machinery for Raising "Water, by means 
of Wheels, Rams, Deep Well Pumps, &c; also Fire and Garden 
Engines, &c. &c. — Engravings sent on application. 



BARTON'S PATENT SAFETY STABLE FITTINCS, 
AND ENAMELLED MANGERS. 




'"PHE only Patented invention of this description 
-A constructed so as to prevent considerable waste of Hay and 
Corn, together with all the newest improvements. 

NEWLY IMPROVED ECONOMIC STABLE FITTINGS, 
FORTY SHILLINGS PER SET, to fill up the whole width of 
Stalls, and can be had enamelled or galvanised. Every descrip- 
tion of Mangers, Racks, and Stable Furniture in stock; Iron 
Hurdles, Gates, Fencing, &c. 

Manufacturer of Kite's Patent Noiseless Cast-iron Smoke- 
Curing Chimney Caps (200 on Buckingham Palace), price 35s. 
each. Price Lists and Illustrated Catalogues forwarded on re- 
ceipt of two postage stamps. 

JAMES BARTON, Iron Founder, &c, 370, Oxford Street, 
a few doors east of the Pantheon. 




MANCER, RACK, X WATER-TROUGH AS ONE FIXTURE. 

Improved and Newly Patented. 

COTTAM and H ALLEN, the original inventors, 
obtained the Great Exhibition Prize Medal for this arrange- 
ment, to which all the latest improvements are adapted, secured 
by Patent, including a method entirely new of attaching the 
halter-weight and rein from the back of the manger to the under 
front of the plate, allowing the horse greater freedom, and being 
noiseless in operation, add much to its comfort whilst feeding and 
convenience when at rest, as likewise, from their position avoid- 
ing the liability of the most restive horse getting cast. No well- 
manaeed stable should he without, these fittings. 
'COTTAM' 8 ENAMELLED MANGERS are constructed in 
the best possible manner, both as to form and utility; are 
cleanly in appearance, disable, and impervious to infection; 
manufactured Plain, Galvanised, and Enamelled. Improved 
Surface Drain, with Safety Covers, Sanitary Traps, Stable 
Pumps, Loose. Box, Fittings Gutta Percha Preserving Saddle 
and Harness Brackets, and every article in Stable Furniture, in 
stock. An extensive assortment of Patterns for both Plain and 
Ornamen'al tastings and every description of Wrought and 
Cast Iron Work for building and other purposes. Agricultural 
and Horticultural Implements, Iron Gates, both plain and orna- 
mental, Hurdles, Strain Fencing, &c. 

Estimates and Catalogues on application to Cottabi& Hallen, 
2, Winsley Street, Oxford Street. 

WARMING AND VENTILATING. 



PUBLIC INVITATION. 
JOHN WEEKS and CO., King's Road, Chelsea, 
O most respectfully invite those interested in Horticulture, aud 
in the principles of betting by Hot water, to visit their Horticul- 
tural Establishment during this Severe Weather. They will 
now have a faic opportunity of testing the efficiency of the heating 
apparatus, which is worked by one boiler, 5 feet by 3 feet 6 inches, 
circulating the water through 5000 feet of pipe extending through 
•houses and pits upwards of 1C00 feet in length, and diffusing over 
tlie whole ,1 greater supply of heat than is necessary. 



ITS 

BRANCHES. 



TANNED NETTING, for the protection of Fruit 
Trees from frost, blight, and birds, and for the security of 
fresh sown seeds, either in Gardens or Fields, at It?, per square 
yard; 200 yards. Us.; 500 yards, 30*.; 1000 yards. 50$. Scrim 
Canvass, for Wall Fruit.— At EDGINGTON and Co.'s, Rick 
Cloth, Tent, and Waterproof Cloth Manufacturers, 17, Smith- 
field Bars, City, and Old Kent Road, Southwark; Emigrant 
Outfitters, Ship Clmndlers. and Export Merchants, Brunswick 
Street, near the East India Export Dock, Blackwall. 




King's Eoad, Chelsea, 



HOTHOUSE BUILDERS. 
rpHE NOBILITY and GENTRY about to erect Hor- 
-*- ticultural Buildings, or fix Hot-water Apparatus, will find 
at our Horticultural Establish- 
ment and Hothouse Works, ^ * - 
King's Road, Chelsea, an exten- 
sive variety of Hothouses, Green- S& *' 
houses, Conservatories, Pits, &c, ran 
erected, and in full operation, tz_Efl^' ■■ "" : 

combining all modern improve- ■ — 

ments, so that a lady or gentleman can select the description of 
House best adapted for every required purpose. 

Tlie HOT-WATER APPARATUS, which passes through alt 

the Houses and Pits, , „ l1 .n..ni,-.. M .i. M i 

affording both top ^^^^^^^ffllffl 

and bottom beat, is «-^* 

in constant opera- 
tion and particularly 

worthy of attention. '* -* 1 — 

Many of the Houses and Pits are of wide and lofty dimensions 
and together equal in length 1000 feet. They are all effectually 
heated by one boiler, which, during the severe winter months 
does not cost in labour and fuel 
more than 3s. 8d. per day, and 
the apparatus is so arranged 
that each House or Pit may be 
heated separately and to the 
required temperature. The 
splendid collections of Stove 
and Greenhouse Plants are also in the highest state of culti- 
vation, and for sale at very low prices. Also a fine collection 
of strong GrapeVines in pots, from eyes, all the best sorts. 

Plans, Models, and Estimates of Horticultural Buildings; also 
Catalogues of Plants, Vines, Seeds, &c, forwarded on application 
to John Weeks & Co., King's Road, Chelsea, London. 




HOT - WATER PIPES at wholesale prices, with 
Elbows, Syphons, Tee Pipes, and every requisite connec- 
tion. Cast Iron Boilers, 55s. each. Improved Soot Doors and 
Furnace Doors. Builders' Castings of every description kept in 
Stock at — Mr. LYNCH WHITE'S, Old Barge Iron Wharf, 
Uppnr Ground Street (near Blackfriars Bridge), London. 

QHEET GLASS (15 02.) of good quality in lOOJeefc 
^~J boxes. 

~ 10 in. by 8 in. and under ... 15*. per bos. 

11 in. by 9 in. to 22 in. by 14 in 17*. „ 

Larger sizes to 2S in. by IS in 19*. „ 

1 'Also similar sizes in 21 oz. Sheet at 24s. per box. Boxes 
charged 2s. each, and returnable at the same price, if delivered 
free. CRYSTAL WHITE GLASS, Crown and Sheet Glass in 
Crates, British and Patent Plate, &c. &c. White Lead, Oils, 
Turpentine. Colours, &c.— G. Farmiloe & Son, 118, St. John 
Street, West Smitbfield. 



CLASS FOR CONSERVATORIES, ETC. 

HETLEY and CO. supply 16-oz. SHEET GLASS, 
of British Manufacture, at prices varying from 2d. to 3d. 
per square foot, for the usualsizes required, many thousand feet 
of which are kept ready packed for immediate delivery. 

Lists of Prices and Estimates forwarded on application, for 
PATENT ROUGH PLATE, THICK CROWN GL.ASS, GLASS 
TILES and SLATES, WATER-PIPES, PROPAGATING 
GLASSES, GLASS MILK PANS, PATENT PLATE GLASS, 
ORNAMENTAL WINDOW GLASS, and GLASS SHADES, 
to James Hetlev & Co., 35, Soho Square, London. 

See Gardeners 1 Chronicle first Saturday in each month. 

CLASS FOR CONSERVATORIES. 
fyHOMAS MILLINGTON'S present prices for good 
-A- 16 oz. sheet glass, boxes included. 

Gin. by 4 in. to 6 in. by 5J in. ... 13s. 3d. \ 

7 by 5 to 8 by 6 13 6 

8J by 6i to 10 by S 14 Uer 100 feet. 

10* by SI to 14* by 10* 16 

17 by ltfto IS by 12 IS ] 

A great variety of sizes. Particulars had on application. 
ORCHARD HOUSE SQUARES on Mr. Rivers's plan, to 
whom I have sold some thousands of feet. 

Large Sheets for cutting up, in cases, at 2£d!. and 3<Z.per foot. 
HARTLEY'S IMPROVED ROUGH PLATE GLASS, Sheet, 
and Rough Plate, Tiles, Milk Pans, Bee and Propagating Glasses, 
Wasp Traps, Cucumber Tubes, Preserve Jars, with and without 
covers; Fern Glasses. 

Plate, Sheet, Crown, and Ornamental Window Glass. Crystal 
Glass Shades for ornaments. 

Greenhouses, erected in either wood or iron. Garden Lights 
and Frames. 

87, Bishopsgate Street Without, London— same side as Eastern 
Counties Railway. 



HARTLEY'S PATENT ROUGH PLATE 
GLASS, 1-Sth thick, or 2 lbs. to the foot; 8-16ths, orSlbs.; 
and l-4th, or 4 lbs. to the foot, for Ridge and Furrow Roofs, 
Greenhouses, Railway Stations, Engine Sheds, Mills, Market 
Halls, and Public Buildings generally. 

Packed in Boxes of 50 feet each. 

6 by 4 and 6i by 4* 10*. 6<Z. per box. 

7 „ 5 „ 74 „ 54 12 „ 

8 „ 6 „ 8* „ 61 13 6 

9 „7 „ 9* „ 7j and 10 by 8 ... 15 „ 

For larger sizes a full List of Prices will be sent on application. 
Boxes are charged 2s. each extra, full price allowed if returned 
free of expense.— For further information apply to 

JAMES PHILLIPS & CO., 
116, Bishopsgate Stbeet Without. 

"Rough Plate has never been, and never can be, prejudicial to 
trie colouring of Grapes ; though we can easily believe that it ha* 
been charged with such a fault by persons who have not skill 
enough to manage Grapes under glass." — Gardeners 1 Chronicle. 

" There can he no.que&tion now that Rough Plate Glass is the 
most beautiful as well as the most useful kind of glass that can. be 
employed in horticulture. It is free from all the faults of trans- 
parent glass, and has many advantages peculiar to itBelf, witfiouk 
a single disadvantage as a set off. 11 — Gardeners 1 Chronicle. 



8— 1855.J 



I'll h A <; HI U \1 LTD It A h '-A X l,T I I. 



TT 



WEEDS ON WALKS. 

MR,. FLEMING'S WEEDING on SALTING 
MACHINE ran GRAVEL WALKS, COURT VAUUH, 
&c. manufactured and sold by Alexander Hiiankh & Hon, Ar- 
broatb I''* j rrjtJ'fi 1 1 li'*^» I'' 1 "") whom |>;irlli'nlnni Willi |>i [cflfl muy bnhurt , 



PHILLIPS' 






PATENT. 



THE PRIZE IMILPJNO MACI1INK of the Royn] 
Agricultural Sooloty's Bhow, hold at Lincoln, July, 1854. 
Tim Plral mill only Prize ovor offered by (ho Royal Agricul- 
tural Society for (ho boHl Machine for reducing Roots to a Pulp 
traj awarded to tho Machine [nvontcd and Exhibited by Fin 
dbhiqk I'lin.i.ii'H, of The Mull Farm, near Brandon, Suffolk. 

Fhbdidhicjh I'liii.i.iivi bcgH to Inform the trade thai ho \h pre 
pared to gnint Lii-riiurn i'<>v ihn malting of thoHO Ma ch lnoH. 

WOOLLEN NET for tub PROTECTION ov 
WALL FRUIT TREES mom FROST, :i and 8 yardu 
-.vide, can bo had of Wba'Ciibuhbad, WALTBns, & Co., Dorby. 
See Oardcntira' Chronicle of Oct. 28, 1804. 

Gi ALVANISKD WIRE (J A ME NETTING.— 
7d. I'Kit Yaiiij, 2 FffiKT Width. 




Galvan- Japnnnod 

ined. Iron. 

2-Inch numb, light, 24 Inchoa wide ... Id. per yd. Brf.pcryd. 
2-luch „ Strong „ ... 9 „ 6J „ 

8-lnoh „ extra strong,, ... 12 M 9 „ 

lfi-inoh „ light „ ... 8 „ 6 „ 

lS-lnch M atrong „ ... to ,, 8 „ 

lg-inch ,, extra strong „ ... 14 „ 11 „ 

All the above can be mado any width »it proportionate prices. 
II' Urn upper hull' in ii coarse nioshj it will reduce tho prices one- 
fourth. Galvanised Sparrow-proof Netting for Pheasantries, 3d. 
per square fbot. Patterns forwarded post free. 

Manufactured by H.uiNAnn & Bishop, Market Place, Norwich, 
and delivered fre-o of expense in London, Peterborough, Hull, or 
Newcastle. 

STEPHENSON and PE1LL, 6 1 , Gracechurch Street, 
London, and 17, New Park Street, Southwark, Manufacturers 
of Copper Cylindrical and Improved Conical Iron BOILERS, 
and Conservatory and Hothouse Builders, either in Wood or 
Iron, respectfully call tho attention of the Nobility, Gentry, and 
Nurserymen to their simple buteflicacious method of warming 
Horticultural and other Buildings by Dot Water. 

From the exleusive works they have executed, references of 
the highest respectability can be given, and full particulars 
f urnished on application, 

ryi ii e co m fo rt^TTFixed watebTcloset 

J- Fon 11 — Places in gardens converted into comfortable wator- 
oloseta by llio PATENT HERMETICALLY SEALED PAN, 
With its self-acting valve, entirely preventing the return of cold 
air or effluvia, Any carpenter can fix it in two hours. Price 11. 
Hermetically-sealed Inodorous Chamber Commodes, 11., 21. 4s-, 
and SI.; also Improved Portable Water-closets, with pump 
cistern, and self-acting valve. A prospectus, with engravings, 
forwarded by enclosing two postage stamps.— At Fyfe & Co 's 
S anatorium , -Ki, Leicester Square, Loudon. 

NEW WINTER SOAP. " 
TV!' ETCALFE, BINGLEY, and Co/S OATMEAL 

L^k and CAMPHOR SOAP, in tablets (recistered Nov. 3, 1S5-1). 
Price 6rf. ench. This soap will bo found the purest and most 
perfect winter soap ever introduced to tho public. It preserves 
the hands from chapping, and renders the skin solt and agree- 
able.— Sold wholesale and retail by tho inventors and sole manu- 
facturers, Mbtcalpb, Rincli'.y, & Co., Brushmakera and Per- 
fumers to II 8 11. Prince Albeit. 130n and 131. Oxford Street. 

Caution.— To prevent fraud, each tablet bears the registered 
mark and the names and address of tho inventors, as above. 

Mi OALTE'e ALKALINE TOOTH PO WEEK. 2s. per box.— 
The above may be obtained of most respectable Chemists, Per- 
fumers, &c. ___ 

"0 PARENTS AND "GUARDIANS.— The return 

of youth to the respective boarding-schools induces a 
SOlidtude for their personal comfort and attraction. Now it is 
that ROWLANDS' MACASSAR OIL, for accelerating the 
growth and for improving and beautifying the hair, ROWLANDS' 
KA1.VDOK, for improving the skin and complexion and 
removing cutaneous eruptions, and ROWLANDS' ODONTO or 
Pbabi, Dentbifice, for rendering the teeth beautifully white and 
preserving the gums, are considered indispensable accompani- 
ments for the attainment of those personal advantages so 
universally sought for and admired. Beware of Spurious 
Imitations. The only Genuine of each hears the name of Rovr- 
i.amis preceding that of the article on the wrapper or label — 
gold by A. Rowland and Soss, 20, Hat ton Garden, London, and 
py Chemists and Perf umers. 

AMANDIN YT~ 
A WHITE HAND is indispensable to all ; it is the 
jg ■» distinguishing mark between refinement and vulgarity 
With the aid of Amandine, prepared by PL BuElDENllACn'every' 
hand may be rendered soft, white, and delicate; every rude im- 
pression of bard usage and rough weather removed; and the seal 
ot elegance impressed upon it, let its present condition be ever 
so unpromising. Sold in jars, 2s. M. each.— H. Breidehbuch 
Perfumer, 157b, Now Bond Street, London; and by Perfumers' 
and i n ng gists. 

TO NERVOUS SUFFERERS^ 
A RETIRED CLERGYMAN having been restored 
x „ *° health in a few days, afttr many years of sreat nervous 
juffei ing, is anxious to communicate to others the means of cure ■ 
he will therefore send (free), on receiving a stamped envelope' 
properly addressed, a copy of the proscription used— Direct Rev' 
_E. D'H oi. ass, 18, Holland Street. Brixton. London. 

"DUPTURES EFFECTUALLY CURED WITH- 
J-V OUT A TRUSS.— All Sufferers from this alarming com- 
plaint are earnestly invited to consult or write to Dr. LESLIE 
as he guarantees them relief in every case. His remedy has 
been successful in curing thousands of persons during the last 
Uftven years, and is applicable to every kind of single and double 
KUptnre, however bad or long standing, in male or female of any 
age, causing no confinement or inconvenience in its use whatever 
Sent post tree to any part of the world, with full instructions for 
use, on receipt of 7.1. Grf. in postage stamps, cash, or Post-office 
oroer, payable at. tho General Post-office, to Dr. Herbert Leslie 
■;'■». Manchester Street, Gray's Inn Road. London. At home 
', ' except Sunday) from 11 till S o'clock. A Pamphlet of 
istimonials sent post free on receipt of one postage stamp. 



T° rf 



PURNISZI voi R HOI I E m.-'i 

* A RTI0LE8 * r DBA '■ i 1 1 Ii ■■ < 1 

VVaih<i«,mi<i'j(. [Jutflbllnhcd t,i>, 1700. A Priced I 

Lint, frro by posl Di tu,Di ■■■ '■ Ojji \ lo the Menu 
rnent.) London lij Id go, 

J I OT-AIK, QA8, VJvVi'A, JOY! li'H .1" 
" I BTOVEB for tho econorofi il and 

i hop '■■ areln m, pn i 

thlo Honiion Je ided, wil.i.fA.M ,IJU1 ■■ ■ 

to hhi unrivalled n tnn nt, adapted (oi t tin i 

concolvable requirement, al prlccH from I' i ■ 
tlidvavlotyof roRlntor and otb< i >■■ i 
npHE PERFECT SUBSTITUTE lor SILVE1U 
1 The real NICK BL BIIfVISRj Introdm I 
\Vji,i,[A'.) |Ji h lion Plated by tho patent pr< ■ 

i;iklntfl i o . I ■ i"",'"iid nil comparison thovorj 

tii i to uteri Ing sllvor that can bo employi d m 
fully or omaiuontallyj a« "'>' Dopon»Iblfl tesl can Itbi 
from roal aJlver. '' li1 " '•' ' ' 

Plddla i i 

Pattei n. Patteri I 

Ti ;i ] dhi por dozoa 19a "■ 

Di iHorl i orkii „ 30a ... 40*. ... 

i ii or! Spoonii ,, 80*. ... 42 . . i 

■\ able i "i i i ., 40*. ... DO*. ... ' i 

TabloSpo) ,. 40*. ... B8*. ... 60*. 

Ton andCoffooSol , WaltoM, Oandlemtlel . i at pi iportlonate 
pi ico am kinds of replatlng done by tlio patent proi i 
CHEMICALLY PURE NiCKEL, riOT PLATED, 

Fiddle, i bn n I. Kln«*ir. 
Table Spoonn and Porks, full n\7.< , ,]'i;r6o-/.. Yl->. ... 'i^. , 

i». , orl ditto and ditto 10*. ... '2\>. 

Tea ditto fi*. ... lt.-(. ... 12*. 

(Ml'VLVMY WARRANTED The most varied 

v> ossortmonl of TABLE CUTLERY In the world, all 
waiTanted, Is on Bale at William B. Bubtom's, at prices 
thut urn remunerative only because of the largenc ■ ■ of the i ale ; 
;), J .-ini'ii Lvory-handlod table knives, with high ahouldei , 11* 
per dozen; desserts to match, 10*. ; If to balance, 1*. per dozen 
extra; carvers, 4*. por pair ; larger sizes, from 14*. Oct. to 26*. per 
dozen; extra fine, ivory, 82*.; ii with silver ferrules, 87*. to 60*.; 
white bone table knlveB, 7*. Qd. per dozen; desserts, 6*. 6*?.; 
carvers, 2*. '■•<!. por pair; black horn table knives, 7*. id, per 
dozen; desserts, 60.; cnrvcrn p l 2n.(ld.\ black wood-handled table 
knives and forks, 6*. per dozen : table steels, from 1 .each. The 
largest stock In existence of plated dessert knives and forks, la 
cases and otherwise, and of tho new plated fish carvers. Also a 
lai < assortment of Itazors, Penknives, Scissors, &c, of the 
best quality. 

T AMPS OF ALT, SORTS AND PATTERNS.— 
-■—J The largest, as well as the choicest, assortment In existence 
of TRENCH and ENGLISH MODERATEUR. PALMER'S, 
CAMPHINE, ARGAND, SOLAR, and other LAMPS, with all 
the latest Improvements, and of tho newest and most rechcrchi 
patterns, in ormolu. Bohemian, and plain glnss, or papier-mache*, 
is at William S. Burton's, and they are arranged in one largo 
room, so that patterns, sizes, and sorts can be instantly selected. 
Real French Colza Oil, 5-s. per gallon. 
Palmer's Candles, 9d., 9.»d., and lOd. per lb. 

DISH COVERS AND HOT-WATER DISHES 
in every material, in great variety, and of the newest and 
most recherc?U patterns. Tin Dish Covers, Gs.fjd. the set of six; 
Block Tin, 12s. 3d. to 28*. 9d. the set of six; elegant modern 
patterns, 34s. Qd. to 58s. Gd. the set; Britannia Metal, with or 
without silver-plated handles, 76s. Gd. to 110*. 6rf. the set; Sheffield 
Plated, 10JI. to 16/. 10s. the set; Block Tin Hot-water Dishes, with 
wells for gravy, 12s. to 30s.; Britannia Metal, 22s. to 77s.; Electro- 
plated, on Nickel, full size, llf. lis. 

Williasi S. Burton has TEN LARGE SHOW ROOMS 
devoted to the show of GENERAL FURNISHING IRON- 
MONGERY (including Cutlery, Nickel Silver, Plated and 
Japanned Wares, Iron and Brass Bedsteads and Bedding), so 
arranged and classified that purchasers may easily and at once 
make their selections. 

Catalogues, with engravings, sent (per post) free. The money 
returned for every article not approved of. 

No. 39, Oxford Street (corner of Newman Street); 1, 2, and 
3, Newman Strest; and 4 *t- 5, Perrv's Place. 



KNOW THYSELF! — The Secret Art of DIS- 
COVERING the TRUE CHARACTER of IN DI VI DUALS 
from the peculiarities of their HANDWRITING, lias long been 
practised by Miss GRAHAM with astonishing success. Her 
startling delineations arc both full and detailed, differing from 
anything hitherto attempted. All persons wishing to "know 
themselves," or any friend in whom they are interested, must 
send a specimen of their writing, stating sex and age, enclosing 
13 penny post stamps to Miss Graiiaii, 10, Chichester Place, 
King's Cross, London, and they will receive in a few days a 
minute detail of the mental and moral qualities, talents, tastes, 
affections, virtues, failings, &c, of the writer, with many other 
things hitherto unsuspected. — " Miss Graham is a most suc- 
cessful graphiologist." Family Herald. 



DO iUU WANT bEAUTlFUL HAlK, 
WHISKERS, &c.? — COUPELLE'S CRINUTRIAR, 
though extensively imitated, is universally acknowledged as the 
only preparation to be really depended upon for the unfailing pro- 
duction of Hair and Whiskers in two or three weeks; as also 
checking Greyness, Baldness, &c, and rendering the Hair 
beautifully luxuriant, curly and glossy. Mr. Williams, S. 
Lowther Street, Liverpool. — " I can now show as fine a head of 
hair as any person, solely from using your Crinutriar." Sergeant 
Cravkn, Longford Barracks, Ireland.— " Through using yonr 
Crinutriar, I have an excellent Moustache, which I had before 
despaired of." Mrs. Carter, Pangbonrne, Beiks. — "My head, 
which was quite bald, is now covered with new hair." Price 25. 
per package, through all Druggists and Perfumers, or sent post 
free on receipt of 24 penny stamps by Rosalie Coupelle, 
69, Castle Street, Newman Street, Oxford Street, London. 



HOLLO WAY'S OINTMENT AND PILLS 
INCOMPARBLE REMEDIES POR BAD LEGS.— Mr. 
Sbackell, Butcher, of Old Brentford, was afflicted for a long time 
with three wi unds in his legs, "which rendered him totally unable 
to attend to his usual avocations ; in fact his leg was so bad that 
it defied all medical skill to effect a cure. He then made use of 
Holloway's Ointment and Pills, paying every attention to the 
instructions given with the medicines, and the result was, after 
persevering with these remedies for about 10 weeks, that his leg 
is completely cured, and he now enjoys the best of health.— Sold 
by all Medicine Vendors, and at Professor Holloway's Esta- 
blishment, 214 Strand, London, and SO, Maiden Lane. New York. 



a Sl'HAlA, COUGHS, COLDS, and INFLUENZA 

iA SPEEDILY Ct'RED. AND INSTANTLY BELIEVED BY THE USE OF 

SPENCERS PULMONIC ELIXIR. 
This fine medicine will be found admirably adapted to promote 
expectoration, ease the breathing, loosen the phlegm, abate fever, 
and allay the tickling sensation which occasions the cough, with- 
out tightening the chest; and for all temporary and local affec- 
tions, such as wheezing, irritation of the throat, palpitation of the 
heart, hoarseness ot the voice, influenza, &c, it affords immediate 
relief; while in more chronic disorders, as periodical coughs or 
inveterate asthma, it is equally valuable in its effects, although 
of course a little longer perseverance in the use of the article is 
required. — Prepared only by T. Roberts & Co., Crane Court, 
Fleet Street, London; ami by all respectable medicine- vendors and 
chemists in the kingdom. In bottles at Is. lid. and 25.90*. each; 
the bottles at 2$. 9d. contain nearly as much as three small ones. 

\* Ask for SpssCee's Pulmonic Elixir. 



W 



JM. JAM BAttRATT, Lawi --weher 

*.* Plan* 



AT Mr. MM 111.. ESTABL1 HMENT. L I, 
hull 

■ 1 
■ 

■ 
HeAnvirit, I'enknlv«N, 

r ■ 



TO MARKET GARDENERS AND OTHERS. 

.; 1 . 

'|'0 BE LEI "-•■ l.i-'. 1. I ■ <*rn to 

I tnon, about 21 

1 Nil klU'lt, bll' 

hounded by « hlffh brick wall ■ 

1 ■ ■ ■ ■ 

1 

I 

NURSERY AND SEED BUSINESS, 
IS nil Yr.x 

r |'0 BE l.i- 1 , ,ti, imniddUb 

.... 

■ 
w<:ll worthy tb': 
i . . 
Tho Numcry l» about G 
Apply t'> Mr, . 

M'O BE LET ON LEASE, for a U:nn fi 

L ma* next, n 
CORN ni 

, act, and with Mm, ■ 
1 and ir-.it, apply to Lax 

Basingstoke, or ctauto »ub*u 

r will U; required. 



TO BE SOLD, at about half-price, a J" . 

LcO r"— ftgreaibarg making 

alterations. KowsUndlneln front oi B. 

lir.ii'..- W'.il:^. K 

rr»0 BE SOLD, BUI 1 « - < BIN CHU 
-*■ first class Prize Birds, BfisinoaFootraChick«ns,nDoia 

American Prize Birds, and Spaniah Chicken*. Abv> fsffie very 
good one-year-old Bird 
and Poultry Netting, Poultry Hu: 

Coops, Flower Stands, and Trainer*, Garden A rd.n. »r*d every 
kind of Wire Work, useful and ornamental.— T. I 
of London Win vw IiUl. 

Illustrated Catalogues forwarded post fr^e. 



Sales &g Suction. 



COCHIN CHINA FOWLS. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS begs to notify that he has 
received instructions from Thomas - 
Grays, to announce for Sale by And J >m, 2fi, 

King Street, Covent Garde:. ' Y, 2."M Jai 

12 o'clock precisely, a selection of COCHIN CHINA I 
consisting entirely of first-class birds. •*• This is the 
and known strain of Buffs now in the hands of the original 
breeder. Mr. Sturgeon has bred them with rare care and Judg- 
ment for many years, no second-rate bird has been bred from, 
and they are unrivalled in their combination of form, size, and 
colour. Up to 1S52 they were the winners of all the bei 
at Birmingham, Cheltenham, Winchester, &c, and were oent 
beaten, since which they have not been shown till within the last 
few weeks, when they took the Silver Vase and 1st Prize at Man- 
chester. — May be viewed the morning of sale. ( 
enclosing a stamped directed envelope, lo Mr. J. C. Bi 
3S, Kiug Street, Covent Garden. 



COCHIN CHINA FOWLS. 
Mr.. PrxcnAED's Aaonxix Sale. 

MR. J. C. STEVENS begs to notify that he has 
received instructions from Mr. Punchard to anooB-- 
Sale by Auction, at bis Great Room. 3S. 
Garden, on TUESDAY, 30th Januarv. at 12 o'clock pre- 
selection of first class COCHIN CHINA FOWL?, trnj in the 
celebrated Yards of Blunts Hall, Haverhill, the Stock 
has been strengthened by careful importations, and the Bird* 
from wbicb were the winners of the Silver Vase, and t 
other First Prize for Cochins, at the late Birmingham E^;. 
— May be viewed on the morning of Sale, and Catalogues had by 
inclosing a stamped directed envelope to Mr. - 
3S, King Street. Covent Garden. 



POSTPONEMENT OF SALE. 

MESSRS. PROTHEROE and MoRRIS are in- 
structed by Mons. A. Van Geert. of Ghent, to annonnce that 
the SALE of CAMELLIAS and other Plant*, announce I 
25th inst.. is, in consequence of the inclemency of the weather. 
postponed till further notice. — American Nursery. Ley- 
Essex. 



BROMPTON PARK NURSERY. 
To Gbstlemkn, Ncbskbtmbf, Butldees, axd Or— 

MESSRS. PROTHEUOE and MORRIS nil! 9 
to an unreserved Sale by Auction, on the ; 
Brompton Park Nursery. Brompton, near the U H 
on MONDAY. Jannary*22d. 

Commissioners for the" Exhibition of 1S51, in conseqner. - : 
land beiug required for the formation of new roa : • 
the valuable Stock crowing on the above ce!e v - 
consisting of FRUIT TREES and EVERGREE: - 
Standard and Dwarf trained and untrained Apple Pear, P!mi 
Peach, Nectarine, Apricot, Cherry, a quantity of V 
and Ivies in pots. Rhubarb, &c — May be viewed three 
to the Sale, Catalogues may be had of the principal S< 
in London, and of the Auctioneers, Aruer: 
stone, Essex. 



TO NURSERYMEN, GENTLEMEN. AND OiHERS. 
-\[R, J. WILLMER will Sell by Auction, on the 
-1VL Premises, Stmbury Nursery, on TCESDA1 

1S55, and following dav" at 12 o'ekx - -- 7, tb*- 

stock of this well known Nun »nsisdng ^en and 

Striped Hollies, from 2 to 10 feet: Arbntr> 

3 feet: Portugal*. 3 to 5 feet; Ye^ - 

2 to 6 feet : Arborvitse. 2 to ■* feet; Cedrus D»if- 

Bays, 3 to 4 feet ; Scarlet Rbododer ^ndron pontic*, 

Lanrestinns, 3 to 6 feet: Evergreen Prive: . 

4 feet- Phillvrea, 6feet: B03 - 
and Dwarf Pears, laree dwarf Plums, Standard (ferinces 
beam hedsres, Spruce~and Balm Firs from 4 r: l". 
Elm. Lime. Ash. Acacia. Oak. Horse Chesnnt. Spanish C 

from' 6 to 14 feet. May be viewed till time of S :s.lognes 

had on the Premises, or hv forwarding fK> Postage Stamps to 
the Auctioneer,. Sunhury 



48 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE AND AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE. [Jan. 20. 



LAURELS FOR THE MILLION. 

DAVID FERGUSON, Landscape Gardener and Contracting Planter, 

TNFORMS the public that he grows a LARGE STOCK of TREES and SHRUBS for the purpose of enabling him to Charge Low, and give at once Present Effect 

wlicn carrying out his plans, which is of consequence to those who prefer having the Benefit of Shady Walks, Glades, nnd> liecesses of their own planting in Dlace of the miTpfl IWrr,.- «,J 

atee System of planting frequently met with for the benefit of GnANDcmi.DRES. F s ' pmclJ 0I lue mixea MILK and 

As D. P. has More LAURELS than would crown the Heads of all the HkhOIKKB and Heroes in Europe, he will be h.ipriy to part with them on Low Terms for Cask- nlco Nli" 
NKand SINGLE CRIMSON THORNS, YEWS, PORTUGAL LAURELS, BEURERIS AQUIFOL1UM, BOX, AUCUisAS, CEDRUS DEODARA StanJard and Dwarf End, 
5S BATAILLES, and other ROSES, &c. If the LAURELS are taken by the Ten, Twenty, Fifty, or O.s-E Hundred Thousand, they will be sold at a price that will soon SaviTtti 

^r.r.nr. M. ', ' , in »~ '. ,-'■.. . in ...,■,- ,.'..:.- tn<*0t)lfT HS linHnr MVPP liiuim, n, ,.,,.., n ..t.n.1 .,.,,,.) „.<M!..„ 1 .1.: /•— .1. .- . - . . ^_ _ 



"Water System of planting frequen 

~ 3 than would crown tlie neaas 01 all tlie heroines and Heroes in Europe, lie will be h.ipriy to part with them on Low Terms for Oasit- nlco NFW nmiRTV 
PINK and SINGLE CRIMSON THORNS, YEWS, PORTUGAL LAURELS, BERBERIS AQUIFOLIUM, BOX, AUCUBAS, CEDRUS DEODARA, Standard and IlVaiV Bo,k «1 GF aTnt 
DES BATAILLES, and other ROSES, &c. If the LAURELS are taken by the Ten, Twenty, Fifty, or One Hundred Thousand, they will be sold at a price that will soon Save tiieir Cost in 
Labour. My Plan is to lay them in very close together as under cover, giving at once a good ground outline, and something lor the eye to repose on in place of tliu Hoeing Sceaimno and 
always wanting unsatisfactory System generally practised. r ' ™< "" 

D. P. was many years Gardener to the late P. C. Labuuchere Esq., Hylands, Essex, and is well acquainted with Forcing Grapes, Peaches, Apricots, Strawberries Melons French Beans Lettnce 
Carrots, &c, on the Dutch system, which is superior to the British where a good stud of horses is kept. ' ^ ^mui*, 



Plans of Bouses and Pits, etc., furnished on (he Dutch and English Systems. 
D. F. will feel much pleasure in recommending a worthy gardener to any Lady or Gentleman in want of one.— Stowe, Buckingham. 



EENDLE'S COMPLETE COLLECTIONS OF 
KITCHEN GARDEN SEEDS are now ready. 
Tliey can le had to suit various sized Gardens at the 
folloioing prices : — 

No. 1 COLLECTION £3 

„ 2 „ 2 

„ 3 „ 15 

„ 4 „ 15 

The quantities are fully detailed in their " Price Current and 
Garden Directory," a new edition of which is just published. 
William E. Rendle & Co., Seed Growers, Plymouth. 
Established 68 Tears. 

SUTTON'S COMPLETE COLLECTIONS, 
CARRIAGE FREE. 
PARTICULARS OF the SORTS and QUANTITIES Con- 
tained in SUTTON'S COLLECTIONS OF SEEDS will be sent 
post free on receipt of a stamped envelope with address. 

By tlie perusal of this List, it will he seen that the very 
test kinds of Vegetable Seeds may be obtained in full 
quantities, and proper proportions for one year's supply 
of a large garden for the sum of 31., and other complete 
Collections of equally choice sorts for smaller Gardens at 
11., \l. 5s., and 15s. The economy of cost is by no means the 
only advantage gained by ordering one of these Collections. 
Address, John Sutton & Sons, Seed Growers, Reading. 
VEGETABLE AND FLOWER, SEEDS. 

PETER LAWSON and SON beg leave to intimate 
to their English customers and the public that they are 
prepared to supply from their London establishment assortments 
of GARDEN and" FLOWER SEEDS of superior quality, com- 
prising all the esteemed standard sorts and those recently intro- 
duced. They will be happy to send Catalogues on application. 

P. L. & Son have also to intimate that they will shortly issue 
their LIST of AGRICULTURAL SEEDS, all of which have 
been carefully saved from the most select stocks. 

Liberal arrangements will be made for the carriage of their 
seeds to all quarters. 

PETER LAWSON and SON, 

Queen's Seedsmen, Wood Foresters, &c, for Scotland, and to 
the Highland and Agricultural Society, 27, Great George Street, 
Westminster, Lon don. 

WDRUMMOND and SONS' NEW DESCR1P- 
• T1TE CATALOGUE, containing select varieties only, 
of VEGETABLE and FLOWER SEEDS is now ready, and may 
be had post free on receipt of one postage stamp. This Catalogue 
will, at a glance, furnish the Gardener with all the necessary 
material for drawing out his Seed List correctly and without 
trouble. In reference to it the Gmdcnn's' Chronicle remarks : — 

" It is simple, hhort, and one.of the best we have seen. They 
are pursuing the sensible course' we have so often insisted upon 
for the sake of both buyer and seller ; " and this opinion has been 
cordially responded to by all our old and many new customers. 
W. Deemmond & Sons' Seed and Implement Warehouse, Stirling . 
GERMAN FLOWER SEEDS. 

MOSCHKO WITZ and SIEGLING, Erfurt, beg to 
inform the trade that tlieir new "Wholesale Catalogue of 
Choice German and other Flower Seeds, is now ready, and may 
he had on application to their Agent, Mr. H. Henkel, 70, Fen- 
church Street, London. 

OBERT KENNEDY, Agent for Messrs. Platz and 
Son, Seed Growers, Erfurt, lias much pleasure in announcing 
he has received their Catalogue of Flower and Vegetable Seeds 
for the trade for 1855, which abounds with new articles of great 
interest, and will be forwarded, per post, on application to 
R. Kennedy, Bedford Conservatory, Covent Garden, London. 

P.S. Also, R. Kennedy's General Catalogue of British and 
Foreign Ferns forwarded on receipt of six postage stamps. 
HOLLYHOCKS. 

JOHN CHATER and SON offer the following New 
and Choice .HOLLYHOCKS in Pots at 18s. per dozen, hamper 
included :— Pourpre de Tyre, Yellow Model, Saffrannt, Duke of 
Rutland fuew), Penelope, Swansdown, Gem, Lady Braybrooke, 
Spectabilis, White Perfection, Black Prince (new), King of Roses, 
Raphael, Napoleon, Magnum Bonum, &c-. 

Also the following strong ground Roots, 7s. 6d, per dozen : — 
Queen, Bella Donna, Elegans, Brilliant, Marmion, Mrs. Russell, 
Yenosa rubra, Obscura, Aurantia, Purpurea elegans, Flower of 
the Day, Marchioness of Breadalbane, Queen of England, and 
Model of Perfection. 

New Crimson Rockets, 65. per dozen; Double "White do., 3s. 
per dozen, 205. per 100. 

Hollyhock Seed, in packets containing 200 seeds, Is. Gd. ; 
400, 2a. 6rf.; warranted from best flowers. Choice Pansy, Is. per 
packet. Sweet William, 6d. 

Descriptive Catalogues may be had on application to J. Ciiater 
& Son, Haverhill, Suffolk. — Post Office Orders payable at 

Haverhill. 

SUPERB LATE WHITE BROCCOLI—" EMPEROR." 

EP. DIXON having purchased the entire stock 
• of the above Broccoli of Messrs. Elletsons, Market Gar- 
deners, Thorngumbald, near Hull, begs to announce that he is 
prepared to send it out in sealed packets at 2s. 6d. each. This 
Broccoli has been raised by the Messrs. Elletsons, the raisers of 
the Mammoth, sent out some time ago, who state that the 
EMPEROR, if sown at the same time, will come into use before 
it. Is of very dwarf growth, perfectly hardy, with heads from 
15 lbs. to 20 lbs. weight; keeps its colour, and stands firm three 
weeks after it is ready to cut. A noble flower, and commands the 
best price of any other in the Hull market, where it is well 
known, and will be a great acquisition to the market gardeners 
around London, as well as those who wish for a first-rate 
Broccoli. 

PURE MAMMOTH BROCCOLI.— Numerous applications 
having been made to Messrs. Elletsons last season for Seed of the 
Pure Mammoth Broccoli, they determined to allow a flat to stand 
for Seed, carefully selected from the original stock, producing 
heads from IS lbs. to 25 lbs. each. E. P. D. having purchased the 
stock of this celebrated Broccoli, is prepared to send it out in 
packets at 2s. Gd. each. 

Each may be had of Messrs. NorxE, Cooped, & Bolton, 152, 
Fleet Street; and Messrs. Hlt.st &, M'Muli.en, G, Leadenhall 
Street, London. Also of the Advertiser, 57, Queen Street, Hull. 



MEW CATALOGUE OF FLORISTS' FLOWERS, 1855- 
pAREY TYSO, Florist, &e., Wallingford, Berks, 
Vy -will send his DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE of Anemones, 
Ranunculuses, Carnations, Picotees, Dahlias, &c, for one stamp. 
Also his Flower Seed List for one stamp. 



PRICED NURSERY CATALOGUES. 
A PAUL and SON will he happy to forward the 
-f* • following priced Nursery CATALOGUES in return for 
one postage stamp each:— A, Roses; B, Ornamental Trees 
and Conifers: C, Fnurr Trees; D, Herbaceous Plants; F, 
Greenhouse Plants, &c; G, Seeds; H, Hollyhocks; I, 
Bu lbs.— Nn rseri e s, Chesbunt, Herts. 



FOREST AND ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS. 

DAVID REID and SON, Nurserymen and 
Florists, Leith Walk, Edinburgh, beg to intimate their 
CATALOGUES as above are ready, and to be had free on 
application. 



Lj'KUlT TRLES, FOKEST TREES, EVERGREEN 

-*- SHRUBS, &c. Catalogues of the above may he had on 
application to William Barratt, Wakefield. 

1 ^^_A^quamity of fine T ransplanted White Thorns. 

AMERICAN PLANTS. — A Descriptive Priced 
CATALOGUE of HARDY AMERICAN PLANTS for 
the coming season is just published, and may be had by enclosing 
two stamps for postage. As everything in the way of American 
Plants is grown to an unequalled extentatthis Nursery.ir.tending 
purchasers would do well to provide themselves with this Catalogue. 
WATERER and GODFREY, Nephews and Successors to the 
l ate Hosea Waterer , Knap Hill Nursery, Woking, S urrey. 

AMER I C A N P LAN TS7 
JOHN WATERER begs to announce that he has 
w published a new Catalogue of his Rhododendrons, &c, as 
exhibited by him in the Gardens of tlie Royal Botanic Society, 
Regent's Park, London. It describes the colours of all the 
Rhododendrons considered worthy of cultivation, with a Treatise 
on their successful management, and may be had by enclosing 
two postage 6tamps. 

The American Nursery, Bagshot, Surrey, near Farnhorough 
Station, South- Western Railway. 



AMERICAN NURSERY. 
/^EORGE BAKER'S DESCRIPTIVE CATA- 
VT LOGUE of AMERICAN PLANTS, &c, as exhibited by 
him in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park, may be had 
by inclosing two postage stamps. 

G. B. begs to call attention to his fine stock of Weeping 
Hollies, Coniferous Plants, Ornamental Shrubs, &c. — American 
Nursery, Windlesham, near Bagshot, . Surrey, near Staines 
Station, South-Western Railway, where conveyances may be 
obtained.^ 

OUTTON'S PRICED SEEiTaND PLANT LIST, 

^J with Instructions on Cultivation, Calendar of Opera- 
tions, and other Useful Information is now published, price Six- 
pence; and being entered at Stationers' Hall is copyright. 

As this publication is compiled principally for the use of 
Messrs. Sutton's Customers, it is requested that those who have 
not yet received it will forward their Address, when a copy will 
be sent gratis, and post free. Other persons will receive it post 
free in return for six postage or receipt stamps. 

Address John Sutton & Suns, Seed Growers, Reading, Berks. 
RANUNCULTJSES.'ANEMONESrLILIUM LANCIFOLTUM, 
CALOCHORTUS LUTEUS, CALLIPRORA FLAVA, 
GLADIOLUS, TRITONEA AUREA, DIELYTRA SPEC- 
TABILIS, VALLOTA PURPUREA, ANOMATHECA 
CRUENTA, AND AURICULAS. 

HENRY GROOM, Clapham Rise, near London, 
by Appointment Florist to her Majesty, begs to say 
that he has a fine Selection of the above BULBS, &c, which he 
can supply at Moderate Prices. His Catalogue will he forwarded 
on application. 



LOANS, from 251. to 10007., upon approved personal 
or other security, repayable by easy instalments, extending 
over any period not exceeding 50 months, are readily OBTAIN- 
ABLE from the BRITISH MUTUAL SUBSCRIPTION LOAN 
ASSURANCE CLASSLS.— Prospectuses, reports, and every 
information may be obtained <m application at the British Mutual 
Life Office, 17, New Bridge Street, Blackfriars. Rules, 6d. each 
copy, or Is. per post. Charles James Thicke, Resident Sec. 



I OANS, from 6/. to 100/., ADVANCED upon per- 
-Li sonal security by the COVENT GARDEN LOAN 
OFFICE, on the shortest notice (the situation private, ami the 
management strictly confidential), 17, Broad Court, Bow Street. 
—Further particulars forwarded on receipt of three postage 
stam ps. No pence or office fees charged. Open dail y from 10 till 3. 

R^OYAL PANOPTICON of SCIENCE and ART, 
LEICESTER SQUARE.— Novel Attractions— Aladdin 
and the Wonderful Lamp, with accompaniments on the Grand 
Organ by Mr. W. T. Best, and the Legend of Aladdin told by 
Mr. Leicester Buckingham— Dioramic Views of the War in the 
Crimea— Luminous Fountain, 100 feet high— Heinke's Diving 
Apparatus, and the Subaqueous Light in the Crystal Cistern— 
Cosmorama of St. Petersburgh and Moscow, with Portrait of 
Czar Nicholas— Lectures on Electricity, Chemistry, Natural 
History— the History of the Bee— Franklins Arctic Voyages— 
and Natural Magic. Doors open— Morning, 12 to 5; Evening 
(Saturday excepted), 7 to 10. Admission, Is. ; Schools, and 
children under 10, half price. __^ 



Just published, price 2s. 6d. } 
J AND DRAINAGE and DRAINAGE SYSTEMS; 
*~* a Paper partially read before the Ceutral Farmers' Club. 
By J. Bailey Denton. 

James Ridgway, 1C9, Piccadilly. 



« LTORTY-FIVE YEARS among the FLOWERS," 
A by G. Glenny. No. VIII of the QUARTERLY RE- 
VIEW of HORTICULTURE is now publishing, with 16 pages 
of the above, and 13 other articles, Is., or by Post 18 stamps. 

GLENNY'ri COMPANION to the GARDEN 
ALMANACKS will appear as soon as the Portrait is completed, 
price Is., or by Po*t Is. Gd. 
G. Cox, IS, King Street, Covent Garden, and all Booksellers. 



This day is published, price 12s., royal Svo, 
A N INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF 
■*-*- JURISPRUDENCE. 

BEING A TRANSLATION OF THE GENERAL PART OF 

THIEAUT'S SYSTEM DES PANDEKTEN RECHTS. 

WITH NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS 

By NATHANIEL LINDLEY, of the Middle Temple, Esq., 
Barrister-at-Law. 
William Maxwflt,, 32, Bell Yard, Lincoln s Inn, Law Book- 
s eller and Publisher; Hodges & Smith:, Grafton Street, Dublin. 

ryHE QUARTERLY REVIEW, No. CXCI., is 

J- published this day. , 

Contents. 
I. FIRES AND FIRE INSURANCE. 
II. JOHN DALTON— ATOMIC CHEMISTRY. 

III. PICTURES OF LIFE AND CHARACTER— LEECH, 

IV. BRODIE'S PSYCHOLOGICAL ENQUIRIES. 
V. CLERICAL ECONOMICS. 

VI. THE DOMESTIC HEARTH. 
VII. PROVIDENT INSTITUTIONS. 
VIII. THE CAMPAIGN IN THE CRIMEA. 
IX. CORSICA. 
X. THE CONDUCT OF THE WAR. 

John_Murray , Albe marle Street. 

PARLEY'S ANIMALS. 

The 11th Edition, carefully revised, bound in cloth, gilt edges, 

price 6s., with nearly 5C0 Engravings on Wood, 

TALES ABOUT ANIMALS. By Peter Parley, 
Author of "Tales about Sea, Europe, Asia," &c. 
London: William Tegg & Co., S5, Queen Street, Cheapside. 



In one Volume, the Third Edition, bound in Itoan, price 3s. 6d. r 
or 4s. Free by Post. 

PROFIT AND DISCOUNT TABLES. — Showing 
the Prices at which Articles must be Sold, to obtain Profit 
at a certain per centage upon their Invoiced Cost. And also, tbe 
Net Cost of Articles, when Disconnts are allowed on the Invoiced 
Prices. Adapted for the assistance of Traders in their Purchases, 
Sales, and Taking Stock. The Calculations are upon Prices 
from One Penny to Twenty Shillings, and at the rates from 
One-and-a-Half per Cent, to Seventy-five per Cent. 

To which is added, Tables of Foreign Weights, Measures, aiai 
Monies, with their Comparative Values in British Standard. 
Also, Observations on the new Receipt and Bill Stamp Acts. By 
Charles Ody Rooks, Accountant. 

London: William Tegg & Co., 85, Qneen Street, Cheapside, 



THE EASIEST AND QUICKEST METHOD OF 

ACQUIRING FRENCH. 

MONS. LE PAGE'S FRENCH EDUCATIONAL 
and CONVERSATIONAL WORKS, designed to obviate 
the necessity of going to France to 1 acquire the Parisian accent. 
LE PAGE'S FRENCH MASTER for BEGINNERS. Cloth, 

3s. New and improved Edition. 
LE PAGE'S JUVENILE TREASURY of FRENCH CON- 
VERSATION, with the English before the French. Just 

published, price 3s-, neatly bound. 
LE PAGE'S L'ECHO DE PARIS, with a Vocabulary of Words 

and Idioms, Twenty-second Edition, cloth, 4s. 
LE PAGE'S FINISHING EXERCISES in FRENCH CON- 
VERSATION; being a Key to "L'Echo de Paris." Now first 

published, price Is. Gd. 
LE PAGE'S GIFT of FLUENCY in CONVERSATION. 

Tenth Edition, cloth, 3s. 
LE PAGE'S LE PETIT CAUSEUR; being a Key to the 

" Gift of Conversation." Second Edition, Is. 6d. 
LE PAGE'S FRENCH GRAMMAR. Seventh Edition, cloth, 3*. 
LE PAGE'S READY GUIDE to FRENCH COMPOSITION. 

Second Edition, cloth, 4s. 
LE PAGE'S FRENCH PROMPTER. A General Handbook of 

Conversation in English nnd French. Fifth Edition, cloth, 5s. 
LE PAGE'S PETIT MUSEE de LITERATURE FRANCAIS. 

Cloth, 5s. Gd. 

" Mr. Le Page has, in his excellent series of educational works, 
rendered a thorough kuowledge of that language comparatively 
easy. His system is peculiar and original, and has long been 
stamped with public approbation." — Bell's Weekly Messenger. 

Effing ham Wilson, R oyal Exchange; and Messrs. Longm an. 

a^HE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE and AGRI- 
1 CULTURAL GAZETTE.— To he Sold, VOLUMES for 
the years 1S50, 1S5L, 1S52, half hound; 1853, 1854, unbound, all 
complete and clean, price 5?. — Apply to II. Holland, Golder's 
Green, Hendon, Middlesex. 

NEW DITCH - DIGGER.— See the 

PRACTICAL MECHANIC'S JOURNAL. 
Part LXXXII, January, 1855, Is., contains: 

Illustrations. — Two Large Copper-plate Engravings of 
Twin Dredger, of 30-horse pover, made for the Commissioners of 
Leith Harbour; and Messrs. Whitaker'a Longitudinal Scavenger 
for Mules, and 40 Wood Engravings. 

Contents. — Denis Papin— the Winter Agricultural Meetings — 
Practical Science of Candle Making — American Notes by our 
own Correspondent : New York, Bell Ringing, Steering, Engine 
for Ships, Ditch Digger, Elastic Horseshoe, Elastic Ball Valves, 
Air-stretched Saw — Whitaker's Mule Scavenger — Modem War 
Gunnery: Kennedy's Rifle-winged Shot, Bentley's Revolver, 
Perry's Breech-Load er, Capt. Norton's 30-inch Howitzers, Cap*. 
Roberts' 5- ton Sea Service Mortar for 200 lbs. Balls, the 
Lancaster Gun, Nasmyth's Wrought Iron Gun — Illustrated 
Specifications of Recent Patents : Pamphlet Retainer, Goodman; 
Dry Clay Brick Machine, Johnson ; Marine Boilers, Macfarlane ; 
Block Printing, Cowhrough ; India Rubber Printing Surface, 
Johnson; Pile Drivers, Bower — Floating Water Bowl — combined 
Screw Jack — Artificial Egg Hatching — Reviews of New Books — 
Proceedings of Societies — Monthly Notes — Lists of all New 
Patents. 

Hebert, 8S, Cheapside ; Editor's Offices (Offices for Patents), 
17, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London. 



Printed by William BnADFPRT.of No. 13, Upper Woburu Place, in the Parish 
of St. Pancras. and Fkrderick Mullett Evakb, of No. 'ZJ, Victoria 
Street, in the Parish of St. Marsaret and St. John, Weatminster, both ia 
the County of Middlesex, PrinterB, at their Office in Lombard Street, ia 
tbe Precinct of WhitetriarB.in the City of London; and published by them 
at tbe Office, No. 6. Charles Street, in the Parish of St. Paul's, Covent 
Garden, in the said County, where all Advertisements and Communications 
are to be Addbesbed to tub Editob.— Satchday, January 30, 1655, 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE 



ANN 



' AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE. 

A Stamped Newspaper of Rural Economy and General News.— The Horticultural Part Edited by Professor Llndlcy. 



No. 4.— 1855.] 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 27. 



[P*n B 6i, 



INDEX. 



Aljcnhrn, trfntiafl on, rcY 6D i 

AnniHiiiln, Murcnituf &tt I 

ll)nrkbi>rry. wlitli* ti+ < 

■■'■ unit D6 < 

— "■■ i i. "nil mill 61 1 

Ciiincllln, ■wvct>MCf)ii(rd M I 

CiirtnH, Mr 51 < 

l'nt»lc)Kum, ntirn-ryincu'n ul I 

Cnttls market, new i>7 < 

Charcoal, umi of co < 

"■ i -■>!.■■ ■ 60 i 

1 I' I ■. <•' I' I 'ill 06 . 

Corn ImiiiirtN b8 J 

I In It I inn, BCcdliiiK 6(1 t 

Dulura centtociuilnn 6-1 i 

Hi., i, ,,.-..! u 1 1, ,,,,,,, ,,,, ,,„ ft) . 

i .In. .ii i. hi umi n I In i.. i j , d3 . 

Kmploycm mid employed CO i 

Fiirm, citlnmlp of u GH < 

l''ofe»t», lloyul 51 < 

Fruit treat, compoiltlon for .... b'.l i 

llolcui nnrrlinrntui b\ i 

Jucknou'a (Mrhri-h.) nurnvry ,. b'.t i 



" [Cnowkugfl In Power," rev.. 

Llnnonn Society 

Mil Din hi-. mbiorranoAn ... 

Myitlt (Mr) (lOtttli of., 



Nulunil Itlniory, IjjnorflDCO <"C 

I'lllliuln^y, VCKUtltblc, 

IVitr uoui 

I'l-iuf., early 

I'liuitx, now 

I'oiitio, iluko 

I'tim-v, Mr , 

Kliodndi'hdrmiN, tcrnCl.-.l .... 

— nullfor 

Kool-nnilliiK mnrlilito i 

llyo'itrnii*. Mr. Tehcr'n 

Society <if Artn 

Thing*! eoiomoii 

Trcen, torcnt 

TropnJOlUDU, to hi cranio 

\'ei;i inlile iintltolDjcy 

iVIient, 1'nyiie'n Ik-llunri' 

(okill 



. 5H i 

. D3 i 



Woodi 



ni fin 



!Bt» 



HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.— 
' The WINTER MEETING will tako nlaco at tho Society's 
House, 21, Regent Street, on TUESDAY, February 6, from 
12 to 1 I '.M, 

KENILWOKTH. — THE GRAND ANNUAL 
EXI11KITION OF FLOWERS. FRUITS, and VEGE- 
TABLES (ojion to all exhibitors), will be held (bv permission] 
nmoiift tlio Ruins of Kenihvorth Castle, on WEDNESDAY, 
4th of July next, when Prizes on tho usual liberal scale will be 
awarded. Further particulars will ho duly announced. 
Priory Gardons, Warwick, Jan. 23. J. Cheyne, Sec. 



GARDENERS' ROYAL BENEVOLENT INSTI- 
TUTION.— At a General Meeting of the Subscribers to 
this Institution, hold on Wednesday, the 17th inst., at the Horti- 
cultural Society's Rooms, Regent Street, for the purpose of 
Electing Tlireo Pensioners on the Funds of the Society, tho fol- 
lowing was the result of the Ballot : — 

CANDIDATES. 



w* 



s' 



SUTTON'S SHORT SEED LIST. 



TO THE SEED TRADE. 

I M.IAM B. BENDLB, Seed Mmiciukts, 

Plymouth, have to offer tomt very Ohcrfa 8loei oj O '■'■ ' ■ 

SEEDS to the Tradt, Wholesale Catalogues can be hud return iu. 
on application to 

Wii mam E. Rbkdle A; Co., 




HELOIAN CARROT, 



Boad, I'lymoiith, 

MANGOLD 



R 



I I. PRII I. CI Kill GABD 



DIRE! TOI . ai 



&c— Several Tons to he duposcd of r '> ]" / "" / °J " ' 



at the lowest market prices. — Apply to 
WILLIAM E. BENDLE & CO., Skid Mrhciuhtij, PI 

^EW SEEDS JUST HARVESTED cm now be 
obtained of the most genuine description, from 
"William E. Rendle & Co., Seed Morehants, PljmonUi. 



,\ 



Wm (.!/■: I.I' 



PRICED NURSERY CATALOGUES. 

A PA I I. 4KD SO '• forward flie 

• following ; s \AHi i \ 

one pottage hUnip each;— A 

■ , i I 

1 ■ idi; II, Ui 



rpRUE PENZANCE BROCCOLI, saved by an* qf. Bdxdi 



Name. 


Application. 


Age. 


Votes. 




Tenth 

Eighth 

Seventh 

Fourth 

Fourth 

Fourth 

Third 

Third 

Third 

Third 

Tliird 

Second 

Second 

First 

First 

First 

First 

First 

First 


62 

77 

8S 

80 

72 

67 

68 • 

70 

62 

72 

69 

76 

69 

63 

70 

63 

69 

62 

69 




Cornelius Robinson 


289 




441 








481 




46 


Charles Chahlton 


130 


Elizabeth Curtis 


517 


JosEril Jeffrey 


41 
















25 








168 




71 

20 




69 


William Tuornton 


9 



The Chairman declared Elizabeth Curtis, Robert Oliver, and 
Henry Schneider, as having the greatest number of Votes,, duly 
elected Pensioners on this Charity. 

E. R. Cutler, Secretary. 

14, Tavistock Row, Covent Garden, January 18. 

THE GARDENERS' ROYAL BENEVOLENT 
INSTITUTION.— John Kent desires to return his most 
sincere thanks to those friends who so kindly supported him at 
the last Election, and hopes to be favoured ^with their further 
supp ort at the E lection in June ne xt. 

GARDENERS' BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION. 
Henry Schneider, of Ford, Wilts, returns his grateful 
thanks to the subscribers who so kindly supported him on his 
election as a pensioner of the abo ve institution. — Jan. 27. 

EGBERT OLIVER begs to return his very grateful 
thanks to those members of the GARDENERS' ROYAL 
BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION, who have so kindly voted 
for him at the late election. — She ffield, Jan. 24. 

FRUIT TRliES, FOREST TREES, EVERGREEN 
SHRUBS, &c. Catalogues of the above may be had on 
application to William Barratt, Wakefield. 

^g" A quantity of fine Transplanted White Thorns. 

DIOSCOREA JAPONIC A. 

TJflLLlAM MASTERS and SON will have pleasure 

* » in supplying tubers with the Chinese mode of culture at 

the following prices : — 

4 Tubers £0 10 0! fiO Tubers £5 6 

10 Ditto 12 6 1 100 Ditto 10 

Assorted Collections of Vegetable Seeds, from 10s. Gd. to 63*., 
adapted for large or small gardens. — Exotic Nursery , Canterbury, 

CEMETERIES. 
TyiLLlAM MASTERS and SON having been ! 
» * engaged upon extensive Cemetery works, are prepared to I 
undertake the LAYING OUT and PLANTING NEW 
GROUNDS, as well as the Ornamenting such as are closed by 
the recent Act of Parliament, by contract or otherwise. — William 
Masters & Son, Landscape Gardeners, Canterbury. 
NEW BEDDING GERANIUM. 
CAINES' SCARLET UNIQUE. 
"M" GAINES begs to inform the nobility, gentry, and 
-*-* • trade in general that he can supply strong healthy plants 
of the above beautiful variety. In habit it is like Rollisson's 
Unique, producing magnificent trusses of brilliant scarlet flowers. 
It whs exhibited at the Chiswick and Royal Botanic Horticul- 
tural Shows, where it was considered a great novelty, and well 
adapted for beddiug purposes. Price 5s. per plant; when three 
are taken, a fourth will be sent to compensate for carriage. 
A Descriptive List of his large Collection of Pelargoniums, 
T / nd Fancy varieties, also Stove, Greenhouse, and Hard- 
wooded Plants, may be had Post free, by applying at the Nursery. 
Purrey Lane, Battersea, Surrey. 



the best growers in the iieiyhbourhood of Penzance, 
l.i. per packet, from William E. Rendle & Co., Seed Mer- 
chants, Plymouth. 

HOLCUS SACCHARATUS, OR CHINESE 
SUGAR CANE. — For a full description, sec the 
leading article in the Gardeners' Chronicle, by Pro- 
fessor Lindlcy, page 35, January 20, lfl55. 

William E. Rendle & Co., Seed Merchants, have just im- 
ported from Fiance an excellent parcel of Seeds, which will be 
sold in sealed packets at Is. and 2s. Gd. each, post free. — Apply to 
William E. Rendle & Co., Seed Merchants, Plymouth. 

HOLCUS SACCHARATUS, OR CHINESE SUGAR CANE. 

SUTTON and SONS can supply this Seed genuin- 
as imported in ^scaled packets at Is. or 2s. 6d. each. 
Post Free. 

For description and uses, Bee Gardeners' Chronicle, Dec. 30lh, 
1854, p. 835.— Sutton & Sons, Seed Growers, Reading. 



MOSCJIKOWITZ am. M1.M.IV-. I H 
Inform the trade that their new i 



1POMCEA RUBRO C/ERULEA. 

GEORGE ROBERTS begs to acquaint the Seed 
Trade that he can supply the above choice seed at a con- 
siderable reduction on the prices of past years. 

32, M oor gate Street, London. _^_____ 

SEEDLlNC~FOREST TREES AND SHRUBif 

DAVID IlEID and SON, Nurserymen and 
Florists, Leith Walk, Edinburgh, beg to direct the atten- 
tion of the trade to their Stock of Seedlings as above. 
^^^^ Catalogues free on application. 



YEWS TOR HEDGES. 

EDWARD SANG and SONS, Kirkaldy, have for 
sale, at a low price, a large quantity of fine healthy YEWS, 
once, twice, and three times transplanted, in various sizes, from 
12 to 30 inches high. 



TO THE TRADE. 

J ROY, Jun., Seedsman, Aberdeen, has got to hand 
• a consignment of 35 bales of very superior CUBA BAST. 
The bales weigh about l£cwt. each. Price forwarded on application. 

JOHN HOLLAND can supply, in strong plants, the 
heaviest Lancashire Show GOOSEBERRIES (named), of 
excellent flavour, and large size, at Gs. per dozen, on receipt of 
Post-office order, payable to John Holland, Bradshaw Gardens, 
Middleton, near jfanchester. 



MANGOLD WUR2EL SEED. 
O BE SOLD, LONG RED and YELLOW 
GLOBE, growth of 1S54, from superior stock.— Apply to 
R. S. Hews, Kelvedon, Essex. 



T ( 



IMPORTANT TO SEEOSMEN AND OTHERS. 

TO BE SOLD by a Grower, at a moderate Price, 
300 Bushels of GREEN GLOBE TURNIP SEED, all of 
the growth of 1S54, first-rate in sample, and stock warranted. To 
be sold in small or large quantities, at the option of the purchaser. 
— Apply to Mr. Wm. Taylor, Nashenden Farm, Rochester, Kent. 

TO BE SOLD immediately, fine sound DUTCH 
BULBS, just arrived, at about half catalogue price. They 
consist of every description of Hyacinth, Tulip, Anemones, 
Ranunculuses, Narcissus, &c— For particulars of price, apply, by 
letter, to Mr. John Williams, 9 and 10, St. Bride's Avenue, 

Fleet Street, London.^ ^^_____ 

ASH-LEAVED KIDNEY POTATOES. 

TO BE SOLD, a quantity of this valuable POTATO, 
sound and pure, at 5s. per 4 stones. They will be put on to 
the Railway without additional charge, excepting cost price of 
bags.— Apply to John Beldon, Gardener, East Abbey, Rich- 
mond. Yorkshire. 



CEPMAN FLOWER SEEDS. 

■ 

Choice Ormnn nnd other r lower 8cod», ii now rrady, 
he had on application to their Agent, Mr* & flcvKAL, 

church Street | n. 

ROBERT KbNNEDV, Agent for ' 
I u< fk, Erfurt, b&M much plcAnroreto ftnrwytiDcJng 
he has received Unit I 

for the trtde for 1855, which ib^ondu with new u 
interobt, and will be forwarded, per pc*t, on applb 
i; i ^ m'l»v, Bedford ' 
P.8. AjJOj J'.. Kennedy's General Cats] b and. 

i A forwarded on receipt of n\x p*«»t«ge tUmp*. 

ARLY DANlEL~~0'ROURKE PEAS. 

JG. WAITE begs to inform the Trade that he U cow 
• ready to t: for this valuable earJy Fan. Price- 

can he had on application. 

Seed Establishment. 1 81, Hkh IM^m. L ondon. 

NEW CAUL1FLC 

TXTAITE'S "ALMA," far superior to Walcheren, 

*'* very large and firm heads. Price to the trade 24#. p-cr lb.; 
smaller quantities 2». 6c/. per <z. n Attended to for lees 

quantities than one ounce. — Seed Efttnbli&hment, 181, High, 

Holbora, London. 



COLDEN DROP CREEN FLESH MELON, 
FOR 1». &/. 

\T7ILLIAM WOOD and SOW beg to inform their 
W Friends and the Public tbat ihey b 
Seeds of the above suy Mr. 

scryman, 14. Abbey Churchyard. 'Utu. who wtfl be happy lo 

'dt-. re for the same. __^ 

COLE T S CRYSTAL WHITE,' & COLE'S &WARF 
RED CELERY. 

T THORNELEY,COLE,&Co., >" urm:rtmen. S 
** * men, and Florists, Withington. neai -. beg io 
announce tbat they are now prepared to ■apply these t*o well- 
known varieties, raised bv Mr. W. Cole 'rate <■: I 
CRYSTAL A\ BtlTE, *"cz. packets, free \ - - 'tamps. 
SUPERB DWARF RED, £ oz.pkts., free i tamps. 
Price per lb. to the Trade on application. 



THE EARLY CHAMPION ASHLEAF. 
JOSEPH WILSON, Seedsman, Ipswich, begs to call 
" the attention of Growers and the Trade to the New ASH- 
LEAF called the "EARLY CHAMPION," as being decidedly 
the finest ever yet introduced; it is more prolific, finer flavour, 
hardier, and abont 10 days earlier than any other Ashleaf : out 
of an acre planted last season there was not a single diseased 
root found. Price 125. per bushel, free to London, and no charge 
for sacks. Orders must be accompanied with a remittance. 



PYRAMIDAL PEAR TREES, 
Geafted on tue Quince St'" 

J and J. ERASER have still to offer strong trees of 
• the above PEARS; a Descriptive Catalogue of the sorts 
maybe bad on application. To prevent disappointment early 
orders are requested, as the Stock of some of the varieties is 

getting low . -— The Nurseries, Lea Bridge Rr>ad, Essex. 

RANUNCULUSES, ANEMONES, LLLIVM LANlIFOLIUM. 
CALOCHORTUS LUTEUS. C'ALLIPKORA FLA YA, 
GLADIOLUS. TRITONEA ATJKEA, DIELY rRA SPEC- 
TABILIS, YALLOTA PURPUREA. ANoMATHECA 
CRUENTA, AND AURICULAS. 

HENRY GROOM, Clapham Rise, near Lomkjn, 
by Appointment Floeist to heb Majesty, bee? to say 
that he has a fine Selection of the above BULBS, ire. Tfhich he 
can supply at Moderate Prices. His Catalogue will be forwarded 
on application. 



GENERAL SEED ESTABLISHMENT, NORTHAMPTON. 

JOHN JEYES begs leave to inform his Patrons and 
Friends that his general stock of Seeds is now complete, and. 
that he shall feel obliged by their early orders. He has a good 
supply of all those various Seeds his Establishment has long been 
celebrated for, such as- 
Matchless Cabbage j Snow's Green C:s Lettuce 
Imperial Cos Lettuce n Broccoli 
Conqueror Pea I Northampton Market Broccoli 
Blood Red Beet I Giant Asparagus, 
Dwarf Prolific Bean &c &c. 



THE FLUKE POTATO.— A Dew second early 

-*- variety, surpassing every other in its capability of resisting 
the Potato disease, and without exception the finest and most 
prolific Polato in cultivation. Price per cwt., 15s., bags included. 
To be had genuine of THORNHILL & DICKSON, Lawrence 
Hill Nurseries: and No. 1. Wine Street, Bristol. 



»yHE FLUKE KIDNEY POTATO.-This excellent 
-*- variety is now planted here as the principal crop, being 
more free from disease and more prolific than any other in culti- 
vation. It was raised in Middleton, and may be had genuine in 
any quantity at 5s. per bushel of 56 lbs. — Apply to John Ho llan d, 
Bradsha— Gardens. Middleton, near Manchester. 
"Post-otfice Orders to.be made payable at Middleton, Lancashire; 



RHUBARB ROOTS for FORCING or PLANTING. 
— Strong one-vear planted roc's of MYATT'S YICiORIA 
I and LINN.EUS, MITCHELL'S ROYAL ALBERT, at 6*. per 
doz.; HOWARD'S PRINCE ALBERT. 12 This is 
a larger varietv than the Yictoria, and is extensively caltivated 
about Manchester. Price to the trade of the above, per 100 cr 
1000, on application to Messes. J. MYATT asd SONS. 
Manor Farm, Deptford. Jan. 27. 

CHEAP AND GOOD CINERARIAS.— 
Fine flowering plants from Torn ~ " i^-ed in large 
60 and 4S pots, just coming into bloom, at from -is. to 6s. pel 
Also fine plants of named varieties, consisting of Mr. and Mrs. 
S. Herbert. Adela Yilliers. Garland. Constellation. Lady H. 
Campbell. Kate Kearney, Flora M*l 
at 9s. per dozen.— Wood & Ingsam. Nurseries , Hu ntingdo n. 

A RTHUR HENDERSON a>tj CO. beg leave to 
-£i- inform their patrons and friends :"„it their Stock cf VEGE- 
TABLE and FLOWER SEEDS (containing many choice and 
new kinds) is now ready for sending out. 

Their Seeds maybe fully relied on as being in ^~ z ~7 Tr^i:'. 
of first-raie quality, and true to their sorts. Catalogues may be 
had on application. — Pine Apple Place, Edgeware Road, London. 



50 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 27, 



SUTTON'S COLLECTIONS OF GASDSH SEEDS. 



No.l. A COMPLETE COLLECTION of KITCHEN GARDEN SEEDS for a LARGE GARDEN, for one whole 

year's supply £3 

No 2 A COMPLETE COLLECTION of DITTO, in quantities proportionately reduced 2 

No. 3. A COMPLETE COLLECTION of DITTO DITTO 15 

No. 4. A COMPLETE COLLECTION of DITTO DITTO 15 

The sorts of Vegetable included in these Collections are those -which we have proved to he the roost prolific, hest flavoured^ 
and most worthv of eeneral cultivation, and of which sorts we have therefore grown large crops of Seed; hy this means we are 
enabled to furnish "A Complete Collection for one Year's Supply," of superior quality, and at much less expense than when a 
Gentleman or bis Gardener make his own selection. (With instructions on Cultivation.) The quantities contained in each 
Collection will be observed iu the respective columns below. 



No. 1 

Collection. 

£3 



PEAS, the best sorts for succession throughout the summer 

BEANS, the hest sorts for succession 

FRENCH BEANS, Runners and Dwarfs 

BEET, Sutton's Dark Red and Atkins' Crimson 

BORECOLE, or Sprouting Kale, of sorts 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS, fresh imported 

BROCCOLI, the best sorts for succession throughout tbe year 

CABBAGE, best sorts for succession throughout the year, including Sutton's 

Imperial 

SAVOYS, tiue curled 

CARROT, best sorts for summer and winter use ... 

CAULIFLOWER, true Walcheren and others 

CELERY, Sutton's Solid White and Sutton's Superb Pink 

CRESS, plain and curled < 

CUCUMBER, the best sorts in cultivation 

ENDIVE, best sorts 

LEEK, Large Scotch 

LETTUCE, Sutton's Superb Cos, Bath Cos, and others for succession through- 
out the year 

MUSTARD 

MELON, choicest sorts known 

ONION, True Reading, and others 

PARSLEY, splendid curled kinds 

PARSNIP, Jersey Marrow, very fine 

^RADISH, finest sorts for succession < 

SPINACH, summer and winter kinds 

SALSAFY 

SCORZONERA^ 

TURNIP, Orange Jelly, and other fine sorts for succession 

VEGETABLE MARROW, choice sorts 

SWEET AND POT HERBS 



No. 2 

Collection, 

£2 



20 quarts 
10 ditto 
4£ pints 

3 ounces 
2 ditto 

1 large pckt. 
5 large pckt. 

5 ounces 
2 ditto 
10 ditto 
U ditto 
14 ditto 

1 pint and 

4 ounces 
3 packets 
1£ ounce 

1 ditto 

2 ditto 

1 quart 

2 packets 
10 ounces 

4 ditto 

G ditto 

1 pint and 

8 ounces 

2 pints 

i large pckt. 
1 ditto ditto 

16 ounces 
1 large pckt, 
10 packets 



No. 3 

Collection. 

£15 



12 quarts 

6 ditto 

2\ pints 

14 ounce 

1£ ditto 

1 large pckt 
5 ditto ditto 

3 ounces 
1 ditto 
6 ditto 

2 large pckt. 

1 ounce 
i pint and 

2 ounces 
3 packets 

£ ounce 

1 ditto 

1£ ditto 

1 pint 

2 packets 
6 ounces 

2 ditto 
4 ditto 

i pint and 

8 ounces 

1 pint 

1 large pckt. 

1 ditto ditto 

8 ounces 

1 large pckt 

8 packets. 



No. 4 

Collection, 

£0 15 



6 quarts 

3 ditto 

H pint 

1 large pckt. 

3 packets 

1 packet 

4 packets 

3 ditto 

1 large ditto 

3 ounces 

2 packets 

2 large pckt. 

4 ounces 

2 packets 

1 large pckt. 
i ounce 

3 large pckt. 

^ pint 
1 packet 

3 ounces 

1 ditto 

2 ditto 

6 ounces 

4 ounces 



1 packet 
6 packets 



6 pints 

3 ditto 

1 pint, 2 sorts 

1 packet 
2 ditto 

1 packet 
3 packets 

2 large ditto 

1 ditto 

2 ounces 
2 packets 

2 ditto 

2 ounces 

2 packets 
1 ditto 
1 ditto 

2 packets 
2 ounces 

1 packet 

2 ounces 

4 ditto 

1 ditto 

3 ditto 

2 ditto 



3 ditto 
1 packet 
4 packets 



N.B. If any of the above articles are not required, they should be named tvhen giving the order, and ] 
quantities of other sorts will be given in lieu of those to be omitted. 



SUTTON'S COLLECTIONS OF FLOWER SEEDS. 

Ladies and Gentlemen requiring showy kinds of Flower Seeds are respectfully recommended to leave the selection of sorts 
wholly or partly to us, and we will supply those which we know to be really worthy of cultivation. Should the purchaser have any 
preference for certain kinds, they should be named in giving the order, lhat we may include them, or should any sorts be already 
•possessed, they should be named, that we may omit them. 

COLLECTIONS OF FLOWER SEEDS TO BE SENT FREE BY POST. 

The best 100 sorts of FLOWER SEEDS, hardy, half-hardy, and tender, with instructions £1 1 

The best 50 sorts of DITTO, with instructions 10 6 

Tbe best 36 sorts ditto ditto 7 6 

The best 24 sorts ditto ditto 5 

Also Natural Grasses for Lawns and Meadows, Fine Mangold Wurzel, Turnip, and other Agricultural Seeds. 

All Packages of the Value of 10s. and upwards .are Delivered Free to any Station on the Great Western, and Berks and 
Hants Railways, or of not Less than 20s. Value the Parcel will be Sent Free to any Station on the following Railways:— South 
"Western, South Eastern, Great Western, Oxford, Worcester and Wolverhampton, Eastern Counties, Oxford and Birmingham, 

Bristol and Exeter, and South Wales. 

And Packages of 40s. Value and upwards are delivered free, not only by the above named Sailways, but also to Edinburgh, Glasgow, 

Liverpool, -and all Stations of the North Western, Great Northern, and Midland Railways. 

Post-office Orders payable to JOHN SUTTON & SONS, Seed Growers, Reading, Berks. 



WHEELER AND SON'S 

SHORT SELECT SEED LIST. 

OUR PRICED LIST OF SEEDS for this season, containing Descriptions and Prices of the best GARDEN 
and FLOWER SEEDS, will be forwarded free by post. It is our earnest endeavour to send out all Seeds, whether for the 
Garden or Farm, of the very best quality and true to name ; and as many of the Seeds are our own growing, and are proved before 
sending out, we generally succeed in giving entire satisfaction to our customers. We are in daily receipt of most gratifying letters 
and renewed orders from those we had the honour of serving last year; and as we deliver our Seeds Cakeiage Free, we very 
respectfully solicit the honour of an order from those who have not yet given us a trial. 

J. C. WHEELER & SON, GLOUCESTER. 

SEEDSMEN TO THE GLOUCESTERSHIRE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



To Farmers, Potato Growers, and Others. 

JACKSON'S PATENT PREPARATION 

FOE 

PRESERVING POTATOES, WHEAT, AND OTHER SEEDS 



From DISEASE, the RAVAGES of the SLUG, GRUB, and WIREWORM, in addition to -which the CROPS are brought 
forward in HEALTH axd VIGOUR, and the yield is greatly increased, in proof of which the following extracts are given 
from numerous letters received by Mr. Jackson". 

EXTRACTS: 



" One of the fields of this farm, theproperty of Mrs. Stanbory, 
was planted with Regents Potatoes in April last, some of which 
were prepared by you. The result now is, that the whole of the 
crop from the unprepared sets is thoroughly diseased, and hardly 
worth the trouble of taking up ; while those raised hy the side of 
them from the prepared sets are not only in a beautiful state of 
preservation from the disease, but the produce is much greater, — 
the Potatoes are more numerous than the others ; indeed, if there 
were no such thing as the disease to be feared, it would he worth 
the trouble and expense of preparing the sets hy your process, 
even for the sake of the improved crops. I shall certainly, for 
the future, prepare all my Potatoes for seed by your process ; and 
I intend to adopt it for preserving my Wheat from the Smut. 

"G. B. Baxter. 

" Belmont Farm, Eltham, Kent, August 28, 1854." 
" Admiral Sir J. A. Gordon, K.C.B., Marlee House, Blairgowrie. 

" Sir,— I have received your note of the 16th. The Potatoes 
that came here from England, prepared by Mr. Jackson, 
were planted in a piece of new ground^ and according to the 
directions sent by him along with them as to distance between 
the plants, &c. They came up well, with strong healthy stems; 
I have now taken the whole crop up, and there is not the 



slightest appearance of any disease amongst them. They are of 
large equal size and very prolific. There were long black unpre- 
pared Kidneys planted in the same patch, and a great deal of 
them are not fit for use, at least a third part are diseased. I 
hope Mr. Jackson's process may be widely known, as it is a 
great boon.— I am, &c, John Shanks, 

"Forester, Kildrummy Castle. 
" Kildrummy Castle, Aberdeenshire, November 17, 1854." 

" I am very much pleased with the result of the experiments I 
have made with your Prepared Potatoes; for I planted them, 
without any manure, in ground where for several years I have 
hardly had a sound Potato, and I now find the crop perfectly free 
from disease, and in a very fine condition ; while those of the 
same sort, unprepared, which were planted at the same time, and 
next to them, are diseased and eaten by worms. 

" The Potatoes from the Prepared Seed were so remarkably 
good that I was induced to weigh them, and I found, to my great 
astonishment, that they were as 200 to_150 of the others, or about 
25 per cent, in favour of your preparation. 

" T. Austen, Nurseryman and Seedsman. 

"Blackheath, Kent, 24th August, 1S54." 



SUPERB HOLLYHOCKS, ROCKETS, SEEDS, ETC. 
TX7ILLIAM CHATER'S descriptive list of his superb 
* * HOLLYHOCKS, containing hints on their culture and ob- 
servations on exhibiting, &c, may he had on application by 
enclosing a postage stamp. Packets of seed, consisting of 20) 
varieties, selected from the best show flowers, 5s.; 12 varieties, 
2s Gd. ; and from good double sorts, Is. 

Very superior Quilled German Asters, 12 distinct varieties', 
separate, 2s., mixed Is. per packet. Also Choice French Asters, 
12 varieties, separate, 3s., mixed, Is. 6d. Fine Quilled African 
Marigolds, lemon and orange, Gd. per packet. 

New Double Crimson ROCKET, excellent bedding plant for 
spring flowering, 6s. per dozen, or 21. per 100. Double French 
White, 4s. per dozen, or 30s. per 100. 

Saffron Walden Nursery, January 27. 



HOLLYHOCKS. 
JOHN CHATER and SON offer the following New 
*J and Choice HOLLYHOCKS in Pots at 18s. per dozen, hamper 
included :— Pourpre de Tyre, Yellow Model, Saffranot, Doke of 
Rutland (new), Penelope, Swansdown, Gem, Lady Braybrooke, 
Spectabilis, White Perfection, Black Prince (new), King of Roses, 
Raphael, Napoleon, Magnum Bonum, &c. 

Also the following strong ground Roots, 7s. Gd. per dozen : — 
Queen, Bella Donna, Elegans, Brilliant, Marmion, Mrs. Russell, 
Yenosa rubra, Obscura, Aurantia, Purpurea elegans, Flower of 
the Day, Marchioness of Breadalbaue, Queen of England, and 
Model of Perfection. 

New Crimson Rockets, 6s. per dozen; Double White do., 3s. 
per dozen, 20s. per 100. 

Hollyhock Seed, in packets containing 200 seeds, Is. Gd.j 
400, 2s. 6d. ; warranted from best flowers. Choice Pansy, Is. per 
packet. Sweet William, Gd. 

Descriptive Catalogues may be had on application to J. Chatee 
& Son, Haverhill, Suffolk. — Post Office Orders payable at 
Haverhill. 



RICES OF PINES IN LIVERPOOL FOR 

JANUARY, 1855. 
JAMAICAS, 2 lbs. each and upwards, 5s. Gd., 5s. per lb. 

" . Gd., 5s. „ 



MONTSERRAT 
CAYENNES „ 
QUEENS 
BLACK PRINCE 
ENV1LLES ,, 
ANTIGUA ,, 

PROVIDENCE „ 



5s. 

5s. 

5s., 4s. Gd. 
5s., 4s. Gd. 
4s. Gd. 
4s. Gd. 



CUCUMBERS, 2s. Gd., 2s., Is. Gd., Is. each. 
ASPARAGUS, 5s., 7s. Gd., 10s. per hundred. 
Forward Immediately to GEORGE TAYLOR, Jun., 

Fruit Salesman, St. John's Market, Liverpool. 
Terms " Cash." 



R PARKER tegs to offer the following CHOICE 
• SEEDS, all of which are warranted new and true to name: 
GODFREY'S (BLACK SPINE) CUCUMBER, the finest 
variety in cultivation, packets containing 12 seeds Is. Gd. 

Also the following esteemed varieties of CUCUMBERS and 
MELONS, in packets containing 12 seeds, atls. each :- 



CUCUMBERS. 

Henderson's Black Spine. 

Improved Patrick. 

Walker's Long Rambler. 

Manchester Prize. 

Hunter's Prolific. 

Superlative Improved. 

Cuthill's Black Spine. 

Ohio Squasha Custard Gourd, Gd. 

Antirrhinum, from named flowers, Gd. ... „ 

Calceolaria, from fine varieties, Is. Gd. and 2s, Gd. „ 

Hollyhock, from fine named varieties, Is. Gd. and 2s. Gd. „ 
Lilium giganteum, the most distinct and noble species of the 

genus, packets containing 20 seeds, 2s. Gd. 
*** A remittance or reference to accompany all orders from 

unknown correspondents. 

Paradise Nursery, Hornsey Road, Islington. 



MELONS. 
Victory of Bath. 
Beechwood. 
Bromham Hall. 
Canteloupe. 
Duke of Bedford. 
Golden Perfection (extra flue). 
Scarlet Flesh (Anderson's). 

per packet. 



NEW RIDCE CUCUMBER, VECTIS. 

THOMAS TAYLOR begs to inform the public he 
has produced this fine Cucumber and grown it this last 
three years, and can with confidence recommend it as the best 
ridge Cucumber ever offered to tbe public, being equal in quality 
and flavour to many of the frame varieties, and very prolific. 
T. T. is now ready to send it out at Is. per packet, 12 seeds 
post free, — Tnos. Taylor, Nurseryman, Weston-super-Mare, 
Somerset. 

DR. SYNTAX CUCUMBER. — The above cele- 
brated variety has been nearly lost to gardeners for several 
years past. It is known hy all experienced growers of Cucumbers 
to be the very best sort in existence for early work. 

A paper sent free per post on receipt of 13 stamps. 

SNOW'S HORTICULTURAL BROCCOLI. — Half-ounce 
Packet sent free per post on receipt of 24 stamps. 

NORTHAMPTON MARKET BROCCOLI.— This variety is 
grown by the market gardeners here, and excites the admiration 
of all who see it. Visitors say " they never saw such Broccoli 
anywhere else." Half-ounce Packets sent free per post for 
14 stamps. — John Jeyes, Nurseries, Northampton. 



Sold by Messrs. CnAELveooD & Cummins, Seedsmen, Covent Garden; and John Kernan, Seedsman, 4, Great Russell Street, 
Covent Garden; all Seedsmen aud Chemists; and at the Patentee's, 18, Cannon Street, London Bridge, in Packets of One Two 
Three or Four Pounds, or in Bulk for the use of Farmers and Potato Growers. 



SPRUCE FIRS from 6^ to 9 feet high, well-rooted, 
and quite safe to remove, being well adapted for screens, 
filling up old plantations, or for immediate effect. 

FINE BEECH fit for hedges or plantations, 6 feet and up- 
wards. 

G. Wheeler, Nurseryman, Warminster, Wilts, having a 
surplus stock of tbe above, is disposed to sell them on extremely 
moderate terms, which may be obtained on application. 

G. W. has a good stock of SCOTCH FIRS, 2 to 3 feet, a large 
stock of RHODODENDRON suitable for cover in woods, planta- 
tions, drives, &c, from 1 foot and upwards, with fine strong 
American Azaleas, at very moderate prices. 

SEEDLING CALCEOLARIA, raised from the finest spotted 

kinds, will be sent carriage free on receipt of a Post Office Order 

for the amount, at 30s. per 100. Per doz. 

BULBS of TIGRIDIA PAVONIA. Red Tiger Flower... 2 

„ CONCHIFLORA, Yellow ditto 4 

u „ WHEELERI, Scarlet ditto ... 4 

Carriage free for cash. 

CUCUMBERS, first-rate.— THE KING, a very handsome 

Black Spine, and Ingram's Hybrid White Spine, a most prolific 

kind, both approved and esteemed sorts, at Is. per packet. — 

G. Wheeleh, Warminster, Jan. 27. 



NO T 1 C E.— The EXECUTORS of the late 
MR. MOSES REID, Nurseryman and Seedsman, of. 
Middlewich, having disposed of the Stock and Business to 
Mr. G. H. Nutting, all further orders and communications con- 
nected with the concern are requested to be made to him. He is 
alsn authorised to receive all outstanding accounts due to the 
late Mr. Reid. 

Middlewich, Moses Reid, l-p T oA„tnr« 

25th Jan., 1855. B. D. Vawdbey, j" LxecuiorH - 

George H. Nutting wishes most respectfully to solicit a con- 
tinuation of the patronage so liberally bestowed upon the late 
Mr. Reid, and trusts hy constant attention to the. wishes of his 
patrons to merit their confidence and support. He would further 
assure the public generallv that all Plants and Seeds sent out by 
him will be of the best quality, correctly named, and at the lowest 
remnnei'ating price. 

*** A few large Oak and other Trees suitable for Hedge-row or 
Park planting on Sale ; apply as above. 



4—1855.1 



T HE r; A R I) E N BRS 3 C II B N I C I- 1. 



5] 



DICKSON'S EARLY FAVOURITE PEA (NEW). 

I7BANCIS and ARTHUR DICKSON AND SONS, 
Sbbd ManoiiAMTS, &c, Ohoator, havo niucti Hatlnfftctlon In 

Qnlnnliir.inr tlin ilImivu new I'- 1 ", w'liif-li Miry Mi^vullicy tiro |ht 

inciiy Juaflfiod in Haying In tlic bprt and most pi'oUilo Early Pea 
in cultivation, 
jt has boon tried nidi' by nidi- with all the bosl early and second 

curly I'ewi nC IImi diiy, mul Im'i hr.f.u \>r irn.n-d l.y mitiiy 

amtnenl gardeners who saw It iindor the clrcumatancpo to bo much 
Superior to any variety of iln season hitherto Introduced. 

it coiimn|ln about a wook lator than the "Early Bmporor" 
(nowji Ritim same time), grows about 4 foot high, flnd producos 
iwonth-irl'iil pn»fnnlnn of |k«Ih, which nmtiiln on on avorago Jo 
i'dim of exoouont quality and (favour, 

For opinions of Dr. Undloy and Mr. Thompson, seo &urdmore ] 
■Chro>iict>', of 20th January, 1855, 

price 8tf. Otf. per Quartj per iMnt, 2b. Mowtrn. IIhhmt & 
M'Miiij.kn, Seedsman, &c.,G, Leadonhali Street, wholesale London 

AkohIh; and to bo had ('nun most Nurserymen and Bond en 

thi it the United Kingdom.— N. B. The Trade Huppllod on 

liberal terms.-— 100, Bastgato Stroot, Cho»tor; (and U, Corpora- 
lion Stroot, ManoliPHtm').— Jan. 27, 

N L W I' r A 

WJ. EPPS, SEED Mkiuihant unci Cm.u i ii, 
• Maidstone, has much ploasuro In offering tho following 
Tor, feeling iwmirwl It will give the hlghosl BatlHfaotlon. 

LORII UAtJl.AN, OK IMI'ltoVKD MAMMOTH. 

ThlH Pe* wan selected from Hair' a dwarf M moth two years 

alnco, and In unquestionably the best and finest In cultivation, 
and will prove to ho the standard Pea of the day. H Is n dwori 
green wrinkled marrow of vmy largo slxo, and an Immense 

cropper. Habit dwarf, branching 8 to 4 foot high; prod ig 

Immenso oliiHtors of Inr^o bright grri'ii ]mds IVmn Mm Ijiihh "I Mio 
haulm in tho top, and almllar In shape to the Scimitar, but of 
gri'iitcr ni/.e, well filled with seven to ton Pjwb, which are larger 
than tl io British Queen, and equal, If not superior In its flavour. 

Prlco, 6s. per Quart. Wholesale Pricos to bo had on application. 

Agent: Messrs. Homt ami M'Mtjm.ien, Seed Merchants, 
Jjoadonliall S treet , London. 

K "PARKER hoga to offer tlio following : — 
• CIMKUAHIAS (Seedlings), from all the finost varieties, 
carefully selected, including the new varieties sent out last autumn. 
Strong established plants, in 4-Inch pots, at As. por dozen. A 
choice collection of named Cinerarias In strong established 
Slants, purchaser's selection, at ds. per dozen. 

ROSES, consisting of tho best varlotles ol Hybrid Perpotuals, 
Teas, Hourbons, &c, well established in pots. Purchasers selec- 
tion lit V2.t. per dozen. List of names forwarded upon application. 
A.' remittance or roforonco to accompany all orders from 
unknown correspondents. 

Paradise Nurwory, Hornsey Road, Islington. 
SUPERB LATE WHITE BROCCOLI-" EMPEROR." 

EP. DIXON having purchased the entire stock 
• of the above Broccoli of Messrs. Elletsons, Market Gar- 
deners, Tborngumbald, near Hull, begs to announce that he is 
prepared to send it out in sealed packets at 2s. 6d. each. This 
Broccoli has been raised by the Messrs. Elletsons, the raisers of 
tho Mammoth, sent out some time ago, who state that the 
EMPEROR, if sown at the stiiue time, will come into use before 
it. Is of very dwarf growth, perfectly hardy, with heads from 
15 lbs. to 20 lbs. weight; keeps its colour, and stands firm three 
weeks after it is ready to cut. A noble flower, and commands the 
"ibest price of any other in the Hull market, where it is well 
known, and will be a great acquisition to the market gardeners 
around London, as well as those who wish for a first-rate 
Broccoli. 

PURE MAMMOTH BROCCOLI.— Numerous applications 
having been made to Messrs. Elletsons last season for Seed of the 
Pure Mammoth Broccoli, they determined to allow a flat to stand 
for Seed, carefully selected from the original stock, producing 
heads from 18 lbs. to 25 lbs. each. E. P. D. having purchased the 
stock of this celebrated Broccoli, is prepared to send it out in 
packets at 2s. 6d. each. 

Each may be bad of Messrs. Noble, Cooper. & Bolton, 152, 
Fleet Street ; and Messrs. Hurst & M'Mullen, 6, Leadenhall 
Street, London. Also of the Adver r iser, 57, Que en Street, Hull. 

NEW SEEDLING POTATO— THE CHAMPION 
KIDNEY. 

This Potato bears a great resemblance to that fine old Potato, 
the Asbleaf Kidney; it possesses the following good qualities 
over the Asbleaf. If planted at the same time it will be ten days 
earlier, all the sets always vegetate well, and do not die off in the 
ground as the Asbleaf does; 2 pecks of seed will produce a 
greater weight of Potatoes than 3 pecks of the Ashleaf. It is 
quite equal to that in flavour, and is eatable during the whole 
winter. Sets that have had the shoots broken off five or sis 
times during the spring will vegetate again as if it had been the 
first shoot. About twenty Gentlemen and Gardeners who had 
seed to plant last season have assured me that they never before 
grew any Potato to equal it, and should continue to grow it as a 
first early Potato. Numerous orders have been already received 
from persons who saw it growing during the last summer. It 
has been grown and thoroughly proved for the last four years, 
and found to be less liable to disease than any other Potato that 
has been grown. Out of 25 sacks grown this season there was 
not a single diseased Potato among them. 

Sold in quantities of not less than 1 peck ; they will be sent 
Hamper and Package free, at 5s. Gd. per peck, or 4 pecks for 1Z., 
hamper free. A remittance in cash must accompany all orders, 
or small amounts in penny postage stamps. Purchasers would 
-do well to name the nearest railway station to their residence. 
EDWARD T1LEY, Nurseryman, Seedsman, & Florist, 
14, Abbey Church Yard, Bath, Somerset. 



AMERICAN N U f< & E R Y. 

/ 1 EORGE BAKER'S DESCRIPTIVE CATA- 
" * LOCIUE 09 AMERICAN PLANTS. Ac, aii exhibited by 

Mm in the Itoyal Botanic Clardi n i, ft .-■ nt'M Parle, may bfl bad 
bj inclo " I ■" postage stamps. 
0, \i, bogs i" call attention \<> bis fim 

[Jollies, ' will ■ Planl I, Oi m ntal Bhrul 

Nursory, VVlndlesbaro, noar Dagsliot, BUUdm 

Station, South Western Railway, where convi 
obtained, 

AMERICAN PLANTS. 

JOHN WATERER begi to announce that be liai 
*' published a new I otali >gue of bis Bin 
exhibited by him In the Gardens ol the ttoya! Uotanli 
It , ,,i ; Pari, London, it dcflcrlb< i the i oloui ol nil the 
ii, .!.,', ,,.i i ■■in. considered worthy of cultivation, wJUi b f J 
- n tin ill successful management, and may be bod 
t wo postage itampa. 
ThoAmorfcari Nurwery, Begsbot, Surrc , n< I 

Station, South VVOHto m Hallway. 

AMERICAN PLANTS. — A Descriptive Priw 
CATALOGUE of HARDY A U ERICA M I'l-ANTH (or 
the coming boo ion Is Just publl bed. and may be had bvenclosli ■ 

two stamp i for i age. As everything In the ■..«■ ol mcrl< ■ 

Plants Is grown to an unequalled oxtenl attl 
purchasers would dowel! loprovIdethemselveH wlththlsl 

WA'i'!' RER a:;m GODFREY, Nephew ■ and Bucce isora to the 
lata Uosod Watorer, Knap Hill Nursery, Woking, Surrey. 

W]»RUMMf)M) and SONS' NEW DESl RIP 
• TIVE CATALOGUE, containing select varieties only, 
mi \ EGETABLE and FLOWER SEEDS Is now ready, and may 
be had posl free on receipt of one postage stamp. This Catalogue 
will, at a glanco, Atrnlsn the Gardoner with all the neo 
material for drawing out his Seed Lint correctly and 
trouble, in reference to it the Gardeners' Ohronii 

'• it is simple, short, and one o( tho bcsl we have seen. They 
are pursuing tho HonHiblo course we bave bo often Insisted upon 
for the riako of both buyer and seller;" and thin opim'-u i.:i I .■ ■ n 
cordially responded to by all our old and many new customers. 
W. Dkhmmonij & Sonm' Seed and Im plcmenl \Van-li.iiii,c, Stirling. 
GODFREY'S BLACK SPINE. 

SPLENDin AND PltOUPIC Fit AM K CDCDVnBB. 

WOOD and INGRAM beg to offer seeds of the 
above beautiful variety. Colour, magnificent dark green, 
with a very fine bloom; average length, 1H to 21 Inches, and 
produces in great abundance through an entire season. Packets, 
containing 12 seeds, 2s. Qd. ; G ditto, 1... IW. 

\V. & I. will bo happy to refer any persons wishing further 
information respecting tho variety to three or four Noblemen and 
Gentlemens' CrardenorB who have grown it, and prefer it to any 
other. 

London Agents: Messrs. Durst & M'Mullrx, 6, Leadenhall 
Street. 

W. & I. have also the following esteemed varieties to orTer, in 
packets, Is. each, containing 12 seeds 



CRASS SEEDS. 

CM '''I'. . '.i SEED 

■ ' Mi; m, OKAftf) • tut pj.km ■ 

I'ABTL'Kl 

■ 
... 

<(.,. , ,.i|. cling of 

. lain and Ireland, »■. ■ • | 

I 

' 24k, 30a, 

and qosnUtlw (Jm 

■ 
1 . 

[),<■ qui ■ 

OLD PAHTI 

rofjiilnd per acri price 9d. 

U will h • 

of our Oi 
i and 1 

j | 

that oi/ j 

! 

rfefl, 

Rend] i > u hiplktI collei i 
KITCHEN GARDJ 

vn h had to uii varum ■ ■ at the 

../ price* : — 

I ' "i-i.i ' MOM 

m '-' i. 'i 

I, ■'■ n 1 

„ 4 „ 

The quantltle i are folly <U uUled In Ibrfi ■• nt an4 

Garden DJrecl oi wbicp l» yi>\\.n\>A\)*4. 

Wji.i.iam Ij. RsUDLK < I 

1 



Sion House 
Barnes's Fearnought 
Walker's Prolific 
Constantine's Incomparable. 



Sagg's Royal Exhibition 
Conqueror of the West 
Improved Sion House 
Manchester Hero. 



Huntingdon Nurseries, January 27. 



SPECIMEN IRISH YEWS. 

THOMAS JACKSON and SON, having a large 
Stock of fine specimens of this very ornamental tree, beg to 
offer them at the undernamed low«prices. 

5 to 9 feet high, and 8 feet in circumference... 63s. Od. each. 

8 „ and 4 to 6 feet „ ... 21 „ 

7toS „ and 4 feet „ ... 15 „ 

6 to 7 „ and 3 to 4 feet „ ... 10 6 „ 

6 „ and 3 feet „ ... 7 6 „ 

Handsome smaller specimens at proportionately lower prices. 
Kingston, Surrey- 

VECETABLE AND FLOWER? SEEDS. 

PETER LAWSON and SON beg leave to intimate 
to their English customers and tbe public that they are 
prepared to supply from their London establishment assortments 
of GARDEN and FLOWER SEEDS of superior quality, com- 
prising all the esteemed standard sorts and those recently intro- 
duced. They will be happy to send Catalogues on application. 

P. L. & Son have also t-» intimate that they will shortly issue 
their LIST of AGRICULTURAL SEEDS, all of which have 
been carefully saved from the most select stocks. 

Liberal arrangements will be made for the carriage of their 
seeds to all quarters. 

PETER LAWSON and SON, 

Queen's Seedsmen, Wood Foresters, &c, for Scotland, and to 
the Highland and Agricultural Society, 27, Great George Street, 
Westminster, London. 



MELVILLE'S HARPY SCOTCH BUOD 
will stand ' severe toinu 

ille. 100 Seeds for \s. 
For full description, B Price Current aod Garden 

1 

William E. Eexdle& Co, Seed Merchants, Plymoath. 

A/IKLVILLE'S TREBLE CURLED GAH 

I\ J INU BORECOLR— This u Ute choicest and most 

useful Vegetable for go. 

. IwvXd be grown in every garden. 200 Seeds for 1*. 

For description see "Rk.vlle'b Price Current and Garden 
Directory for 1 

Wir .i i B '. r. & Co„ Seed Men - 

MELVILLE'S NEW INTERMEDIATE HY- 
BHID CABBAGE.— This is a valuable addition 
to our stock of Vegetables) and should he had hg all who 
have gardens. 200 Seeds for Is. 

For description sec "Kesdlk's Price Current and Garden 
Directory for 1855." 

William E. Resdle & Co., Seed Merchants, Plymouth. 



IMUKbtKY AND t£ED ESTABLISHMENT, SLtAFORD. 

CHARLES SHARPE and CO., Seed Growers, beg 
most respectfully to invite the attention of tbe tr*de to 
their very superior Stocks of GARDF.N jjro AGRICULTURAL 
SEEDS, all of which have been carefully grown by thcm=elTfc*. — 
Catalogues of prices may be bad on application. 



VEGETABLE AND FLOWER SEEDS. 
TAMES DICKSON and SONS beg to intimate to 
^ their Patrons and the Public that, having now completed 
their stock of GARDEN and FLOWER SEEDS for this season, 
from the best growers and truest stocks, they are now prepared 
to send them out. making arrangements for carriage likely to 
meet tbe views of all parties who may favour them with their 
commands. Priced Catalogues may be bad on application. 

J. D. & Sons would also call attention to their AGRICUL- 
TURAL SEEDS, which have been carefully grown under their 
own inspection, from selected stock, priced lists of which will be 
ready shortly. — Nursery and Seed Warehouse, 32, South Hanover 
Street, Edinburgh. 



TWO new CUCUMBERS— "SIR COLIN CAMP- 
JL BELL" and "GENERAL CANROEEKT."— F - 
Description of the above two unequalled Cucumbers, and tbe 
List of EDWARD TILEYS Collection of Cucumbers and 
Melons, which bave all been tboxoOghly proved, see Adi 
ment and Cut in tbe Gardeners' Chronicle of January ] 
Sir Coliu Campbell Zt. 6d, per packet- 
General Canrobert 3 6 

A packet of either of the Jlelons mentioned in ti- 
Advertisement will be given to tbe Purchaser of the above ivo 
Cucumbers. A remittance in cash or penny postage stamps 
must accompany every order, and the whole or any part as t£c 
case mav be) will be immediatelv forwarded. 

EDWARD TILEY. Nurseryman, Seedsman, and Florisr, 
14, Abbey Church Yard, Bath. Somersetshire. 



LIST 



ESTABLISHED ABOUT HALF A CSNTUEY. 

BASS AND BROWN'S NEW SEED 

IS NOW READY, 

AND CONTAINS EVERYTHING WHICH CAN BE DESIRED OF THE CHOICEST, 

NEW, AND OTHER VEGETABLES. 

Considerable attention is paid to grow only the finest sorts for sale, and our Collection is very select. 

ASSORTED COLLECTIONS OF VECETABLE SEEDS. 

The following, of the very lest in cultivation, cannot fail to give the most complete satisfaction. 

Ho. 1, Collection for a large garden, containing quim- I No. 3, Collection in smaller proportion fl 

titles sumcient for one year s supply 



,.. £3 0s. Oii. 



Ho. 2, Collection in smaller proportion . 

A FEW CHOICE 

EPPS'S LORD RAGLAN, or Improved Mammoth, pro- 
ducing 8 to 10 Peas in a pod, and allowed to be the tinest 
incnltivation per quart 5s. Otf 

El'PS'S MONARCH, new tall marrow, and the largest 
sized Pea cultivated per quart 5 

FAiKBEARD'S NEW NONPAREIL, a delicious new- 
wrinkled marrow, of great produce and fine pods, a very 
rapid grower, coming in before the Champion of England 2 6 



Collection of good kiuds for a small garden ... 



5s. 
15 





NEW VARIETIES OF PEAS. 

MEIN'S PARADISE, a most valuable early very large 
marrow Pea, pods large, long, and -well filled, and fine 
flavour. This Pea, though very large, comes in imme- 

diately after the Warwick per quart Is. GJ. 

HAIR'S DEFIANCE, wrinkled marrow, fine do. 1 9 
*»* Saugster s No. 1, Daniel O'Rourke, HairsDwarf Mammoth. 
Early Emperor, or Fairbeard's Conqueror, Burbidge's Eclipse. 
Champion of England, and other best sorts." 



The List of FLOWER SEEDS will also be found, as usual, very select. Goods Carriage free (not under 20s.) 
to all the London Termini, and all Stations on the London and Norwich Colchester Line. 

SEED & HORTICULTURAL ESTABLISHMENT, SUDBURY, SUFFOLK. 



Eixt (BKtls tntvg (D ftrmttcle. 

SATURDA Y, JANUAR Y 27, 1 

+ 

The following stereotyped paragraph, we suppose 
proceeding from the Treasury, has appeared in such 
of the morning papers as would insert it. 

" The instructions to the surveyors (Messrs. .J. Mat hz tt;. W". 
SIurtos, and W. Menzies), appointed by the Treasury to report 
on the royal forests maintained for the growth of navy timber, 
with their reports thereon, have been laid before parliament. 
After having delivered five separate reports, referring to ques- 
tions which bad arisen with respect to various details of manage- 
ment, the surveyors were directed to frame a general report 
regarding tbe condition, management, capabilities, and future 
prospects of the royal forests they had visited — viz . Alice Holt, 
Woolmer, Bere, Parkhnrst, New Forest, Dean Fore-- 
Sleadowwood. aid Delamere. These forests contain i" _ 
about 103,150 acres, but the surveyors cons: : 
interest of the Crown may be represented by at " O acres 

of young plantations; and not only, they say. is the state 
of those plantations " such as to merit approval, bar, having 
reference to tbeir regularity, gr;- 
mate development, they are not surpassed 
property in the kingdom.'' A calcn".:,v r value 

leads the surveyors to the conclusion that : 
profitable and most advantageous investment of public money, 
though for the first period of their gr ^r-ear to 

make bnt small return upon their original outlay- 1 
veyors are of opinion that the present local management is< 
on with skill and ability: they cepr; u. inning 

with reference to annual profit, instead ;: 
they also object strongly to the system upon which timber is now 
supplied to the Royal Xavy, as that department r shc 3 : : : ; 
permitted to require more than the forests can: -istently 

with a due consideration of their permanent welfare." They 
express their belief that at the end of another century the navy 
will be mainly dependent up:-n these forests k: 
"timber: they point oat the mistake which has been committed in 
taking so much large timber from the forests within the last few 
years, during a period when the price has been unusually low: 
and the report concludes with an observation on the importance 
of securing the services of intelligent and t£orou£:hlv experienced 
gentlemen to discharge the very onerous duties of depnry sur- 
vey ors." 

In order to determine the value of such a 
document as that of which the abc" e ss to be 



52 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 27, 



the substance, it is indispensable to ascertain the 
competence of the parties from which it proceeds 
to report upon the matters referred to them. Who 
are Messrs. Mathews, Morton, and Menzies? — 
these new advisers of the Treasury. Upon that 
point we can learn very little. Nobody knows 
much about them. One is said to be or have 
been connected with railway transactions ; another 
is, we are told, a Kentish timber dealer, or some- 
thing of that kind; the third is a deputy sur- 
veyor | in Windsor Forest. What their qualifica- 
tions are for so difficult and responsible a duty 
as that of reporting on the Royal forests, for 
which not only great knowledge of foresting, but 
perfect independence of character is indispen- 
sable, we are not informed. Why they were 
selected in preference to men of high public cha- 
racter and unquestionable knowledge, such as Sir 
Joseph Paxton or those he could have named, is 
an enigma. Why they have been employed to 
supersede Mr. Clutton is equally unexplained, 
though perhaps not unintelligible. Mr. Clutton, 
however much we may have felt it necessary 
to differ from him respecting his reports, is, _ at 
all events, well known as a gentleman of high 
professional standing and indisputable intelli- 
gence. It would have been useless to ask him to 
join in that intrigue which was contrived to ruin 
Mr. Brown, in order that the Deputy-Surveyorship 
of Dean Forest might be once more at the disposal 
of some nameless personage in the Government. 
Tools of a different temper were required, and 
were found. 

The reports before us consist mainly of asser- 
tions as to matters of fact, the value of which 
can only be ascertained by personal inspection 
of the forests. They are intended to contra- 
dict other assertions made by Mr. Brown, 
which, nevertheless, they every now and then 
confirm. The aim of the reporters is to depre- 
ciate the recommendations made to Mr. Kennedy, 
and to extol the management which compelled 
the late commissioner to look around him for 
the advice of a better man than any of the forest 
officers. We also find ourselves in a cloud of 
opinions and general statements, in which every- 
thing palpable or well defined, by which to judge 
of the real knowledge of the reporters, is care- 
fully suppressed. At one or two points, how- 
ever, they fortunately descend to particulars, and 
thus inadvertently furnish a scale by which their 
knowledge of what they have been employed to 
advise upon may be exactly measured. We shall 
presume to apply that scale, at the same time 
assuring our readers that the following passage 
is a literal extract from the report, the italics 
only being our own : — 

" We believe that no difference of opinion now 
exists as to the mischief which inevitably follows 
the amputation of a living branch from an Oak, if 
the tree is destined to become timber ; such practice 
does not now exist, and therefore it would be super- 
fluous in us to express our condemnation of it ; but 
the removal of decayed branches may reasonably 
form a subject of controversy. Dead branches are 
caused very frequently by injudicious thinning ; but 
upon some uncongenial subsoils no process of thin- 
ning will protect the trees from this infirmity. 
Throughout the whole of the forest we 
found the greatest number of decayed 
branches upon the worst soils, and it 
is scarcely probable that these were 
the only portions which had been 
injudiciously thinned. 

"When from any cause a branch 
dies, the decay usually commences at 
its extremity, and gradually approaches 
the main stem. The process is a slow 
one, and the moment it begins, Nature 
sets to work to counteract the mis- 
chief. When the sap wood of 
that part of the branch which adjoins the trunk 
begins to give way, the sap wood of the trunk closes 
tightly upon it, and continues to grow and press 
round it until the branch is altogether decayed. It 
then quickly heals over, and the future growth of the 
tree covers altogether the base of the dead bough, of 
which nothing more is seen until the tree is ulti- 
mately opened and the defective spot detected. 

" If, however, you anticipate the gradual decom- 
position of a dead bough by cutting it off, its base 
commence (sic) to decay, and that more rapidly than 
the growth of the sap wood ; a hole for the reception 
of water is the consequence, and an injury which the 
constitution of the tree cannot overcome. We are 
decidedly of opinion that all trees should be left 
entirely to themselves, and no decayed branch re- 
moved on any pretence whatever. If a tree is of 
so weakly a constitution that it cannot overcome 
the effects of decayed branches, it can never be 
worth growing, and should be taken down at once." 



It would be difficult for any set of men to stultify 
themselves more than by putting their names to 
such a statement as this. It is certain that those 
who drew it up must be unacquainted with every- 
thing which a forester should know. The deputy- 
surveyors must themselves feel scandalised at being 
patronised by people capable of displaying such an 
incredible amount of ignorance. These gentlemen 
say that when trees become stag-headed from old 
age, " Nature sets to work to counteract the mis- 
chief ; " they say further that when a branch dies, 
the sap wood of the trunk closes over it, and covers 
the base of the dead bough, so that nothing but a 
defective spot remains. They do not know what 
causes the faults in deal ; it 
has never occurred to them 
that in this common timber 
the loose knots which tumble 
out (as at A) as soon as it 
becomes planks, are the con- 
sequences of the sap wood 
having closed over dead 
boughs, so that "nothing 
more is seen until the tree is 
ultimately opened." It would 
seem as if they thought it 
immaterial what the condition 
of timber is, provided the 
tree shows fair outside. Let 
us advise them to make some 
iuquiries on this subject in 
Her Majesty's 'dockyards, of 
which, by the way, they seem 
to entertain a wholesome 
dread. Mr. Bennett, the sen- 
sible and experienced timber inspector at Portsmouth, 
could, we suspect,'enlighten their understandings. In 
the meanwhile, the example next represented may 
help to show them what the real effects are of leaving 
decayed branches on timber trees. It may possibly 
also throw light upon the future quality of the timber 
to be expected from the Royal forests, after they 





shall have been managed for a few years under the 
intelligent advice of the experienced practical gen- 
tlemen whom Mr. Wilson has introduced to the 
Treasury. 

There was once a really great forester, John 
Sandys, of whom we suppose Messrs. Mathews, 
Murton, and Menzies, never heard. For their 
information we will acquaint them that it was he 
who created the magnificent forest property of the 
present Earl of Leicester. And what does 



Sandys say about leaving dead branches upon 
living trees : — 

" There is a method of pruning still practised by 
some persons, of leaving a foot or more of the branch 
on the tree to die and rot off, which if only an inch 
in diameter may take several years to accomplish, 
during which time the stem increases, and when the 
stump falls down, a hole is left as deep as the tree has 
grown since the snagging, which hole must have 
time to fill up after the rotten branch is gone. The 
healing of the wound is consequently delayed, and the 
defect in the timber greater. Instead of taking off a 
large branch by the stem, a great part of it may be 
cut off at a distance from it, leaving a small side 
branch to draw the sap and keep it alive, which is 
better than leaving a snag ; but this method should 
seldom be practised, being only the result of former 
bad management." 

There is a certain Sir Joseph Paxton, of whom it 
is possible that the new Treasury agents have heard. 
Some think that he knows as much as most men 
about foresting ; and what is his recorded opinion 1 

" All scientific planters," wrote Mr. Paxton some 
years since, " agree as to the propriety of removing 
dead or decayed branches. Whenever dead 
branches are found on any tree, they cannot be too 
soon removed ; and even Fir plantations, which 
when thickly planted are generally self-pruned, will 
be improved by having all the dead wood pruned off 
quite close to the stem." 

In the University of Cambridge there is, and we 
trust long will be, a professor of Botany named 
Henslow. It chanced that some years since Lord 
Braybrooke submitted to his examination a number 
of specimens of timber in which the branches had 
been allowed to die back. The result of that 
examination, now before us, was as follows : — 

" In the specimens sent for my inspection, the 
fore-shortened branches were all in a state of decaff, 
and where the experiment was pronounced com- 
plete, the stumps had become embedded in new 
wood which had closed over them, exactly as it does 
over the surface of the cut produced by close- 
pruning. Now the only difference between the two 
results appears to me to be this : that in the close- 
pruning toe have two clean surfaces, the one of 
the old and the other of the new wood, brought into 
close contact ; whilst in the case of the fore- 
shortened branch, we have the decayed remains of a 
rotten stump surrounded by an irregular surface of 
the new wood." 

So much for the common sense of Mr. Wilson's 
friends as regards pruning timber. Here is another 
bright example : — 

" The plea has been, that much timber having 
arrived at maturity, was deteriorating in quality. 
This is no less a mistake. A tree which has flourished 
from two to three centuries and arrived at full 
maturity, loill suffer no material deterioration for 
another 40 or 50 years" 

That is to say, it will not rot at the heart, 
nor become " short " nor " foxey," nor undergo- 
any organic change which will reduce its value in 
the timber market. According to this doctrine the 
Larch does not begin to rot when the first symptoms 
of decay appear in its extremities ; nor should it 
then be felled, for its getting more and more rotten 
every year causes " no material deterioration."" 
According to Messrs. Menzies, Murton, and 
Mathews, a tree is none the worse for becoming 
stag-headed, and there is no chance of a break up of 
its tissues for 40 or 50 years. A fortiori, a tree that 
has died outright is as good for timber as one that 
is felled in its prime. Is this the sort of stuff that 
Messrs. Murton and Mathews sell to their cus- 
tomers ? We hope not. Is this the timber that 
Mr. Menzies, himself a deputy surveyor, would send 
into the dockyards 1 We presume their recommend- 
ation is founded on the principle that what is good 
for trade is good for everything else. Bad timber 
soon perishes, and the workman who used it will 
soon have a new job in replacing what has decayed. 

The more timber is old and exhausted, the further 
it is beyond its prime, the more it is subject to dry rot ;. 
and it is the timber which is most subject to dry rot 
that these new advisers of the Crown recommend 
should be purveyed for the navy. " Lorsqu'un 
arbre est couronne, plus il vieillit, moins il est 
propre aux ouvrages de construction ; il faut done 
l'abbattre pour en tirer parti, a. moins qu'on ne 
veuille le conserver pour profiter de l'etendue de 
ses branches et de l'ombrage qu'elles procurent." 
So says a great and experienced continental writer, 
so says science, so says common sense. But that 
is not the opinion of Mr. Wilson's agents. 

Surely it is a national disgrace that the great 
departments of the state should thus be at the 
mercy of men who have not enough knowledge of 
the commonest things to learn even how to select 
their agents. We see the consequences everywhere; 
our system is utterly rotten ; everybody is taken 



4—1855.] 



Til |<] fj A ItDKN KRS' CH RONICLE. 



for exactly tlio duties lie least understands, and 
tho inevitable result in what wo now koo in Unit, 
Crimean operation, which, notwithstanding the 
magnificent coinage.' of our heroic troops, has become 
the pity of the French, the disgrace of ourselves, 
the derision of everybody else. 

On a former occasion we called attention to some 
extraordinary instances of ignorance of the com- 
monest facts of Natural History, which had appeared 
in certain articles of one of our leading reviews, in 
other respects by no means deficient in ability ; and 
we did so because it indicated some radical defeel 
in the education of a large and very important 
portion of the community. Another instance has 
just fallen under our notice, and as the same defeel 
is indicated in a thousand directions, and if wo may 
judge by the sneering though personally compli- 
mentary remarks of a medical journal of extensive 
circulation on the appointment of Mr. Buen and Dr. 
rlooKEit, as examiners by the Indian board, there is an 
indisposition in some quarters to mend matters, wo 
are at least willing to record our own sentiments by 
the production of the passage, which we should not 
feel inclined to do if the utter want of knowledge 
of such subjects which it evidences was less glaring. 
Were we inclined to ho hypercritical, two other 
passages* might be adduced from the same review, 
but the one in question is so marked, that it wants 
no corroboration. It occurs in an article entitled 
"the London Commissariat," which treats of the 
different sources from whence the alimentary wants 
of the metropolis are supplied. Speaking of Straw- 
berries the reviewer says " Mr. Myatt, of Deptford, 
is the great grower ; by judicious grafting he has 
produced from the old stock half-a-dozen different 
kinds, the most celebrated being the British Queen, 
which attains a prodigious size." Now, we are 
not disposed to deny the possibility of grafting one 
kind of Strawberry upon another, though the attempt 
might be attended by some formidable practical 
difficulties, but every one acquainted with the 
simplest principles of horticulture is aware that new- 
varieties, except such an accidental case as that of 
the Laburnum, partaking of the twofold nature of 
Cytisus Laburnum and Cytisus purpureus, could not 
by any possibility arise from the process. Nor can 
we suppose that by a mere slip of the pen the word 
"grafting" has been written instead of crossing, 
because the word "stock" which follows depends 
upon the previous keyword. It is in point of fact 
most clearly a part of that educational deficiency 
which makes our upper classes so often the prey of 
every pretender to knowledge, and which leads to 
such disastrous issues in so many public under- 
takings, both at home and abroad. Self-interest 
indeed and a habit of jobbing are often concerned, 
but powerful as such influences may be there can be 
no doubt that the ignorance we speak of is their most 
efficient handmaid, and that in many cases better 
knowledge would render the probable result so 
notorious as to prove an effectual prevention. 



New Plants. 

111. Bolboph.yi.lum lasianthum, alias Anisopetalum 

lasianthum, De Vriese ic. 249 incd. 
B. (bulbosum, repens, spici/orme, sarcanthum) foliis Iatis oblongis 
coriaccis scapo valido laxe vaginato requalibus, racemo 
pubescente, floribus carnosis, sepalis oblongo-lanceolatis 
acuminatis lateralibua longioribus setis piliformibus carnosis 
vestitis, petalis linearibns setaceo-acuminatis multO brevio- 
ribus, labello linguiformi angusto niarginato basi crassissinio 
crista ovali foveata, columns) angnlis acutissimis integris. 
The first knowledge we had of this remarkable plant 
was from a coloured drawing, from Sumatra, shown us 
by our learned friend Prof, de Vriese. It has now been 
examined in a living state, a specimen said to have come 
from Manilla having flowered with Mr. Loddiges. It is 
almost the largest species known, the leaves measuring 
fully 7 inches by 2, the scape being somewhat taller and 
the flowers nearly 2 inches long. The latter are dull 
purple, and copiously covered with long fleshy hair- 
pointed bristles. It evidently belongs to the group 
formed by B. Carcyanum, quadrisetum, setigerum, 
Khasyanum, nilghcrrensc, imbrication, <fcc. 



VEGETABLE PATHOLOGY.— No. LVI. 
251. Sterility. — Accidental and Functional. — We 
nave hitherto considered those cases of sterility in 
which the malady is as far as can be ascertained wholly 
independent of outward causes, and due solely to some 
peculiarity of constitution, whether purely functional 
or inducing evident organic change. But sterility 
depends frequently on external causes, where there is no 
natural tendency in the plant to such a condition, and 
ttese when known are, under certain circumstances 
though by no means always, more or less within the 
control of the cultivator. The formation of fruit is the 
main end of vegetation, and requires a great exertion of 
lorce for its accomplishment This is frequently so 
great, and th e consumption of nutritive matter so com- 

ffiTiew" 5 tW ° passages ln lotion "a contained in p. 295 of the 



plete, that life ceases In consequence of exhaustion *lth 
the [perfection of the process. It can easily be under- 
stood therefore, that although a plant may flouri h to a 
certain extent, and produce Ite annual crop ,,i leu bi, 
even proceed to some Imperfect transformation <,i thi m, 
outward circumstances of climate and situation nioy 
!»<■ suoh at to prevent the perfection of the fruit, Thu 
is tho case with many exotic plante in our itoves, which 

rarely, if ever, prod anything more than foliage, In 

all such coses the iiiiill of the cultivator which hoi at 
last produced promise of fruit in the Mangosteen, an 
instance apparently iho most boneless, will at length, 
in all probability, be crowned with success, wherever 
it may ho thought necessary to make tie D0« I 
expenditure of time and labour, in addition to all those 
appliances which cannot he supplied without ample 
pecuniary resources. Ah regards mere acclimatisation, 
little can ho done except by tho production of new 
varieties more hardy than the original or more adapted 
to the peculiar state and order of tho seasons. 

252. One great difficulty, whether in cultivation in tho 
stove or in tho open air, is duo to the impossibility of 
giving the same rest, whether arising from heat or cold 
Or drought or moisture, which the plants possess in their 
own country. Tho want of this even in the absence of 
any climatic excess, which may ho injurious to life, is 
often such as to preclude successful cultivation. Our 
northern fruit trees, for instance, when removed to 
tropical or subtropical climates are not able to endure 
tho constant state of excitement to which they arc ex- 
posed, and at the best produce a continued succession of 
leaves without fruit, while many of them are unable to 
linger through more than a very limited number of 
seasons. 

253. The separation of tho sexes in many species is 
a necessary cause of sterility where one sex only is in 
cultivation, as in the common Aucuba, the Weeping 
Willow, and some other less familiar instances, but even 
where both sexes are in cultivation, impregnation may 
not take place from the absence of proper insects which 
in the native country effect this process. The Vanilla, 
for instance, remained barren under cultivation till it 
was artificially impregnated by Professor Morren, and 
the process is now performed by many gardeners, the 
trouble being amply compensated by the value of the 
produce, which is quite equal, if not superior, to the best 
importation. 

254. But sterility is often induced in the more 
common objects of cultivation by outward circumstances 
of various kinds. The floral organs are greatly altered 
or influenced by the nature and condition of the soil. 
Anything which induces a weak state of health or an 
imperfect assimilation of sap, leads directly to weakness 
of the reproductive process in plants.* Witness the 
infertility of badly drained orchards or fields, against 
which the most liberal cultivation in other respects is 
not able effectually to contend. 

255. Excess of nourishment again will often produce 
sterility where there is no constitutional tendency to it. 
In this case rank shoots are produced, without the 
formation of flower-buds, and the flower-buds themselves 
when expanded do not perfect their pistils. Even 
without artificial manure, the supply of raw nutriment 
from the soil is so rapid as to produce the same effects, 
for fertility does not depend on the immediate supply of 
nutriment, but on matter already deposited.f The 
precise mode in which this is regulated will perhaps 
never be known ; but in such cases experience shows 
that plants may be forced into fruit by root-pruning, 
or by confining the descending sap within certain limits 
by separation of the bark, the application of a ligature, 
or deflection of the branches, so as to subject them to 
the laws of gravity.:,: 

2.56. The parasitic growth of fungi again may pro- 
duce sterility by appropriating that nutriment which 
was prepared for the purposes of fructification. It is 
seldom, indeed, except where organic mischief is in- 
duced, of which we shall have to speak presently, that 
the sterility is perfect. Where, however, mildew is 
prevalent, whether externally or internally, the fruit is 
always more or less affected, as the farmer knows to his 
cost by the effeete or dwindled produce of his crops. 

257. Various external causes, as wind, rain, &c, 
may prevent the settling of the pollen on the stigma, or 
may wash it off before it has germinated. So long, 
however, as the stigmatic surface is uninjured, such 
accidents are not probably of much consequence. M.J.B. 



u no ipi cfi i or rarii ty in ct ■ tion which n 
be advantageously grafted itoek of ai 

always supposing tool .-. miti • cm be found. 

Many ol the Sikkfm I 

admirably, oh we shall presently show, upon an 
the common ponticnm; while if grafted <„, i, 
hybrid ■ suss, they either fall altogether, or at 

i,. i merely regelate, On the contrary, . 
hybrids in cultivation grow well upon hybrid calav 
ond more especially so if the hybrids so grafted »r« 
strongly crossed with i ■. They also succeed wsU 

on ponticum ; and for dwarf plant*, ■ 
near the soil.ths latter if largely end advantegi 
employed, for standards, however, pon 

on ni ill adapted, and for this reason: they >r« 

readily. growth in spring', and if, •... 

ofien the ea«e, after being no excited, we I 
frosts, the hark, being foil of sap, hursts by expansion, 
cauaing of course the death of both stock and Kraft. 
tOl of hybrid catawbiens* are not found V, suffer in 
this way, consequently it Is largely employed as 
standards to graft hybrids upon. 

Your correspondent "J. it." thinks that maximum 
would he a good stock, grounding b ■ tbeorj i 
fact of the species being a large and robust j.;ro»< r. In 
practice it is found to be the worn ol all stocks, and 
very few kinds will succeed upon it. Again, eatDpamv 
latum will not grow on ponticum. It' will certainly 
make a feeble union with the stock, but it I 
vegetates, and never makes a creditable plant ; •.. 
hybrid cotawbiensc, it grows tolerably well ; but as yet 
no Btock has been found to suit it well. Among the 
Sikkiin Rhododendrons, glaacum, cinnabarinum, and 
ciliatum may he named, for which a suitable stock boa 
not been found ; and while Dalhousue, Edgeworthi, and 
many others luxuriate on ponticum, they refuse to flourish 
on hybrid catawbiense. 

Of the relative degree of luxuriance between grafted 
plants of the Sikklm Rhododendrons and others n 
their own roots, oge and all other circumstances 
being equal, we subjoin a few examples : — From a 
number of seedlings of Dalhousite, four years old, a few 
were selected, cut down, and the shoots separated into 
single eyes, and grafted on ponticum stocks. In one 
year these grafts made shoots from 12 to 11 inches long, 
having leaves (i inches long by 3 inches broad. The 
remaining seedlings are now not more than 14 inches 
high, though five years old, and in every way less luxu- 
riant than the grafted plants. We have a very fine speci- 
men of this plant five years, grafted on a 3 feet ponticum 
stem; the head is 2t feet high by as much through, having 
six large flower buds. We need hardly say that a 
seedling of the same age, under the best treatment, 
would not bear comparison with this plant. When this 
one was grafted, 25 others were inserted on hybrid 
catawbiense stocks. There is now one alive, and that 
but a sorry specimen. Edgew-orthi also grows rapidly 
on ponticum, yet it will scarcely live on hybrid cataw- 
biense. A specimen four years grafted on the former 
has now 12 flower buds, aud another nine. The shoots 
made last year on these plants are 15 inches long; 
while others on their own roots, and of the same age, 
make about 4 inches of wood in a season, and are in 
every way inferior, both as regards health and general 
appearance. 

With the ordinary garden hybrids there is also the 
same advantage apparent, both as regards luxuriance of 
growth and precocity and abundance of flower of 
grafted plants over others on their own roots. We have 
now a batch of seedlings, four years old, the best of 
which are about 12 inches, having at most but two or 
three shoots — many of them only one. When these 
plants were one year old a number were selected from 
among them, from which the tops were taken off and 
grafted upon ponticum stocks. They are now from 12 
to 22 inches high from the graft, and from 12 to 18 
inches through the head, and many of them have from 
two to a dozen flower-buds. The seedlings have not a 
single bud among them. Some of the other objections 
raised by " J. R." we shall allude to in another article. 
Standis/i <£- iVbife. 



RHODODENDRONS : GRAFTED OR NOT 
GRAFTED! 

This is a question of considerable horticultural im- 
portance ; tile communications of " J. R." induce us to 
offer a few facts which may assist in solving it. A series 
of year's devoted to the culture and propagation of the 
Rhododendron enable us to assert confidently that there 



* It is well known that in some conditions of the animal system 
which tend to ultimate death, as in persons of a strnmons habit, 
there is an increased productiveness, but that when those peculiar 
functions cease death ensues Tery rapidly. Something similar 
or rather something analogous obtains in fruit trees subject to 
gumming. They are often peculiarly productive just before 
dissolution. A large crop is formed and perhaps ripens, and 
vitality is exhausted by the effort, the small connecting thread 
of living tissue beiug unable to keep up the necessary supply. 

t Many fruit trees bejir only every alternate year, an interval 
of rest being requisite tor the deposition of new fruit-producing 
matter. 

X Sterility may arise from a precisely contrary cause, viz., the 
over-production of flowers, the strength of the plant being so 
exhausted as to prevent fertilisation. This case, however, will 
come as a consequence under another head. 



COMMON THINGS. 

Early Peas. — The following mode of producing these 
has been practised with success. Cut turves 2 or 
3 inches in breadth and 18 inches in length, turn tbem 
upside down, make a small mark lengihwise in the turf 
sufficient to hold one row of Peas. Place them on a 
hotbed or in a pit with a little heat, then sow the Peas. 
Two ordinary lights will hold about 50 yards. Sow 
about the 1st of next month, and plant out on the first 
favourable opportunity in March. 

Composition for Fruit Trees. — The subjoined has been 
found of use in protecting the buds of Gooseberries from 
the ravages of birds in the winter and spring months, 
as well as an effectual remedy for clearing the bark of 
fruit trees generally from Moss, Lichen, and the larva? 
of insects : — Take hot lime and soot in equal quantities J 
add cow's urine until the mixture has attained the con- 
sistency of thick paint. Paint the trees regularly over 
with the ingredients thus prepared, and the result will 
be not only a beautifully clean and clear bark, but an 
increased vigour will also be perceptible in the growth 
of those trees to which the mixture has been applied. 

Propagation of Tropceolum tricolorum. — The simplest 
mode of doing this is to take off the weak laterals that 
are not likely to flower, when about 2 inches long ; if 
with a heel so much tbe better. Any time from 



54 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jan. 27, 



February till May fill the pot half full of crocks, then 
with a mixture of peat and sand till within 2 inches of 
the top ; fill up with silver sand, and water with a fine 
rose to settle it. Then dibble in the cuttings all round, 
within 1 inch of the rim, leaving about half an inch of 
the cutting above the sand. Place the pot on a shelf in 
the front of the greenhouse ; keep the sand constantly 
moist, taking care that the cuttings are always erect- 
In the course of two months many of them will throw 
up shoots from under the sand. The pot should then 
be removed to a shady situation out of doors. When 
the stems decay, do not disturb the sand, but water 
sparingly. Iu October let them be placed in the green- 
house, when all that have made small tubers will grow. 
It is from these plants that the best cuttings are obtained 
in the spring. In the following May turn the whole ball 
out of the pot in a warm situation in the open ground. 
After they have fiuished growth take them up and sift 
the ball through a fine sieve, carefully picking out the 
tubers. They are then treated iu all respects as the 
older tubers, and will make fine flowering plants the 
following spring. If seeds are used they should be 
soaked in water 24 hours before sowing, and the outer 
shell carefully removed ; under this treatment they will 
grow much sooner and with greater certainty. They 
should remain iu the seed pot until after they have 
formed a tuber. A small stick can be placed against 
each plant, to which it will climb, and it serves to indi- 
cate the place of the tuber when the stem is dead. 
Many seeds will remain 12 months before vegetating. 

Wood-lice. — By the following simple method, frames 
and pits might be kept comparatively free from these 
intruders ; at all events, they might be so far subdued 
as not to be injurious to plants. Put a cold boiled or 
roasted Potato into a small flower-pot ; cover the Potato 
with Moss, leaving a little hanging out of the pot by 
way of enticing the insects to enter ; then lay the pot 
on its side in a corner of the frame. Wood-lice feed in 
darkness, and at the approach of day they retire to their 
hiding places in cracks and crevices, or amongst the 
loose soil or bark ; the Moss is therefore necessary to 
induce them to remain in the pot, to which they will 
flock in hundreds after having once tasted the Potato, 
Every morning the pots should be taken out of the pits 
and the wood-lice destroyed ; the-same bait will serve 
for a week or longer. If properly attended to, half-a- 
dozen pots so prepared will soon clear a frame of these 
troublesome pests. A toad or two is also of great 
service in thinning their numbers. 



CHOICE OF PEAR SEEDS, THEIR PRESER- 
VATION, AND TIME OF SOWING. 

The' essential properties of a new variety of Pear 
exist in a rudimentary state in the seed. Time and 
favourable circumstances will develope the embryo 
plant, but cannot change its specific nature. Its 
existence dates from the time that the pistil is fer- 
tilised by the pollen before or after the opening of the 
corolla. In dissecting a flower before the corolla is open 
the anthers are found close to the stigma, and at the 
base of the style the rudiments of the ovaries may be ob- 
served. Does fertilisation take place before the opening 
of the corolla, or more probably not till after the solar 
rays have produced certain effects on the organs of 
fructificaiion I Are the anthers of the same flower 
sufficient for the fertilisation of the pistillum without 
the assistance of other flowers, or perhaps the flowers 
of other trees, the pollen of which may be deposited by 
bees or flies \ 

The minute examination of these questions is of im- 
portance, and will lead to a knowledge of the mode in 
which artificial fecundation may be effected in certain 
circumstances, and of the precautions necessary to be 
taken. Perhaps in this way more certain results may 
be obtained in regard to obtaining long-keeping varieties, 
an endeavour which ought to receive the particular 
attention of those who engage in raising varieties of 
fruit from seed. 

Seedling varieties of Pears vary infinitely in succes- 
sive generations. This truth is being continually proved 
by ocular demonstration. There is another principle 
Connected with the above, which is, the more a type has 
entered into a state of variation, the greater is its 
tendency to continue doing so, and the more it has 
varied from the original type, the more it is disposed to 
vary still farther. 

Certain latitudes and influences of climate are doubt- 
less more favourable than others for obtaining good 
results as regards the Pear and other fruit trees ; but 
the investigation of these would lead us too far from the 
principal subject. 

It is rare to see two identical varieties produced from 
seed of the same variety. It is even a well-established fact 
that the seeds taken from the same fruit produce varieties \ 
so distinct in wood, leaves, and fruit that no resemblance | 
to their common origin can be traced. This fact proves 
to a certain extent that the bees and flies play an im- j 
portant part in the fertilisation of the pistil. It is there- j 
fore important, that in a garden where experiments in | 
raising new sorts are carried on, no varieties should 
exist except those that are of first-rate quality ; and ! 
that the collection should be as far distant as possible ' 
from any bad varieties. It may be supposed that when j 
the bees fly to a distance, the pollen is detached from j 
their legs by the action of the air; therefore we must; 
attribute the complete fertilisation of the flowers of a ' 
tree to the pollen of adjoining trees that are visited by 
bees and flies. The consideration of these circumstances 
ought not to be omitted. Moreover it is essential to 



have only vigorous trees, on the Pear stock, obtained 
from the latest generation of improved seedlings. 

A limited number of fruit should only be left on the 
tree, from which seedlings are intended to be raised, in 
order that the fruit may acquire its natural siz ■ and per- 
fection. When gathered, the finest should be selected 
from spurs on the most vigorous part of the tree. The 
fruit should be kept in a suitable place till it becomes 
quite ripe. 

In cutting the fruit care should be taken not to injure 
the seeds, of which three, four, or five may be found, 
perfectly matured, in the cells. Whether the seed is 
roundish, flat, oval, or oblong, or whether its colour is 
black or nut-brown, provided it has a well-fed pulp, it 
may be considered fertile and ought to produce a plant, 
if preserved with care and sown at the proper season. 

When taken out of the cells, the seeds should be put 
in a small jar, half filled with dry sand, with which the 
seeds should be mixed. The jar should be placed in 
the dark, where the seeds can neither dry nor rot. 
After remaining in this situation for a month or two, 
the seeds should be taken out and put in papers, each 
sort separately, marking the name or number of the 
variety of fruit from which the seeds were taken, 
together with the date of the ripening of the fruits. 
These directions, it will be understood, are necessary, 
in order that amongst the seedlings raised the pre- 
ference may be given in planting to those likely to 
prove the best. The seed is collected from the middle 
of autumn till the end of spring ; and by keeping it 
in the way above-mentioned the skin of the seed will 
acquire a consistence, and the kernel a firmness 
that will enable it to vegetate with greater vigour when 
committed to the soil, in the open air. I have seen 
Pear seeds sown in garden pots, in wooden boxes, and on 
gentle hotbed ; but from many years' experience I have 
found that it is preferable to sow the seeds in the open 
ground. They grow in the latter during the first year 
with the proper degree of vigour, and make a sub- 
stantial growth. In September, a part of the garden is 
chosen which is not infested by any kind of insect. 
The ground is dug deeply but not manured. It is care- 
fully cleaned from all weeds, and at the same time the 
soil is made as fine as possible. About the end of the 
month drills are made 2 feet apart and about 2 inches 
deep. After the bottoms of the drills have been 
levelled a thin layer of wood ashes is sown in them. 
The seeds, preserved since the winter or spring, are 
steeped in a solution of sulphate of lime, and placed 
about 2 inches apart in the drills. A strong Oak stake 
is driven into the ground to mark where each sort is 
sown ; a piece of lead is nailed on the stake and stamped 
with the letter S, and the number of the variety sown. 
Before covering the seeds, they should be pressed on the 
flat side or on the edge with the finger, in order that the 
radicle may strike directly downward, and the plumule 
spring upwards without proceeding first in a horizontal 
direction and then forming a curve at the base of the 
stem, which would be the case if the seeds were not 
properly placed. All the drills are successively covered 
in the same way. During the winter and spring some 
parings of turf should be scattered over the surface of 
the ground, in order to afford nourishment to the worms 
and prevent them from attacking the seedlings, the seed 
leaves of which will appear above ground towards the 
end of the following March. /. de Jonghe, Brussels, 
Jan. 14. 



Home Correspondence. 

Nurserymens' Catalogues. — It is a great pity that no 
plan can be hit upon for securing correctness and 
uniformity in the catalogues of the leading flower seeds- 
men; as to the smaller fry, it is perhaps too much to expect 
from them any attention to such matters. I subjoin a 
few specimens of the confusion that prevails, selected 
almost at random from the lists of the present year. 
Perhaps you would take the trouble to determine which 
is the correct description. 



or where leaf-mould or other rich vegetable soils are iu 
abundance. When gardener to the late P. C. Labou» 
chere, Esq., of Hylands, Essex, I grew them with 
success in strong adhesive yellow clay with a spadeful or 
two of peat to start with, and I believe that there is 
hardly a county in England iu which Rhododendrons 
are not to be found growing and increasing naturally in 
loam ; nevertheless this does not confirm Mr. Waterer's 
assertion. If Mr. W. will call on me I will show him, 
not 100 miles from Buckingham, a rather costly experi- 
ment carried out about three years ago on the principles 
he promulgates, the result of which is that the plants, 
struggling on in what came with them, are dying a slow 
but sure death, furnishing a miserable substitute for a 
very fine orchard of fruit trees, which would have done 
a Knight's or a Rivers's heart good to have seen. These 
were cleared away by the advice of a celebrated land- 
scape gardener, who, if deserving of the name, ought to 
have known better. I believe that Rhododendrons have 
been tried here long before my predecessor's time, 
Capability Brown, in leaf-mould, bog earth, &c, without 
success ; for when I came in 1839 there was not a plant 
in a healthy growing state iu the grounds. As the Duke 
of Buckingham was very anxious to get them to grow, I 
tried several samples of soils in the neighbourhood for 
them, aud amongst them I found at least 500 acres of 
land within 2 miles of Stowe, in which they will grow 
as well, if not better than in the justly celebrated 
nurseries at Bagshot, in Surrey. I would, therefore, 
strongly advise admirers of this truly magnificent class 
of plants before they attempt to plant them extensively 
to collect a small portion of the various soils in their 
immediate neighbourhoods, to add a portion of leaf- 
mould and other vegetable soil to each, and what is also 
good cow's manure, as it is difficult to ascertain what 
they will or will not grow in without a trial. I trust, 
therefore, that this hint may induce many to grow them 
who have never before attempted their cultivation, and 
that the assertions I have just made are facts I have 
ocular proof to show. David Ferguson, Stowe, Bucking- 
hamshire. 

Holcus saccharalus. — In No. 52, 1854, attention has 
been drawn to a novelty of the year, in the shape of a 
tall reedy Grass, called Holcus saccharatus, of whose 
economical virtue I find that great expectations are 
raised. Such being the case, permit me to observe that 
much valuable information respecting this plant may be 
obtained from some of your readers iu Western India, 
particularly from the Deccan sportsmen and officers,, 
who use it largely, under the name of Jowaree, in pre- 
ference to the coarse Grass or hay obtainable there, in 
feeding their hunters and chargers, which thrive well 
upon it — so much so, indeed, that when sent to the coast 
for racing purposes a supply of it invariably accom- 
panies them. I have great doubts, however, whether 
this Holcus contains a sufficient quantity of saccharine 
matter to be converted economically into sugar, even 
on the spot where the plants attain their full perfection, 
for surely in such case Dr. White in his valuable 
" Materia Medica of Hindostan " would have noticed it, 
or we should have heard of it otherwise. The seed is 
used for food by natives too pool", I believe, to purchase 
Rice, and can be procured in India in any quantity. 
B. N., Chichester. [The French expressly state that 
there are doubts about the Chinese Holcus being the 
same as the Indian one.] 

White Blackberry. — On January the 3d, 1852, a 
flourish of trumpets announced Mr. Needham's white 
Blackberries as a valuable addition to our rubaceous 
fruits. Having no white blackbirds hereabouts to eat 
them, I was in hopes they would fare better than my 
Raspberries. By January, 1855, this ought no longer 
to be a very rare plant : but I hear nothing more of it, 
and nowhere see it offered for sale. Pray report 
progress. A. S. \_We have nothing to report, except 
that the plants sent to the Horticultural Society died. 
If any of our readers possess information respecting the 
plant we should be obliged by receiving it] 



Campanula Vidali 

Collinsia bartsirefolia 

Cuphea platycentra 

C'upliea silenoides 

[All wrong. Should be 

crimson and lilac.'] 
Lupinus Hartwegi 



Colour. 
Ditto 

Do. & duration. 
Ditto & ditto. 

Colour. 



James Caeter. 



Blue. 
Purple. 

Red & yellow Biennial. 

( Flesh. 1 

\ Half-hardy annual. J 

Blue and Pink. 



J. Veitch, Jun. Flanagan & Son. Rendle & Co, 



Pink and While, 
f Scarlet. \ 

"j Hf.-hardy perennial, j" 
f Crimson aud yellow. ( 
"(Hf.-hardy perennial. j 



Blue and white. 



("Brown & yellow. 1 
\.Bf -hardy annual, j 



White spotted. 



Scarlet and while* 
Yellow and red. 



A. ft, Chelmsford. [We have printed in italics the de- 
scriptions nearest the truth.] 

Sweet-scented Camellia. — 1 should be glad to hear if 
any of your correspondents have in their possession or 
have seen a sweet-scented Camellia. I have one (a 
young plant) which I purchased last year when in bud. 
When the flowers expanded I discovered their sweet- 
ness, which resembles a very delicate Hyacinth ; but 
for fear I might be mistaken, I had several friends who 
equally smelt the sweetness of the flower. A gardener 
in this neighbourhood, who heard of it, asked me for 
some cuttings ; but as the plant was small, I refused to 
give them. And he then said, " Oh ! it is only a freak 
of Nature ; it will never be sweet again." However, it 
is now in bloom in my conservatory, and is quite as 
sweet as it was last year. I have no flowers iu bloom in 
my conservatory but Camellias, and therefore there can 
be no confusion of scents to deceive me. Violtt. 

Soil for Rhododendrons. — I am astonished at Mr. 
John Waterer's statement (see p. 804, 1854) that Rho- 
dodendrons, &c, will grow in any ordinary garden soil, 



Mr. Carton and his Family. — It will be gratifying to 
the benevolent individuals who contributed the money 
to enable Mr. Carton and his family to emigrate to 
Australia two years ago, to know that he has not only j 
safely arrived there but that he has found profitable 
employment in gardening. A gentleman has come to 
this country lately who had actually employed Mr. 
Carton as his gardener at the rate of 11. a week. I hear 
also that his daughter is married. We may therefore 
hope that all things will now go well with him. 
A. Forsyth, St. Mary's Church. 

Datura ceratocaulon. — For the information of your 
correspondent who says he has great difficulty in 
raising this plant from seeds, allow me to state that, if 
the latter are sound and good, they will vegetate 
readily, if sown in a pot and plunged in a moist bottom- 
heat, or if sown on a hotbed and treated in the same 
way as other tender annuals. It must be borne in mind 
that this plant is a native of Cuba, and will therefore 
only live in the open air with us during the hottest part 
of our summer and autumn months. Although the 



4— 1855.J 



T If E AGRICU LTU R A L GAZETTE 



• 



'/ 



npHE i' 

.1. at Mr 



PERUVIAN GUANO, Bolivian Guano, Superphos- 
phate of Lime, Nitrate of Bofla, Sugar Bcura, and every 
doHcrl|)ti"n of Artificial Mnnurns, Llniiood Cukes, &o. 
Wm. Inoms Cabnie, 10, Mark I. mm, London. 

AKTIKJCIAI- MANUUES,&c— Manufacturerflancl 
fttliorB engaged in making ARTIFICIAL manukkh may 
obtain every necoHHiiry liiiil.riic.tlon for tholv oconomlcnl and 
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principal of tlift Agricultural and Gnomical Collogo, Kennington, 
Eonflon, Analyse.* of Boiln, OuanoH, Superphosphate!) of Lime, 
CoprolltoH, &o., and AwmyH of Gold, Bllvor, and otbor Mimiraht, 

imicxficii Led Willi iicciir.iry in id dhtpulch. 

Gentleman doHlrouH of rocolvlng Instructions in Cliomloal 
AnalyHutiiind Assaying, will find ample facility and accommoda- 
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FOLLOWING MAN I IRKS imi iiininil.u'Uini] 
at Mr. Imwrh' Factory, Doptford Creek :— Turnip Manuro. 
71. por ton; SuporphOBphatO Of Llmo, 7/,; Sulphuric Acid and 
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Office, fiD, King William BU'OOt, Oily, London. 
1S.B, Gonutno I'eruvliin Guano, gmirmiti'iid to contain 10 por 
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THE LONDON MANUI1K COMTANY Im, : u, cull 
tho attention of Agriculturists to t]>oIr WHEAT and 

OXiOVKK maniihks for present use. The i Ion Manure 

Company alNooflbr. Genuine Peruvian Guano, Nitrate of Boda, 
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SaltH,nnd nil Artificial Manures of value. Tho London Manure 
Company guarantee Peruvian Guano and ovory Manure tlmy 
supply to Ijo Btrlctly genuine. Edward Pobbbd, Sec. 

Mridgn Stivol, lllmld'riiuH. 

THE PATENT NITRO-PnOSPlIATE or BLOOD 
MANIJUi; COMPANY.— (Provisionally registered, pur- 
suant to tho Act 7 and 8 Vlotorln, c. 110.) 
* TruMesa, 

Ahol Smith, Esq., Jan'., M.r., 'A Halkln Street. Wost. 
Charles Dlmsdalo, Eton.. Eaaontlon Place, Herts. 
Edward Hall. Esq., M.P.,8, BelgraveRood, Plmllco. 
Major-dun. Hall, M.P., Weston Colvlllo, Linton, C»imhrhlgo. 
John Brady, Esq., M.F., Warwick Terrace, Bclgravo Square. 

Directors. 
James Odams, Esq., Bishops Stortford, Herts. 
Kohert Morgan, Esq.; 72, Camden Villas, Camden Town. 
Jonas w.'iib, Esq., Babraham, Cambridgeshire. 
John Clay den, Esq., Littlebury, Essex. 
(Robert Leeds, Esq., West Loxhani, Norfolk. 
Kichard Hunt, Esq., Stunstead, Deal, Herts. 
John Sharp, Esq , Tower Villa, Queen's lload, Regont'a Park. 
Thomas Nash, Esq., Chesterlord, Essex. 

(With power to add to their number.) 

Bankers — Messrs. Barnett, Iloaro, and Co., Lombard Street. 

Auditor— James Cttll'd, Esq., Baldoon, and 9, Little Ryder Street, 

St. James's. 
Solicitors— Messrs. Klngsford and Dorman, 23, Essex Street, 
Strand. 
Secretary and Chymist— James Taylor, Esq., F.C.S. 
Manufactory: Blaistow Marshes, Essex. 
The abovo manure is now ready for delivery. For Wheat, 
Barley, and nil corn crops, 71. 10s. per ton ; Turnip and root crops, 
61. 105. per ton; free delivered to any railway or vessel iu 
London, and supplied direct from their works, on application to 
Odams, Fickfokd, & Kken, 
3fi, Leadenhall Street, Sole Agents for London. 



SEWAGE CHARCOAL MANURE.— This highly 
fertilising Manure, which is Peat Charcoal completely 
saturated with London Sewage, will be found most efficient for 
every species of crop ; more especially for Peas, Beans, Turnips, 
Mangold Wnrzol, and other root crops. It will produce a greater 
return for the outlay than Guano or any other Manure at an 
equivalent value: it also possesses tho property of retaining its 
fertilising power longer than other Manures now in use. It may 
he obtained at the SEWAGE MANURE WORKS, Stanley 
Bridge, Eulhnm, at -if. per ton, and in quantities less than half 
a ton, at 5s. per cwt., for ready money only ; and in quantities not 
less than a ton, will be delivered at the London Termini of the 
Railroads free of charge for cartage. No charge for sacks. 

It may also bo bud from Messrs.G.GmPs&C'o., 26, Down Street, 
Piccadilly, Agricultural Seedsmen, Agents for Loudon ; and from 
all the other Agents of the Company, 



INGLIS and CHISHOLM, Charles Street, Garratt, 
Manchester, make STEAM ENGINES for Agricultural and 
Other purposes of the best quality at a reasonable price. — Address 
IsoLia & Oiiisiior.M, Charles Street. Garratt. M in Chester. 



NEW AND IMPORTANT LEVELLING INSTRUMENT 




GILLESPIE'S PATENT INCLINOMETER, for 
Taking, Fixing, and Adjusting Surface Slopes of Lands, 
Earthen Embankments, Railway Gradients, &c , and the Dip, 
Outfall, or Rise of Drains, Water Courses, &c, and universally 
applicable to determine the plans and aid the execution of all 
levelling or sloping operations known in civil engineering. 
Prices:— Inclinometer, with mahogany frame and 

brass mounting £3 3s. Od. 

Do. with oak frame and wrought iron mounting 2 12 
Light Telescope, 105. 6d. extra. 

Testimonials. 

From Mr. James Gentles, Contractor.—" I have for a con- 
siderable time past used Gillespie's Patent Inclinometer in 
extensive drainage operations carried on by me, and I have found 
It to be of the greatest service, in showing the minutest slope iu 
the ground, and in saving of labour; and I could not have con- 
structed many of the drains with any degree of accuracy without 
Its assistance ."—James Gentles, Hart Hill, by Whitburn. 

Extract of a letter from John Mitchell, Esq., Stand Hill, Bath- 
gate.—" I highly appreciate its capabilities as a levelling instru- 
ment. In level lands, where there is a difficulty in detecting in 
which direction the land slopes, it is invaluable." 

Extract of a letter from Mr. John Turner, Surveyor, Whitburn. 
The more I have tested it tho more have I appreciated its 
valne. By tills invention the power of levelling is brought within 
tho reach of all men of ordinary capacity." 

Sold by Wiluam Drat & Co., Engineers, &c, Swan Lane, 
London. Specimens and Modols may be seen at their Warevooms. 
Also a Descriptive Treatise on the nature and uses of the Patent 
Inclinometer, and copies of Recommendations of its efficiency and 
vatuo to bo had on application. 



/ 1LAYTON, SHUTTLEWOHTH, and ( I 
V J PRIZE I'OItTAIJLE STEAM I 101 I • i COM 
BJNl'D THUAHJIINO, HTIfAW SHAKING, It I DDL! I 
and WINNOWINO MACHINE may bo scon at tlioli I 
Establishment, fl, FlUroy Terrace, New R nd, where all In foi 
mat Ion relative thoroto can lie obtained. Tin ■<■■ Machines are 
const rue ted to horn BarJor, end make a per/eel neparatl i 
chaff from tho pnlno, They are fitted with Elevator*, which 
dopoelt tho grain Into bogs, and boyond the fcedoi ol 
require no hands oxcopt lo take away tlio Corn, Ac n I 
the whole of the operations being performed by m II 
machinery, whoroby the Corn. Straw, Chaff, and Pulse are 
delivered In tho pieces assigned for them. 

c, h. and Co, have paid sppclal attention to this ell 
Machinery, and Fixed 6arn Machinery, and From tho position 
thoy httvo taken al the Koyui mid all the leading agricultural 
shown of England, flatter themselves that for efficiency, - 
blllty, and ilmpllolty, their Engines and Machines are no! 

passed by »ny oilier maker In England, ad letters foi 

warded i<» tho VVorks at Lincoln will have Immediate attention ; 
and Illustrated Catalogues foi warded to all parts of the kingdom 
postage free. 



IY1ANCER, RACK,X WATER-TROUGH AS ONC FIXTURE. 

[urnorso akd Nkwia Patkxtbd. 




pOTTAM and HALLKN, tho original inventors, 

V> obtained tho Great Exhibition Prize Medal for this arrange- 
ment, to which all tho latest Improvements are adapted, secured 
by Patent, including n method entirely now of attaching the 
halter-weight and rein from the back of the manger to the under 
front of the plate, allowing the horsn greater freedom, and being 
noiseless in operation, add much to its comfort whilst feeding and 
convenience when nt rest, as likewise, from their position, avoid- 
ing the liability of tho most restive borne getting cast. No well- 
managed stable should be without these fittings. 

COTTAM'S ENAMELLED MANUERS are constructed In 
tho best^ possible manner, both as to form and utility; are 
cleanly in appearance, durable, and Impervious to infection; 
manufactured Plain", Galvanised, and Enamelled. Improved 
Surface Drain, with Safety Covers, Sanitary Traps, Stable 
Pumps, Looso Box, Fittings, Gutta Percha Pres. rving Saddb- 
nnd Harness Brackets, and every article in Stable Furniture, In 
stock. An extensive assortment of Patterns for both plain and 
Ornamental Castings, and every description of Wrought and 
Cast Iron Work for building and other purposes. Agricultural 
and Horticultural Implements, Iron Gates, both plain aud orna- 
ments. Hurdles, Strain Fencing, &c. 

Estimates and Catalogues on application to Cottam & Hallek, 
2, Winsley Street, Oxford Street. 

WARMING AND VENTILATING. 



rARNER'S IMPROVED LIQUID MANURE, 
OK GENERAL PORTABLE PUMP. 

The valve is a ball of imperishable 
material, and cannot clog in action. 
The barrel is of galvanised iron, not 
likely to corrode, and can be raised or 
lowered at pleasure. The legs will fold 
together, and the whole mav be carried 
on shoulder to any pond or tank required. 

Price of 4£ in. Pump, with legs, 3/. 35. 
The barrel is 27A in. long, and the legs 
are 5 ft. high. 

1£ inch Gutta Percha Suction Pipe, 
Is. 6d. per foot. 

14 inch Flexible Rubber and Canvas 
Suction Pipe, 3s. 6d. per foot. 

May be obtained of any Ironmonger 
or Plumber in to^wn or country, at tho 
above prices, or of the Patentees and 
Manufacturers, Jons Warner & Sons, 
8, Crescent, Jewin Street, London. 

Every description of Machinery for 
Raising Water, by means of Wheels, 
Rams, Deep Well Pumps, &c; also 
Fire and Garden Engines, &c— Engravings sent on application. 




w 

FA 

tages. 



ARNER'S 



PATENT VIBRATING STAN- 
DARD pujirs. 

TEST CAST-IEON PUMPS, for tiie use of Farms, Cot- 
, Manure Tanks, and "Wells of a depth not exceeding 30 feet. 

Diameter Length of Barrel, 

of Barrel under nose. £ s. d. 

21 in. short 1 ft. "in. / Fitted for lead. 

2i „ long 8 „ 3 „ gntta percha, 
ditto 3 „ 6 „ i or cast iron 
ditto 3 „ 6 „ flanced pipe, I 2 IS 
ditto 3 „ 6 „ { as required. )3 5 

2i „ short, with 15 feet of Lead Pipe 
attached, aud Bolts and Nuts 
ready for fixing 2 12 

2J in. long ditto ditto ditto 2 15 




& jr. a. 

l.\ 1 12 
J 1 15 
3 ^2 12 

i 2 



The short barrel Pump is very convenient 
for fixing in situations of limited height and 
space, for the supply of coppers and sinks in 
Wash-houses with soft water from under- 
ground tanks, or in Hot. Forcine, and Plant 
Houses; they may be fixed, when desired, 
under the stage. 

May be obtained of any Ironmonger or 
Plumber in Town or Country, at trie above "prices, or of the 
Patentees and Manufacturers, JOHN WARNER and SONS, 
S, Crescent, Jewin Street, London. 

Every description of Machinery for Raising Water, bv means 
of Wheels, Rams, Deep Well Pumps, &c; also Fire and*Garden 
Engines, &c. &c. — Engravings sent on application. 



KO v /. L A G if i < U LI URAL COLLBG B. 
CJKK1 ' KH1 KK, 
f ' DEBT. 

H f J I , M.A, 

■ 
■ ■ 

VtUty Iru ' ■ : ■ 

'■iu -i' . Art/tttr- 

' Auitln. 

■ : . . . . ■ ■ in f< ■ 1 
, vuy if.ii, \ '. • 
. ■ i . . Tho Fa 

Tho Col ■ tin i j>' 'i Pf>' •■• tl 

complete in one two I vei 

Tliora Is • i »» w.U *« for 

i 

ha<J>n ■] | ■ <!.<■ Prind[,*l, 

'I 111. GJBNKllAJL I.AND DHA1NAG1 

Xxcon ?AKUjuaan» 

i, 62, PwIIiuth ( .d«D. 

Dtn* 

in an ■■•/ Km Betmi ' man. 

Hut J< ; . ■ \rmam. 



.!■ hi ' . Cobbold, 1 i 
Bir William Cnbltt, I 
Henry ( D - I 
'J bomu Edward \*v • 



WlUUm \ ikbrr It^bU, \jv\. 

IMwwdJ /j. t M.P. 

Hkrntifl V. ■ f . M.P. 

Willlwn ).--, i i .}: - 



William WlUher*. Y.v\. 
Empowered to execute vorlu <a D ■/*&**, UmA- 

maklng, Encloilne;, BceUfmlag, end the Erw I 
Bdlldlngi upon nny Eftstee, undi 

i ''lily, and without any inreitigatlvn of "■ 
tin- total amount of tho outlay sum i 

Improved, to be repaid by anrnml lniUlm«;nii, \\ry\Ti% -.:■ 

to the number ol yean orer which Landown er a may Otmnln* 

the repayment nball extend, within the limit* of 31 J?\T% V.T 

Farm Buildings, and 60 yean for Drainage, Yj>\&*. and other 
[mprovementa. Airangemenhi are aiv> made with )-» 
for the execution of the worka by their own agewta, ar 
wiipply of the capital or repayment of their own advance*, through 
the exerd powera. Wimjam CvtrrotD, Sec 



J- IN CO 



LANDS IMPROVEMENT COMPANY, 

CORPOnATBD BY SPECIAL ACT OP Pa7:UAMK»T fOt 

England and Scotland.— To Landowners, the Cl*rgy f Soli- 
citors, Surveyors, Estate Agents, &c.— Loan* may be o-mtracte<t 
for the execution by the proprietor or by the Company of <r**ry 
landed improvement, especially Drainage, BflDdnig, (Jleariug, 
Enclosing, Warping, Irrigati'-n, Embanking, 1 1* clamation, Koadi. 
Planting, .Machinery, &c. The plans (*-t building*;, apecirica- 
tfons, and estimates are prepared by Use proprietor*, and are 
submitted to the approval of the Enclosure Commiasionen. Ero- 
prietors may avail themselves of the powers of the Act tor^cor- r 
from the inheritance their own funds to be exp+nded on ImproTe- 
raents. They may also apply jointly for the execnt; 
mutual improvement, such as a common outfall, &c. Forformi 
of application, ic, apply to the lion. Wk. N api £ a, Managing 
Director, 2, Old Palace Yard, Westminster. 



aOOLLEGE of AGKICL'LIUKE and CHEMISTRY, 
\J and of PRACTICAL and GENERAL SCIENCE, S7 and 

3S, Lower Kennington Lane. Kennington, near London* 
Principal— J. C. Nf,seit, F.G.S, F.C.5^ Ac. 

The system of studies pursued in the College comprises ererT 
branch requisite to prepare youth for the pursuits of Agriculture, 
Engineering, Mining, Manufactures, and the Arts; for the Hsral 
and Military Services, and for the Universities. 

Analyses and Assays of every description are promptly acd 
accurately executed at the College, Tbe terms and other par- 
ticulars may be had on application to the Principal. 



&i\t agrt ntltttra l <&K}tttt. 

SATURDAY, JANUARY 27, 1855. 

MEETINGS TOR TBI E>51 I>G WEEK. 
TarftsDAT, Feb. 1— AKTirolnara) Iicp. Society of IreUsi. 



" p<RIGI DOMO."— Patronised by her Majesty the 
J- Queen, Duke of Northumberland for Svon House, His 
Grace the Duke of Devonshire for Chiswick Gardens, Professor 
Lindlev for the Horticultural Society, Sir Joseph Paxton for the , 
Crystal Palace, Royal Zoological Society, and Mrs. Lawrence, ot 
Ealing Park. 

"FKIGI DOMO," a Canvass made of prepared Hair and 
Wool, a perfect non-conductor of Heat and Cold, keeping, where- 
ever it is applied, a rised temperature. It is adapted for 
all horticultural andrloriciiltural purposes, for preserving Fruits 
and Flowers from the scorching rays of the snn, from wind, and 
from attacks of insects and morning frosts. To be had in any 
required length, upwards of 2 yards wide, at 1... tyt.peryard run, 
ef Eusha Thomas Abches, 7, Trinity Lane, Cannon Street, 
City, and the lioyal Mills, Wandsworth, 'Surrey. 



The Act for providing a metropolitan market in 
place of Smilhrield directed the issuiDg of a commk- 
sion to undertake its execution. If this had not 
been done by the" Mayor, Aldermen, and Commons'' 
of the City of London, it would have become lawful 
for Her .Majesty to issue this commission. In either 
case the Act declares that unless the market for the 
provision of which it is passed be declared open 
within three years and sis months from the date of 
its enactment, the powers of the commission so 
issued, and all other powers conferred, shall 
cease and be void. That period ceases on the 
1st of Hatch ; and, although the declaration in ques- 
tion was not published in last night's Ga:c 
next Tuesday's edition will be still within the 
period named, and no donbt the requisite announce- 
ment will appear in it, in order to keep within the 
law. The 10th section of the Act enables such a 
declaration, although the actual opening of the place 
should be postponed beyond the date of the declara- 
tion in question. 

We are informed that the new market place in 
Copenhagen Fields will not be opened for use for 
at least a" fortnight. Excepting the places for calves 
and pigs the arrangements are already complete. 

We are exceedingly glad to find that the dif- 
ferences arising out of the discussion at Tiptree, in 
reference to Mr. Telfer's Hay or Grass crop (as 
people choose to take it), are losing their personal 
character ; and that the real question at issue— the 
possibility of producing profitably those prodigious 
growths "of which Myre MiH and Cunning Park 
afford the instances — is at length separating itself, as 
it ought long ago to have done. The subject is on 
the list of the London Farmers' Club, for discussion 
at their meeting in March, and the truth will, we 
hope, be then related by eye witnesses, so that, 
whatever it may prove to be, it shall be placed beyond 
dispute. 

Mr. Teueb's last letter, to which we shall again 



58 



THE AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE. 



[Jan. 27, 



( 



direct attention, has been replied to by Mr. Hamil- 
ton, who has done good service in this renewed 
agitation of the matter; for the truth has been 
elicited by him, if not originally stated by him. 
Those who have not read this correspondence 
will find the facts on which it has turned, given 
at pages 763, S25 and 843 of last year's volume. 
Mr. Telfer's letter is given at the last-named 
page, and Mr. Hamilton's reply to it has just 
been published in the Dublin Farmers' Gazette. 
Mr. Telfer obtained his 270 tons of green 
food off 7 acres of Italian Rye-grass by manur- 
ing 3 1 acres up till the second cut, and after that 
manuring another 3i acres which had been sown 
that year, leaving the former 3J- acres to go to seed. 
He believes, and so do we, that the Zh acres left to 
seed would, had the manure been continued there, 
have produced as much as the young seeds on which 
it was turned ; and so he takes credit for having 
done all he says on 3| acres instead of 7. Or, rather, 
he contends that it is really a question not of 
acreage, but of manuring ; and in the case of so 
rapidly-growing a plant as Italian Rye-grass, we 
believe he is right. Nevertheless, this style of 
reasoning will not satisfy a matter-of-fact disputant, 
and Mr. Hamilton, of course, makes good use of his 
advantage. He says : — 

" As to Mr. Telfer's own account of his 7 acres, with 
all his ingenious shifting of the paternity of his crop 
from one 3J acres in spring to another 3i acres in autumn, 
and his liberal choice of 3J, 5}-, or 7 acres, from which 
we are to calculate the annual produce, he only makes 
out 270 tons, or 38.V tons to each of 7 acres, though he 
puts it all to 7ra credit of 3i- acres. But will this reason- 
ing satisfy the public mind ? Are farmers to have their 
second acres to ride out their conclusions upon as a fox- 
hunter has his second horse to meet him when the first 
is exhausted % Mr. Telfer (who informed me that the 
hay was all used before the 1st of November) allows 
that he did use two 3i acres during the run of the 
season." 

As to the matters of detail to which we alluded at 
page 825, Mr. Hamilton says : — 

" With respect to the number of hydrants, this does 
not affect the question at all ; the proportion of 1 to 6 
acres will be found everywhere else the minimum ; and 
in the parliamentary minutes of the Board of Health 
there appear to be no instances quoted where the 
hydrants are in a smaller proportion ; and if I 
misunderstood Mr. Telfer on this point, the printed 
account of his farm which he gave me, and which 
describes his hose as 150 yards long, was not likely to 
undeceive me. I only profess to give the best informa- 1 
tion I could collect from others, and with due caution, 
when pointing out the mode by which these statements 
could be checked, I expressed my own feeling that the 
data were unsatisfactory, aud my conviction that, though 
large results were obtainable, certainly there was no 
proof that the result of about 100 tons of Grass had 
ever been obtained at three cuttings, there or elsewhere. 
I cannot, however, but deprecate all such controversies 
as the present, which I did not originate, nor do I think 
a tu quoque case worthy of the editor of the Agricultural J 
Gazette, who should rather aim at supplying the j 
deficiencies that I pointed out than defending Mr. Caird 
in his announcement as a fact, that 25 tons of hay had 
been realised from a Scotch acre of land. We have 
Been this 100 tons of green Grass shrinking back to 65 in 
one statement, 74 in another (Mr. Telfer's own), and, I 
think I have shown practically, in Mr. Telfer's case,. 
to 38^. The conclusion I draw from this is, that there 
has not been weighing and measuring enough either in 
extent or accuracy, to enable any of us to judge what 
results we might count upon if we adopted the same 
system, and I hope that the result of all this writing 
may be faithful and painstaking records of the coming 
season's produce." 

Without wishing to revive any personal discussion 
in connection with this subject, we must be allowed 
here to say that our argument was not a tu quoque 
argument at all. It was not for the purpose of 
proving Mr. Hamilton to be just as inaccurate as 
any other person whose inaccuracy he alleged that 
we wrote : it was for the purpose of proving that 
the data on which Mr. Hamilton's charge of 
inaccuracy rested were themselves inaccurate. It is 
a very different thing to charge equal inaccuracy on 
an assailant, which is what we are said to have 
done, and to prove his charge of inaccuracy to be 
itself inaccurate, which is what we claim to have 
done. It was not to prove anything whatever of 
Mr. Hamilton that our remarks were aimed ; it was 
to arrive at the agricultural truth which was under 
discussion that we inquired into the ability of 
witnesses and the character of their evidence. 

We hope in the course of a month or two that the 
truth of this most important of the many important 
agricultural movements of the past year will be 
made clearly to appear. We can confidently predict 
that whatever the exact figures may be that repre- 
sent the truth, they will be enough to astonish those 
who are satisfied with averages. 

Several months ago a correspondent called 
attention to a plan of Underground Manuring 



which had been patented by Mr. Wilkins, a citizen, 
we believe, of London, who at Wokingham and 
Reading had exhibited the results of his patent 
method wilh extraordinary success. This has been 
done only on the small scale ; and, indeed, the first 
expense of the plan, greater than the fee simple of 
the land, hinders its being done on any other. We 
have seen his experimental plot at Reading ; it 
consists of not more, probably, than a quarter of an 
acre ; one half of which has been prepared by Mr. 
Wilkins, and the other half treated in the ordinary 
method. The unfortunate circumstance connected 
with all these experiments hitherto is, that both the 
plots in each case have been under Mr. Wilkins's 
direction. That he has honestly done his best by 
the half which he hoped to prove comparatively a 
failure is, however, believed. At a public meeting 
at Reading which he called to exhibit the results of 
his practice, the large Mangolds produced by his 
peculiar plan were contrasted with puny roots 
of common cultivation grown in adjoining rows — 
fine grown Hemp and Flax were shown beside the 
stunted stems of the ordinary mode of growth, and 
other contrasts were exhibited. But on claiming 
for his method of culture the merit of these con- 
trasts, he was met by a very reasonable scepticism 
as to the honesty and genuineness of these inferior 
samples. Were the plots which grew them really 
cultivated as a good farmer would 1 — that was what 
no one knew — the audience had the word of a 
stranger as their only guarantee, and he was 
likely to leave them unconvinced. It was fortunate 
for Mr. Wilkins that his proceedings had been 
watched by Messrs. Sutton, the seedsmen, of 
Reading, whom everybody in the audience knew 
and trusted ; and when Mr. Martin Sutton, in the 
midst of all these murmurs of incredulity, stood up 
to bear witness to the honesty of Mr. Wilkins's 
account, the reality of the experience which he 
related, and the genuineness of the specimens which 
he exhibited — the people felt at once that here was 
the missing link by which alone the chain of 
evidence became complete ; and the credit of the 
speaker saved. 

The farmers who listened to his statement went 
away convinced. That is to say they believed that 



of other countries to supply us. To what extent 
that disability has arisen from the entire cutting off 
of certain sources of supply, from the difficulty of 
obtaining means of transport, or from bad harvests 
in other countries, we do not here inquire- 
The main facts are that since September 5, 1854, 
to January 5, 1855, the imports of Wheat have 
been 396,340 quarters, and of Flour 255,785 cwts. j 
the quantities imported in the similar months of 
1851, 1852, and 1853 being 755,428—1,389,661— 
and 1,839,447 quarters of Wheat, and 1,541,863— 
991,758 — and 1,709,197 cwts. of Flour respectively. 
Take into account the high prices which have this 
year failed so extraordinarily to attract supplies, 
and we must believe that all of the causes indi- 
cated have combined to produce so remarkable a 
result. As indicating the relative growths of this 
year and of last, we may mention that since Sep- 
tember the amount of sales of English Wheat 
officially recorded has been 1,674,166 quarters this 
year against 1,004,546 during the same weeks of 
1853. 



Our readers are aware that Mr. Pusey, in whom, 
more than in any other man, the interests of the 
Royal Agricultural Society of England are embodied,, 
has been suffering from very severe illness. We are 
glad to learn from the letter of Dr. Acland to the 
daily papers that he is at length rallying ; and we 
sincerely trust that in due time he may recover from 
his severe attack, and be able to resume the position 
he has so long and so usefully occupied in the 
councils and direction of the Agricultural Society. 



REPORT AND ESTIMATE OF A FARM. 
I now send you a detail of the mode of cultivatioa 
which I think would be the most profitable for you to 
adopt: an estimate of the working cattle and implements 
required, and of the number of sheep aud other stock 
you will be able to keep. 

This farm is on the chalk formation, and the soil is 
either a thin gravelly loam or chalk with flints. It 
consists of 260 acres, of which 20 acres are in pasture, 
60 in down, and the remaining 180 acres are under the 
plough. Of these 180 acres I would have always 20 
acres in Saintfoiu, and of the remaining 160 acres, one- 
half, or 80 acres, I would have producing grain, and 
by laying an impervious floor, whether by brick, ; the other half producing Turnips or other roots, and 
cement, or what not, some 20 or 30 inches below fodder crops these to alternate yearly w-,th each other 

the surface of the soil, and upon that floor laying ' ? he N ° rt< f ° r , f ? ur ™A system, w }"f » ^f 03 ' 

,-, , n } , . , r ■> j. if, universally adopted m your district, is to take Wheat 

parallel rows of pipes at intervals of several feet, ; after clov J el . J seed \ hen Turni ' after the wheat, 

replacing the original soil over all, and preserving Bariey with clover seeds S0WD amongst the Barley, and 
by upright pipes communication between the a f tel . Barley Clover or seeds ; this finishes the rotation, 
horizontal rows of pipes and the surface of the ; From this system it is evident that the several crops 
ground ; by then pouring in liquid manure from ' come around on the same field every four years. This 
above, and saturating the soil with it from below quick repetition of the same crop on the same ground is 
upwards — for this is Mr. Wilkins's method : — by the greatest objection to the Norfolk system, as it has 
adopting all this system, at a cost of some 100?. to been found that the land soon gets tired of Clover and 
200/. per acre, the most marvellous increase of Turnips when repeated on the same ground in so short 
fertility is obtainable. That was what they ' a period. The Clover very frequently fails, dying in 
believed and what we believe, and what every one, | * e s P rin S or "V'V? earl y P art ° f * he c summer - , The 
no doubt, is ready to believe. But how many of ? urmP i ls e f so a . fa ] m S ? ro P' Placing fiD S. ers and toeB 
,, , • 11 i j- t -l l n ■ instead or laree bulbs wlifii repeated every tour years, 

that agricultural audience went home to put the; The Scotc £ or six fie ld system, puts off the Clover 
plan into operation ? Of course not one: it is not ■ and root tw0 S J more thaQ the Norfolk 

likely that they should. If we had 150/. per acre ' svstem ; but then they have only one-sixth part of 
to spare upon our farm we should invest it in the their land in roots, and one-sixth part in Clover, one- 
purchase of our occupation, not in improving its sixth part being iu Beans or Peas, and the remaining 
fertility for another at this expensive rate. three-sixths in corn ; by this rotation they have one- 

Mr. Wilkins is an indefatigable and enthusiastic ; tbird only producing fodder crops, and two-thirds 
man. He holds meetings in Oxford Town Hall, at producing grain for sale in the market. 
the London Tavern, and wherever he can find an ! ?y adopting the alternate system of a seed producing 
audience. He urges his plans with the utmost conn- a f. » io t ? d f producing crop, you can have those crops. 
, , . .°. ,f ,, . i. . which the land soon gets tired ot at as great a period 

dence, and is gaming all the support which energy ; as have c / Qn ^ wh ^ natu / e aQd 

and activity command. At the Oxford meeting, h a bits are different. 

last week, a considerable sum of money was sub- T have for years adopted the eight field system, and 
scribed for a trial of the plan upon one acre of have found it to be most productive of large crops of 
ground, and the terms on which the patentee was Clover, and all the various kinds of roots, as these never 
prepared to negotiate with any county association occur on the same field oftener than once in eight years J 
who would carry out his plan were made known, and the grain crop I adopted was Wheat after all the 
The scheme, so far as that programme describes it, j roots and Clover or other fodder crops ; but my land 
seems to be intended merely for garden application, ™as of a strong clayey loam, and by deep cultivation, 
and it could not be otherwise. Cottages with gar- , and tlle application ot a large quantity of manure to aU 
dens under 51. 5s. annual rent are to pay one pennv j the root a " d fod<W cr0 P s ' 1 had lar S e cro P s of Wheat 
per annum and houses with gardens under 20Z. "J* ZZZion of crops which I think best adapted 
a-year Is. 6d. per annum for license to adopt the ; fol . the dry fr!ab , e , and J farm is the fo]lowIn / : _ 
system. It may be worth while trying the ex- Divide th ; 180 acres of area int0 niue fields of 20 acres 



periment for its possible horticultural results ; it 
may, perhaps, be worth while even in an agricul- 
tural point of view, to determine the question of the 
usefulness to plants of so artificial a treatment and 
supply of food, but that it will ever be of direct use 
to the farmer we do not believe ; and if an energetic 
man shall divert, by his representations, the attention 
of improvers from more feasible plans of agricultural 
improvement, he will do mischief by calling their 
attention to this subject. 

It is interesting to compare the imports of corn 
during the autumn months of the past year with 
the imports of previous years during the same 
season, as illustrative both of the productiveness of 
the past season here and of the diminished ability 



20 acres 
20 „ 



each ; one of the fields, or 20 acres, to be always in 
Saintfoin ; this field to be renewed every five years by 
laying down another field of Saintfoin, and breaking-up 
the old Saintfoin field. Then say — 

No. 1, to be in Clover 

No. 2, to be Wheat, after the Clover... 

No. 3, Winter Vetclies, Winter Barley, and Rye, for 

spring fodder, and then planted with Rape for sheep 20 „ 
No. 4, Oats, after the Vetches, Rye, and Rape ... 20 „ 

No. 5, Turnips, Swedes, Cabbages, after the Oats ... 20 „ 
No. 6, Wheat, after the Turnip seeds and Cabbages... 20 ,,. 
No. 7, Mangold, Carrots, and Potatoes, after the Wheat 20 „ 
No. 8, Barley, with Clover, after Mangold, Carrots, 

and Potatoes 20 „ 

By this arrangement you will have — 

In Wheat two 20 acre fields, Nos. 2 & 6 40 acres 

In Oats (No. 4) 20 „ 

In Barley (No. 8) 20 „ 



) acres of seed producing crop 



...80 



4—1855.] 



Til E QA RDE N ER8' (;u RON EC l, B. 






ilowors aro large and handsome, the plant itself has a 
coarHo wooily appearance, on whieli aaaount it in not 
much esteemed or generally cultivated, A good figure 

of it is givon in Jacquin's " Hortus Schoonbt' msie," 

vol. .'!, t. 839, published in L708 j but it was not until 
1A05 that it wuh introduced through Spain into our 
gardciiH. It in figured and described in tlio " Botanical 
Register," t. 1081, and " Botanical Magazine," I. 

W. Ji. B. 

The Fluke Potato. — In shape this Potato in an oblong 
oval. Its surface ih ovon, rather ilat than otherwise ; 
the length and diameter in a true specimen being about 
tho 'proportions of 0x4 x 2£. When dressed lor 

the table it m dry and floury, and of first rate II n \ 

Buyors, however, must lake earn that tlmy get the true 
kind ; for tliere are many good likenesses of the Fluke 
in tho market, and whieli aro sold for it. Those, how- 
over, who have seen the Fluko onee — especially when 
growing — will never mistake any other variety for it. 
Tho loaves are very dark green, tlio stems robust and 
erect, until they attain the height of lit inches, when 
they bogiu to fall abroad, and grow to tlio length of 2 
or .'! feet. When the stems first appear they are almost 
black ; but as they progress in growth tboy gradually 
change to a dark green. This variety should not be 
planted at a loss distance apart than 2 feet betwixt the 
l'OWS, and 1 loot in the row. If planted closer the produce 
will be small though abundant, and muoh deteriorated 
in quality. That is tho distance lor ordinary cultivation, 
and if the Boil is a rich light loam, 1 sack of 2 cwt. to the 
rod may bo safely calculated upon. Several growers in 
this neighbourhood have realised this produce in good 
garden [ground, all sound and good, and 95 per eont. 
large and fit for table. As regards size of tuber, the 
ordinary produce is from 9 to 3 in. in length, with the 
proportion before given. The Potato disease has but 
little influence on the Fluke. Those planted in February 
of last year, in this locality, showed no symptoms of 
attack throughout the growing season, while Regents, 
Prolifies, Forty-folds, Champions, Cups, &c, were all 
cut down in June aud July, and the tubers were much 
diseased. The Flukes, ou the contrary, remained green 
and healthy until September, and the tubers, with very 
trifling exceptions, were perfectly ripened and sound. 
Indeed, the fact is all but uuiversally acknowledged that 
no Potato resists the disease like the Fluke. 0. Diclcson, 
Lawrence Hill, Bristol. 



societies!* 

LiNN^iN, Jan. 17. — The President in the chair. The 
following papers were read : — 1. Extract from a letter 
addressed by Rev. W. II. Hawker to the President, 
relating to the discovery of several new localities for 
some'-rare Ferns aud shells. Mr. Hawker writes as 
follows:— "Last year I paid a visit to the English 
lakes, aud had the good fortune to find Polysticiium 
lonchitis growing near Ulleswater. I brought away one 
plant, and sent a frond to Newman, who, however does 
not mention it in his new edition. This year, in July, 
I went to the lakes again, and had the pleasure of con- 
firming the above discovery ; and, moreover, on my 
mentioning it to other collectors up there, a search was 
instituted, wdiich has resulted in its turning up in several 
new localities in that district, e.g., Helvellyn, Fairfield, 
&c. This Fern has never before been found in the 
lake country, I believe. Whilst up there this year, 
I went a few days' botanising ramble with Mr. Clowes, 
of Windermere, aud ou one of these days whilst clamber- 
ing on a terrific precipice, I had the delight to fiud 
Asplenium septentrionale growing in quantity, and 
right amongst them I found two plants of Asplenium 
germauicum ! A guide was with me, who found close 
by Woodsia ilveusis, growing in some quantity — three 
good things, were they not, to be growing on a spot only 
a few yards square ? It was on an outcrop of the iron 
ore, which seems to me always to be a good matrix for 
Ferns. This took place not many miles from Scawfell, 
though not on it. It was of course plain that the 
locality had never before been visited by a botanist. 
Mr. Clowes found Euphorbia Cyparissias growing on 
Whitbarrow fells in great quantity. I have gathered 
it on the mountain limestone of Somersetshire, near 
Wells, and should think it will prove to be a true 
native. * * Last September and October I took a rapid 
run on the continent, up the Rhine, &e. The season 
was late ; flowers were mostly over, and deciduous 
Ferns killed down, so that on the Alps I did not gather 
Woodsia alpina as I wished. I found on the Jura in 
one spot my dear Asplenium fontauum. Iu the Pine 
forests of the Alps aud Jura Polystichum lonchitis 
grows in the most wonderful luxuriance. I have dried 
some fronds 22 inches long. Its appearance is quite 
beautiful. Asplenium septentrionale, too, abounded on 
alpine rocks." 2. A letter addressed to the Secretary 
by John Hogg, Esq., on the subject of the Tunny 
stranded in September last at Tees Bay, and noticed by 
him at a former meeting. Mr. Hogg has ascertained 
that the fish was really a Tunny, and of very large size. 
3. Extract from a memoir " on the origin and develop- 
ment of vessels in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous 
plants," by Dr. F. F. Allemao, of Rio de Janeiro, trans- 
lated and communicated by J. Miers, Esq. In a note 
to this paper the translator observes that Dr. Allemao, 
m making his observations, was desirous of testing the 
validity of the theory first suggested by Du Petit 
Thouars, and more recently modified and supported by 
Gaudichaud, which contends, contrary to " 



all woody fibres ol the stem proceed from the i 
leaf-buds, and thence descend to the radicular extremity 
of 'plants. Dr. Allemao states that hit ob i 
no way tend to support this theory, 4. Momoii 
on K now species of Proteacoa i," by l>r. Mefsner. In 
tho romoi I ■ prefatory to the tcchn i al d< 
which formed the bulk of this paper, Dr, Meiiner 
remarks that since the publication of Brown's Pro- 
dt'omus in 1810, upwanlH of 400 ni ■■■■■ i pi cios have been 
added to th" 204 Australasian specii i of that work, 
namely 1 68 by Dr. Brown, 48 by Dr, Lindlcy,and ID I. 
himseff. Thenumberol nowspecii dsecribi Lornotici 
in thl paper was nil, including 12 of which ohoi 

drawn up from specimens in tho Society's Herbal i 

had been forwarded to the author by Mr. Kippist, the 
Society's Librarian. 

Notices oC iSoohs. 

Knowledge is Power, a View of due Productive Forei <■) 
Modern Society, and the retulli of Labour, < 
and SJcill, By Charles Knight. London. Murray 
Pep. Bvo., pp. 136 i7.<. U.) 
Tun object of this volume is mainly to present unlearned 
persons with illustrations of the great principles of 
political economy. The author bus not attempted to do 
this in a formal and systematical manner, which might 
bo ropulsivo rather than attractive, but he has 
endeavoured to convey a knowledge' of the fundamental 
laws of social progress, by adducing examples illustra- 
tive of the circumstances under which it has and has 
not been made. 

" Without attempting to give this volume the formal 
shape of a treatise ou Political Economy, it is the wish 
of the author to convey the broad parts of his subject 
in a somewhat desultory manner, but one which is not 
altogether devoid of logical arrangement. He desires 
especially to be understood by the young ; for upon 
their right appreciation of the principles which govern 
society will depend much of the security aud happiness 
of our own and the coming time. The danger of our 
present period of transition is, that theory should expect 
too much, and that practice should do too little, in the 
amelioration of the condition of the people." 

Young persons and those who, although not young 
in years, are little advanced in knowledge, are too apt 
to regard a study of these matters as dry, uniuteresting, 
and to them, at least, unprofitable. The sooner such an 
opinion ceases to be current the better, for, as has been 
most truly observed, " it is ouly iu the ignorance of the 
people aud their consequent mental imbecility that 
governments or demagogues can find the means of 
mischief ;" and if there be one study which more than 
another is calculated to free the mind from pernicious 
error, that subject is undeniably what is ordinarily 
called political economy. Any work therefore which is 
calculated to dispel the notion that political economy is 
dry and uninteresting, and which, whilst it impresses the 
great truths of the science upon the minds of the 
young, engages their attention and induces them to read 
on, is certainly a boou to society. Such a work is the 
one now before us. It is not altogether a new produc- 
tion, but is a combination aud expansion of two little 
works by the same author, viz., " The Results of 
Machinery" and " Capital and Labour," which have 
both enjoyed more than ordinary popularity. As 
an example of the manner iu which the subject is 
treated, we extract a paragraph on " making good for 
trade:"— 

" When a mob amused themselves by breaking win- 
dows, as was once a common recreation on an illumina- 
tion night, by way of showing the amount of popular 
intelligence, some were apt to say they have "made good 
for trade/ 



producers and the consun 
trade but profitable industi 

ily dOTOtOS itwlf tOO lie 

wants : avai 
wonts to tbopc 

Is 'be blppy measure belwwu tin l ••■■ ; and 

that only ' makes good foi li 
on a steady demand : 
linn ol the production ol ■ country to sti 

■ tion 'i hsl jui ii Is in 

The wor Is pi . with pre 

. and i» well adapted for tie 

and improvement ol the inteliigi 

I i : 

This I i and 

bnt scarcely adapted to the wai 
to learn something mori tin 

prob '■ 

as Professor De .'■) 

pn ' volume may be found useful, owing to Uv 

quantity of exercises (with thi in.it 

Garden Memoranda. 

Mbssbs, Jai 
bouse here is at present gay with Hyai ibleVan 

I'hoi Tulips, Chinese Pi imrose , winter flowering Heath*, 
Camellias, Red Indian Daphnes, which quite scent the 
whole hou«e with their delightful perfume, and 'he 
cheerful yellow flowered Jasminum nudiflormn. The 
latter is a most valuable shrub for winter d 
it requires little or no forcing to bring it into flower ; 
and its blossoms, which arc produced in great abundance, 
last a long time in perfection. 

Between this and the other glass-houses is a straight 
walk, on either bide of which a: rn, and 

among them we remarked one filled with thriving plants 
of Cephalotaxus adpressa, which has been 
perfectly hardy. Among other out-of-door plants we 
noticed a collection of the finer kinds of Rhododendrons 
in pots, all unusually well furnished with flower-buds, 
and in excellent condition for forcing. 

To the left of this walk are two span-roofed Orchid 
houses filled with a well varied and excellent collection 
of these favourite plant?. Among tbtm the 
coloured Calanthe curculigoides was in flower, as were 
also Leptotes bicolor, several varieties of Lycaste Skin- 
neri, the orange flowered Epidendrum vitellinum, the 
useful Barkeria Skinneri, the curious rather than beau- 
tiful greenish yellow Rodriguezia planifolia, and others. 
Among such as were not in bloom we noticed some 
thriving plants of the different kinds of Anguloa. These, 
it was stated, do best while growing to be kept constantly 
very moist at the root. There were also many fine 
specimens of Dendrobes, Trichopilia coccinea, which is 
found to succeed well in a comparatively cool house ; 
Odontoglossum hastilabium, Insleayi, ne ulosum and 
membranaceum, the last coming in